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Solving the Problem of Sustainability of Cities Worldwide with Integrated Seawater Steam Engine System Global Summit and Expo on Sustainable and Renewable Energy



Despite all efforts, there is currently no sustainable city in the world. In some cities there are positive changes towards sustainability (RES instead of fossil fuels, using electric cars, waste recycling, reduction of CO2 emissions, etc.), but in order to achieve the sustainability of the Earth as a planet, all cities in the world should be made sustainable, as they account for about 80% of total energy consumption. This means that future sustainable cities will be able to produce all the necessary energy and drinking water using the RES system, applying pump storage hydroelectric (which technology can balance seasonal surpluses and shortages of solar energy), as well as applying seasonal heat storage technologies. On the other hand, despite the efforts of the signatories of the Paris Agreement, it is questionable whether these objectives can be achieved at all due to political, economic and other obstacles. In addition, current EU policy might even take a step backward by trying to introduce a green label for nuclear energy and natural gas (European Commission taxonomy proposal), which calls into question the implementation of The European Green Deal by 2050. Recognizing the importance of this historic moment in stopping climate change, the paper presents a way to address the sustainability of cities in the world, proposing a systematic approach to this problem, taking into account the most relevant criteria: size, climate and natural disasters. Considering that about 50% of the world's population lives within the area 20˚ N and 40˚ N and that over 30% of the population lives in cities with less than a million inhabitants; but also the fact that cities outside this geographical area may also have relatively large amounts of direct solar radiation; the cities of Zagreb and Copenhagen (which cities have practically the same amounts of direct solar radiation) were selected as case studies, for which original solutions for achieving overall sustainability were given. In doing so, Seawater Steam Engine (SSE) technology, which uses renewable energy for simultaneous energy and drinking water production, is presented, as well as original strategies for solving the problem of accommodating SSE collectors in cities (with canopies), but also the original concept of energy and drinking water distribution (with loops). However, just as SSE technology is basically open source technology that can use other renewable energy sources, it also means that it could make other cities in the world up to a million inhabitants without enough solar energy completely sustainable, whereby other RES would be used. In addition, the paper presents strategies for resolving cities with more than a million inhabitants all the way to the metropolis. This paper also introduces the next generation of RES technologies, whose originality lies in the fact that, in the future, they can simultaneously produce energy and drinking water which is fully consistent with the new “Philosophy of Sustainability”. With this concept, the cities in the world could become the “basic building blocks” that would "build" the overall sustainability of the Earth.
Solving the Problem of Sustainability of Cities
Worldwide with Integrated Seawater
Steam Engine System
Dr. Karmen Margeta1, Prof. Zvonimir Glasnovic, P.E.2
Global Summit and Expo on Sustainable and Renewable Energy GSESRE 2022,
June 16-18, 2022 ׀Copenhagen, Denmark
1Institute for Development and International Relations, Croatia,
2University of Zagreb, retired, independent scientist, Croatia,;
Sustainability means taking genuine economic, ecological and social RESPONSIBILITY for all citizens (where they live and work).
Source: K. Margeta, Z. Glasnovic, N. Zabukovec Logar,S, Tišma, A. Farkaš.A Concept for
Solving the Sustainability of Cities Worldwide, Energies 2022,15,616.
In the pandemic, citizens resisted a new lifestyle even
though their lives were endangered, it is to be expected that
people would resist lifestyle changes for sustainability.
In our scientific paper, we offer a new direction called the Philosophy of Sustainability
which includes a parallel process of changing awareness of citizens, which would,
along with technological achievements, lead to the sustainability of cities and
consequently sustainability of the Earth.
achieving sustainability of cities is not a competition (climate is common to all cities and
the same/common criteria leading to sustainability need to be established;
given that not all cities and countries are equally developed, the criterion of fairness on
the way to achieving sustainability should certainly be respected;
for the overall sustainability of the Earth, all the cities of the world need to be
completely sustainable.
-the city will be completely sustainable if it can meet its
own needs for energy and water (drinking water and other
water for consumption) without external sources.
-it is crucial to stop CO2emissions from cities because
they are the largest consumers of energy (over 80%)
EU policy from 2015 to 2022 (fight against climate change is the priority)
- defense is the first political priority in the EU (second and third are energy and food insurance); the fight
against climate change is the fourth priority
EU policy at the beginning of 2022 (change of priority)
European Union
dependence on Russian energy products;
plan RePowerEU -includes greater investment in fossil fuels and
in pipelines and other infrastructure;
use of five percent more coal in the next ten years;
coal-fired power plants are put into operation again (Germany);
coal production doubles (Greece); the closure of thermal power
plants (Portugal, etc.) is being postponed; some countries are
dependent on Russian energy (Hungary)
- countries and large companies (from the US, China and India to the EU) are quietly giving up the fight against
climate change and the goals they committed to at the Glasgow Climate Conference (COP26).
