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Social innovation and public service: A literature review of multi-actor collaborative approaches in five European countries

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Governments increasingly tend to involve or rely on various societal actors to address social challenges and develop cost-effective and high-quality public services. This paper identifies the major themes of social innovation relating to this type of collaborative governance, by carrying out a conceptual analysis of the scientific and grey literature on social innovation in five European countries. Depending on the country, different emphases of social innovation are found. One theme that appears common to all countries is social entrepreneurship. This paper provides a mapping of these major themes on social innovation. It discusses the nexus of collaborative governance and social innovation by theme, and the impact that the history of the national welfare state has on social innovation initiatives and forms of collaborative governance.

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Frivilligt socialt samarbejde, samskabelse, samproduktion og partnerskaber er alle betegnelser for forskellige typer af samarbejder imellem offentlige og frivillige indsatser. Men hvad indeholder begreberne egentlig? I denne artikel sættes fokus på forskellige former for samarbejde mellem det offentlige og civilsamfundet, og herunder deres styrker og opmærksomhedspunkter. I Danmark har vi i de seneste år set en stigende interesse for at udvikle nye måder at etablere samarbejder mellem borgere, de professionelle og civilsamfund i produktion og levering af velfærdsydelser. I denne udvikling opstår mange betegnelser for disse samarbejder: Samskabelse, samproduktion, partnerskaber, private-offentlige samarbejder, borgerbudgettering, netværksarbejde og ungepaneler – for at nævne nogle hyppigt nævnte. I denne artikel sættes fokus på, hvilket kontinuum af samarbejdsformer de forskellige betegnelser dækker over, og vi diskuterer, hvad der kan være af fordele og udfordringer ved de forskellige typer af samarbejder mellem det offentlige og civilsamfundet. I artiklen viser vi også, hvordan samarbejdsbølgen langt fra er ny, men er en tendens, der har præget velfærdsydelsernes udvikling igennem mange årtier – dog i forskellige udgaver. Aktuelt, hvor nye betegnelser og samarbejder vinder udbredelse, peger vi på, hvordan der praktiseres en pragmatisk tilgang, som er kendetegnet ved en svag metodefasthed, og vi giver en international perspektivering på de nye samarbejdsformer.
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Systematic reviews aide the analysis and dissemination of evidence, using rigorous and transparent methods to generate empirically attained answers to focused research questions. Identifying all evidence relevant to the research questions is an essential component, and challenge, of systematic reviews. Gray literature, or evidence not published in commercial publications, can make important contributions to a systematic review. Gray literature can include academic papers, including theses and dissertations, research and committee reports, government reports, conference papers, and ongoing research, among others. It may provide data not found within commercially published literature, providing an important forum for disseminating studies with null or negative results that might not otherwise be disseminated. Gray literature may thusly reduce publication bias, increase reviews’ comprehensiveness and timeliness, and foster a balanced picture of available evidence. Gray literature's diverse formats and audiences can present a significant challenge in a systematic search for evidence. However, the benefits of including gray literature may far outweigh the cost in time and resource needed to search for it, and it is important for it to be included in a systematic review or review of evidence. A carefully thought out gray literature search strategy may be an invaluable component of a systematic review. This narrative review provides guidance about the benefits of including gray literature in a systematic review, and sources for searching through gray literature. An illustrative example of a search for evidence within gray literature sources is presented to highlight the potential contributions of such a search to a systematic review. Benefits and challenges of gray literature search methods are discussed, and recommendations made.
