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The nonlinear impact of women’s descriptive representation: an empirical study on the ratification of women rights treaties

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Stephen D. Krasner is Graham H. Stuart Professor of International Relations in the Department of Political Science at Stanford University. Thanks to David Abernethy, Michael Bratman, Ellen Comisso, John Ferejohn, Martha Finnemore, Geoffrey Garrett, Judith Goldstein, Joseph Lepgold, Margaret Levi, Lisa Martin, Condoleezza Rice, Philip Roeder, Philippe Schmitter, Duncan Snidal, Georg Sorensen, and Monika Wohlfeld for their comments, to Daniel Froats and Jay Smith for their suggestions and research assistance, and to the two anonymous reviewers for exceptionally helpful criticisms. 1. For example, the influence of the Catholic Church, Amnesty International, pan-Islamic movements, or ethnic groups is sometimes described as compromising the sovereignty of states. However, I would not want to push this particular point because such influence does not involve authoritative control. 2. Charles Tilly, Coercion, Capital and European States, AD 990-1990 (Cambridge, Mass.: Basil Blackwell, 1990); Hendrik Spruyt, The Sovereign State and Its Competitors: An Analysis of Systems Change (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1994); and David Strang, "Anomaly and Commonplace in European Political Expansion: Realist and Institutional Accounts," International Organization, Vol. 45, No. 2 (Spring 1991), pp. 143-162. 3. See, for instance, Richard Cooper, The Economics of Interdependence: Economic Policy in the Atlantic Community (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968). 4. For a similar discussion of sovereignty, see Daniel Deudney, "The Philadelphian System: Sovereignty, Arms Control, and Balance of Power in the American States-union circa 1787-1861," International Organization, Vol. 49, No. 2 (Spring 1995), p. 198. 5. The ability to conclude such contractual agreements could, however, depend on the domestic organization of the polity. It is easier for policymakers in liberal democratic states to make credible commitments because they are constrained by domestic constituencies than for autocratic states whose policies are more subject to the capricious and arbitrary goals of their rulers. See Robert O. Keohane, "Hobbes's Dilemma and Institutional Change in World Politics: Sovereignty in International Society," in Hans-Henrik Holm and Georg Sorensen, eds., Whose World Order? Uneven Globalization and the End of the Cold War (Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1995), pp. 170-172. 6. For a discussion of the Basle accord, see Ethan Kapstein, "Resolving the Regulator's Dilemma: International Coordination of Banking Regulations," International Organization, Vol. 43, No. 2 (Spring 1989), pp. 323-347. 7. See Kalypso Nicolaides, "Mutual Recognition and the Meaning of Sovereignty," unpublished paper, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, February 18, 1994, for an insightful discussion of the way in which mutual recognition compromises conventional notions of sovereignty, termed here the Westphalian model. 8. For a discussion of the impact of the Helsinki accords, see Daniel Thomas, "Social Movements and International Institutions: A Preliminary Framework," paper presented at the American Political Science Association Annual Convention, Washington, D.C., 1991; for one example of how IMF accords changed domestic institutions and personnel, see Robin Broad, Unequal Alliance: The World Bank, The International Monetary Fund, and the Philippines (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), pp. 61-75. 9. Robert O. Keohane, After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1984), is the seminal exposition of this perspective. 10. For the classic exposition of the problems caused by interdependence, see Cooper, The Economics of Interdependence. For a discussion of the distinction between market failure and distributional issues, see Stephen D. Krasner, "Global Communications and National Power: Life on the Pareto Frontier," World Politics, Vol. 43, No. 3 (April 1991), pp. 336-367. 11. Hedley Bull, The Anarchical Society (London: Macmillan, 1977); John G. Ruggie, "Territoriality and Beyond: Problematizing Modernity in International Relations," International Organization, Vol. 47, No. 1 (Winter 1993), pp. 139-174; Alexander Wendt, "Anarchy is What States Make of It: The Social Construction of State Politics," International Organization, Vol. 46, No. 2 (Spring 1992), pp. 391-425; Alexander Wendt, "Constructing International Politics," International Security, Vol. 20, No. 1 (Summer 1995), pp. 71-81; J. Samuel Barkin and Bruce Cronin, "The State and the Nation: Changing Norms and the Rules of Sovereignty in International Relations," International Organization, Vol. 48, No. 1 (Winter 1994), pp. 107-130; Hedley Bull and Adam Watson, eds., The Expansion of International Society (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984); Adam Watson...
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