Other countries
the question is no longer whether the energy produced comes from coal, oil,
gas, wind or the sun (and at what price) but that there is enough of it.USA-new
concessions for oil and gas exploration; banks continue to lend money to the
companies that research, produce and use fossil fuels; investments in gas
infrastructure; there is no agreement on a clean energy investment plan;
Climate neutrality: China and Russia (2060); India (2070)
Coal consumption in China increased 4.6 percent last year; China is building
another 39 coal-fired power plants;
Paris agreement; Glasgow Climate Conference (COP26); European Green Deal;
European Climate Law, Fit for 55, and other regulations which should achieve climate
neutrality of the European Union by 2050.
The question is how many more reasons and excuses will emerge in the near future that will put the fight against climate change
in the background, even though climate change is causing more and more disasters and threatening the survival of humanity?
What can we do?
-The fight against climate change must once again become the first priority, because the survival of humanity
depends on it
- Based on past and current experience with the coronavirus pandemic, it can be concluded that humanity can only
survive if it develops global empathy that translates into a common policy and an effective strategy to stop
climate change.
-Set realistic goals,ie. Achieving set goals in a time frame that does not exceed the life expectancy of a individual
(impossible verification of the achievement of goals).
-it is unlikely that policy aimed at the individual country or local community “as much as you can” will lead to the goals
set by the current climate agreements.
- only if all the cities in the world are sustainable can we stop climate change. Otherwise, we will find it difficult to
avoid a catastrophe.
Secretary-general of the United Nations, Mr. António Guterres described the latest IPCC report as "a litany of
broken climate promises", which revealed a "yawning gap between climate pledges and reality.
The last 70 years have seen a rise in global temperature (exponentially) and it is unrealistic to expect the change to
happen in the next 20-30 years unless radical measures are taken to save the climate worldwide.
At the time of the pandemic and closure, CO2emissions were reduced by as much as 25% (and other pollutants such as
nitrogen dioxide (NO2)and particulate matter (PM2.5) by up to 40%). (Source: Center for Energy and Clean Air Research (CREA), Helsinki)
The crisis in Ukraine and the change in EU policy priorities will cause further warming. A much more realistic scenario
(shown by a red dotted line) could cause a climate collapse.
land temperature has increased since 1950; hotter days have become more
common and colder days have become less common.
CO2concentration (2022) increased by more than
50% compared to the pre-industrial period!
421,54 ppm CO2
(June 6, 2022)
The Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) in 2021 was 1.49, which is an
increase in GHG by 49% since 1990.
In terms of CO2 equivalents, the atmosphere in 2021 contained 508 ppm, of
which 415 is CO2 alone. The rest comes from other gases. CO2is by far the
largest contributor to the AGGI in terms of both amount and rate of increase.
Note: The IPCC suggests that a constant concentration of CO2 alone at 550
ppm would lead to an average increase in Earths temperature of ~3°C (5.4°F).
concentrations of others GHG continuously growth
AGGI2021 = 1.49; CO2equivalent = 508 ppm
It took approximately 240 years for AGGI to move from 0 to 1. It took only 31 years for AGGI to increase by another 49%.
Accumulation of atmospheric CO2during a single calendar year is growing
Fosil fules
Land use change
(deforestation, land
Imbalance between global sources and all natural sinks (assessment 2020)
3 %
(- 1.0 Gt CO2/ year)
global emission sources
all natural sinks
Carbon neutrality
There is still no artificial carbon sink to remove enough carbon from the atmosphere to effectively fight against global warming.
(*) Z. Glasnovic, K. Margeta, N. Zabukovec Logar.
Humanity Can Still Stop Climate Change by
Implementing a New International Climate
Agreement and Applying Radical New
Technology. Energies (2020), 13,6703.
(**) K. Margeta, Z. Glasnovic, N. Zabukovec Logar, S,
Tišma, A. Farkaš.A Concept for Solving the
Sustainability of Cities Worldwide, Energies 2022,
What do we need to do?
1) Current policy and strategy should change
Seawater Steam Engine Technology (SSE) - next generation technology
SSE technology - reduce CO2emission
simultaneously and continuously produce energy and drinking water,
using only 3 natural forces: renewable energy sources, RES (solar, wind, etc.), seawater or other unclean
sources and gravity.
technology to stop climate change
2) Use powerful technologies like Seawater Steam Engine technology
Z. Glasnovic, K. Margeta, K. Premec. “Could Key Engine, as a new open-source for RES technology development, start the third industrial
revolution?, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 57 (2016), 11941209.
New empirical formulas
Z. Glasnovic, K. Margeta, K. Premec. Could Key Engine, as
anew open-source for RES technology development, start
the third industrial revolution?, Renewable and Sustainable
Energy Reviews, 57 (2016), 11941209.