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Absztrakt. A társadalmi innovációnak nincs egységesen elfogadott definíciója, a szakirodalmi áttekintés után az alábbiak szerint határozható meg: a társadalmi innováció adott közösség jól-létének javítását jelenti új vagy újszerű módon [2]. A társadalmi innováció –a műszaki, gazdasági innovációkhoz hasonlóan –egyaránt értelmezhető és mérhető mikro-, mezo-és makroszinten, illetve kulcsszerepe van a versenyképességben. A gazdasági fejlettség különböző szintjeiből fakadó aránytalanságok miatt előtérbe kerülnek azok a perifériális helyzetben lévő területek, amelyek a felzárkózásra való igénnyel jelentkeznek. Az ún. technikai innovációk mellett, a társadalmi problémák megoldása társadalmi eszközökkel, új szervezetek létrejöttével valósítható meg. A felzárkózási folyamatban jelentős szerepe van a helyi, közösségi szinten értelmezhető újító ötleteknek, a társadalmi innováció tevékenységének. Az innovatív területek bővüléséből fakadó innovációkra komplementer folyamatokként tekinthetünk. A társadalmi és a technikai innováció szoros kölcsönhatásban áll egymással. Amennyiben változás történik a gazdaság területén, törvényszerű a társadalmi változások bekövetkezése is. A helyi közösségek szerepét vizsgálva a regionális szintű társadalmi innováció tanulmányozása, a megvalósítás kérdéseinek tisztázása alapvető feladat. A társadalmi innováció mint új eszköz, a mindennapi kihívásokra ad választ. A települések esetében az önkormányzatok innovatív megoldásai új együttműködéseket jelentenek, amelyek fenntartható, rugalmas és nyitott regionális szintű vezetést eredményeznek. Tanulmányomban vizsgálom, miért meghatározó az önkormányzatok (vagy intézményeik) szerepe a társadalmi innováció megvalósításában és ösztönzési lehetőségeiben, kik a regionális innovátorok, és hogyan generálnak társadalmi megoldásokat és modelleket Magyarország, illetve az Európai Unió egyes települései. Abstract. Social innovation is not determined as a uniform definition, after a literature review can be defined as follows: social innovation is an innovative and new way of improving community well-being [2]. Social innovation can be defined and measured at micro-, mezo-and macro level similar to technical and economic innovation and plays a key role in the competitiveness. Because of imbalances arising from different levels of economic development, catching-up demand of peripheral settlements have appeared. In addition to the so-called technical innovations, the solution of social problems can be achieved by social tools, methods and new organizations. In catching-up process the local, community level construed innovative ideas and the activities of social innovation play a significant role. The expansion of the innovative areas results in different innovation processes and they can be considered as complementary processes. The social and technical innovation are closely interacting. If there is a change in the economic sphere, social change can occur. This study examines the role of local communities in social innovation at regional level and summarizes the clarifying questions of implementation. Social innovation as a new tool is able to answer daily challenges. The innovative solutions of municipalities, which means new collaborations, result sustainable, flexible and open leadership at regional level. This study will examine the role of governments (or their institutions) in the implementation and generating of social innovation, the tasks of regional innovators and social solutions and models of certain municipalities in Hungary and the European Union.
Book
Des déchets radioactifs aux ondes électromagnétiques en passant par les OGM, les inquiétudes et les controverses se multiplient qui mettent en cause le monopole des experts sur l’orientation des décisions politiques relatives aux questions technologiques. Loin de déplorer une crise de confiance, les auteurs de ce livre analysent les nouvelles relations entre savoir et pouvoir qui émergent de ces débats. Refusant les traditionnelles oppositions entre spécialistes et profanes, professionnels de la politique et citoyens ordinaires, ils tirent profit des expériences existantes pour tracer les contours d'une démocratie technique et imaginer des dispositifs de décision capables de répondre à ces nouveaux défis. (Résumé éditeur)
Chapter
The contribution this chapter makes to the theme of this book is that the future of welfare states in Europe cannot be understood without looking beyond the West European borders of Europe. Developments in social policy in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (see Chapter 7) will clearly have an impact. More important, however, is the role of global agencies such as the World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), International Labour Organization (ILO) and others in influencing both national welfare systems and the social regulation of economic competition between welfare states.
Article
Local authorities are increasingly encouraged to mobilize actors of the “Third sector” by giving them the ability to identify and drive “social innovation”, where State and Market both fail to draw new strategies for the satisfaction of needs. On the basis of three case studies, we observe an injunction to cooperate and innovate from the Public Authorities (at regional and infra-regional level) to local actors. We analyze the tension between these two dimensions: How do the actors of the third sector and of local authorities both respond to the injection to innovate and bring their own strategies? In each of the three cases studies, actors from the third sector and local authorities seek for paths of creation of economic activities, by producing identities and collective patrimoines used in common goods. © 2016 Lavoisier, Paris. Tous droits reserves
Article
While the adoption of Social Innovation (SI) in the governance and policy domain has fueled a rapidly expanding scholarly literature, this field has become characterized by conceptual ambiguity and a diversity of definitions and research settings. This present situation inhibits the integration of findings. This paper traces the content, scope and relatively short history of modern social innovation research across disciplines by applying network and bibliometric analyses, and explores their relevance to innovation studies. Based on data from 172 publications, we analyze scholarly works that directly address the social innovation topic, allowing us to identify the precedence, dynamics and the current map of social innovation research as an emerging field of study. Our analysis suggests that the SI field is grounded in four distinct intellectual communities arising through a somewhat organized diffusion process: 1) Community Psychology; 2) Creativity research; 3) Social and societal challenges; 4) Local development. The interest of SI in the areas of management and entrepreneurship is only very recent and is currently reflected within existing communities. We forge conceptual bridges between the two (currently very separate) domains of social innovation and innovation studies, and the implications of our finding for further research and policy are also discussed.
Chapter
When the Oslo Regeneration Programme for the Inner City Districts was launched, it suggested that a significant step had been taken by Norway’s largest local government towards the often noted ‘shift to governance’. This 10 year, 122 million project was to be co-ordinated by a consortium involving three levels of government — national, municipal and the urban districts. Moreover, it encompassed several branches of the public services, including the school system, the social services and the agency for parks and public spaces, targeting the living conditions of a wide variety of people living in three challenged inner city districts. A network-like structure was established in order to facilitate the coordination of the programme across the levels and sectors of government involved. In addition to the involvement of several levels of government, the Norwegian Parliament signalled strongly that actors representing the local community were to be involved in the network. This is emphasized in one of the white papers: A strategy involving special efforts by national government over a period of ten years must be set up in order to shift developments in a positive manner … a necessary precondition for such a strategy is close and mutually binding cooperation between Oslo city government and national authorities. In these efforts, the solicitation of active participation by the residents is required. (Innst. S. nr. 174. 1995–1996).
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This edited volume aims to assess the recent experiences with governance networks at the local, national, and transnational levels. It reports and discusses the results of empirical studies of networks of public, semi-public and private actors who interact on the basis of mutual dependencies, institutional incentives and shared conceptions that help to facilitate negotiation and joint decision making in the face of persistent conflicts of interest. The contributors present new and insightful analyses of the formation and functioning of governance networks in different countries and different policy areas and they aim to assess the contribution of governance networks to an effective and democratic governing of our increasingly complex and fragmented societies.
Book
Innovation is a core issue for public services and a key element of public services reform - particularly in this age of austerity when policymakers are increasingly urging the need 'to innovate to do more with less'. This Handbook provides an essential resource for researchers and students interested in this topic and explores its potential contribution to efficient and effective public services. It is the only handbook to review the state of the art in theory and research on innovation in public services and includes contributions from all the leading researchers on the topic from around the world. © Stephen P. Osborne and Louise Brown 2013. All rights reserved.
Article
The field of innovation studies has grown explosively over the last few decades. But its focus has largely been on (certain parts of) manufacturing industries. More practitioner-oriented work on creation and adoption of innovation in public services has rarely been assimilated into this literature, though it has certainly made use of, in particular, the findings of diffusion studies. The expansion of services industries, their uptake of new technologies, and the prominence of some services in innovation processes (engineering and R&D services, for example) has rendered this limited interchange untenable. There has thus been a belated burst of interest in innovation in service organisations. Much of this attempts to assimilate service innovation into the technologistic models developed for understanding innovation of goods in laboratories and factories. Gradual recognition has grown of the features that make service innovation distinctive – features such as coproduction of services in the course of interaction between service supplier and client, the fuzzy boundary between the production, delivery and consumption processes of services, and the wide variety of transformations effected by services. It is necessary to look both at the variety of things that are described as service innovations, and the more general implications for innovation studies. The chapter highlights areas where public service innovation resembles and/or differs from innovation activities in other services sectors, and the implications for research and practice.
Article
This contribution deals with the diffusion of social innovation, understood here as a multiform process of change, in an institutionalist perspective. On the assumption that the emergence process of social innovation determines its diffusion within the territory, we rely on an initiative, the “Recyclerie du Pays de Bray”, in order to highlight social innovation that it carries and the changes that it boosts within its territory through the diffusion of its practices and the establishment of structuring devices.
Article
Az MTA és a Magyar Nemzeti Vidéki Kutatóhálózat (MNVH) közötti kutatási megállapodás keretében az egyik részkutatás témája a Társadalmi és gazdasági innováció, valamint a vidéki térségeink innovációt befogadó képessége címet viselte. A kutatás célja kettős volt, egyrészt a vidéki innováció fogalmának és összetevőinek elemzése, másrészt a társadalmi és gazdasági innovációt befogadó tér és társadalom jellemzőinek feltárása egy helyzetkép bemutatásán keresztül. A tanulmányban a fogalmak tisztázását követően az innovációs esetek empirikus vizsgálatának eredményeit mutatom be, majd meghatározom a rurális innováció földrajzi, társadalmi és gazdasági térre vonatkozó tulajdonságait az interjúk tapasztalatain keresztül. A vizsgálat rámutatott arra, hogy a befogadó közeg nagymértékben függ a társadalom, a gazdaság nyitottságától és a humán tőkétől. A tanulmány a társadalmi és gazdasági innováció egymásra hatását is vizsgálja, és eseteken keresztül mutatja be, hogyan képesek erősíteni egymást és magát az innovációra való hajlamot is. Végül elemzem a rurális innováció területi specifikumait és az innovátorok tulajdonságait.
Article
There are growing pressures for the public sector to be more innovative but considerable disagreement about how to achieve it. This article uses institutional and organizational analysis to compare three major public innovation strategies. The article confronts the myth that the market‐driven private sector is more innovative than the public sector by showing that both sectors have a number of drivers of as well as barriers to innovation, some of which are similar, while others are sector specific. The article then systematically analyzes three strategies for innovation: New Public Management, which emphasizes market competition; the neo‐Weberian state, which emphasizes organizational entrepreneurship; and collaborative governance, which emphasizes multiactor engagement across organizations in the private, public, and nonprofit sectors. The authors conclude that the choice of strategies for enhancing public innovation is contingent rather than absolute. Some contingencies for each strategy are outlined.
Article
Social innovation, a plurality of concepts: What issues and challenges for the analysis? The current crisis fosters a renewed interest in innovation, a way to experiment a new growth regime. In this context social innovation appears to be the new solution, likely to promote not only growth, but a form of fairer sharing and even to redefine social policies. It is often presented as a way to combine the desire for change and a form of guarantee of fairness and social justice that would build on creativity of actors and particularly private actors. But its definition remains unclear. We present three main approaches to social innovation, then we identify three dominant issues: the nature of innovation, the meaning and scope of the "social" dimension of innovation, and finally, characteristics of entrepreneurship (individual or collective), in connection with the form of governance and the participation of a number of stakeholders. JEL Codes: A13, A14
Article
This paper focuses on recent developments in ‘ideal-typical’ welfare analysis, including findings on East Asia, Eastern Central Europe and, for the first time, Latin America. The characteristics of a new ideal-typical welfare regime in large parts of Latin America are singled out, looking at key features of major welfare state systems.