Z. Glasnovic, K. Margeta, V. Omerbegović. Artificial Water
Inflow Created by Solar Energy for Continuous Green
Energy Production, Water resources
management, 27 (2013), 7; 2303-2323.
Z. Glasnovic, K. Margeta, N. Zabukovec Logar. Humanity
Can Still Stop Climate Change by Implementing a New
International Climate Agreement and Applying Radical New
Technology. Energies (2020), 13,6703.
Integrated SSE/PSH system
Development of SSE technology
I. Phase - patented an idea of SSE technology
other patents: WO/2013/011333 ; WO/2009/118572;
HRP20110544 (A2) (2013)
II. Phase laboratory research (proof of concept)
New IP protection III. Phase - pilot plant construction: IV. Phase - Application of SSE/PSH system
The prototype of a HIGH PRESSURE
SEPARATOR was constructed in
cooperation with the Faculty of Mechanical
Engineering, University of Ljubljana,
Slovenia and company "ECOM-Ruše" from
Z. Glasnovic, K. Margeta, Seawater Steam Engine
as a prime mover for third industrial
revolution,Saarbuecken,Germany, Lap Lambert
Academic Publishing, 2017.
Floating city
Energy and water
production for
sustainable cities
(distribution loop)
How to make all the world's cities
Population of cities worldwide → Sustainable!
In order to achieve the overall Sustainability of the Earth and thus stop climate change, all cities in the world (about 10,000
and about 80%of energy consumption) would have to be made sustainable.
Population of cities worldwide, distribution estimated for 2020; García-Ayllon, S. Rapid development as a factor of imbalance in urban growth of cities in Latin America: A perspective
based on territorial indicators. Habitat International, 2016, 58, 127142 (Reprint with permission 5217100788999; 2021, Elsevier).
If Copenhagen can be sustainable at that latitude with SSE technology,
then the whole of the EU southern of it can be sustainable in the same way
Sustainability of a city means:
Complete independence of the city from
external sources of energy and drinking water.
Thus, overall sustainability could be achieved by making all
cities in the world sustainable so that every city, out of a total
of 10,000 cities, would become a “brick” in building a
completely sustainable civilization.
In terms of selecting cities for the case studies, which could be a
paradigm for other cities in the world, the authors used three
criteria: City size, Geographical position and climate,
Vulnerability to natural disasters.
Case studies: Zagreb (population: 806,341; latitude: 45° N; solar
energy: 1081 kWh/m2) and Copenhagen (population: 580,184;
latitude: 55.7° N; solar energy: 1046 kWh/m2), were selected.
Global warming 2021
Zagreb, 45° N
Solar (1081 kWh/a) and River;
Pluvial flooding, Earthqueqe
Global warming 2021
Copenhagen, 55.7° N
Solar (1046 kWh/a) and Sea;
Pluvial flooding, Earthqueqe
An original concept of a sustainable city
(I) energy and drinking water production by SSE technology; (II) storage of electricity (by pump-storage hydroelectric), hydrogen, thermal energy (for heating and
cooling) and drinking water; (III) distribution of electricity, thermal energy (heating and cooling) and drinking water by distribution loops.
A Concept for Solving the Sustainability of Cities Worldwide,
Urban innovation in sustainable cities: Canopies
Collectors of the SSE system cannot be installed on the roofs of buildings, but they can be installed above the
lower parts of the city, thus making canopies (at heights of 10,20 or more meters) and thus can be in the
original way make use of city spaces.
Futuristic trends in solar architecture
Case Study: Sustainable City Zagreb
Considering that the main objective is to make a city completely sustainable, and that the input climatic values
(Sun, wind, etc.) are stochastic; the optimal nominal power of the SSE generator Pel(NOM)(i) was calculated by the
method of dynamic programming for the island of Vis in Croatia, and from this value all other parameters of the
SSE system were then calculated. Based on these results for Vis, all relevant parameters for Zagreb (as well as
Copenhagen) were calculated by linear correlation in order for them to be fully sustainable.
Energy Consumption Results: Consumption→Production
parameters VIS ZAGREB
Direct solar radiation
Electricity consumption
Eel [GWh/a]
Water consumption
V [hm3/a]
Nominal electric power
Pel(NOM) [MW]
Collector field area
Acoll [km2]
Thermal energy production
Electricity production
Eel [GWh/a]
Drinking water production
VDW [hm3]
Volume of hydro storage
VPSH [km3]0.00
Volume of drinking
water WDW [hm3]
Collector fields of SSE technology, Upper water reservoir of PSH technology and Distribution loops
of electricity, energy (heating and cooling) and drinking water for the city of Zagreb
A Concept for Solving the Sustainability of Cities Worldwide,
Copenhagen → Carbon Neutral ≠ Sustainable!
Copenhagen aims to be the world's first carbon-neutral capital city by 2025:
For a city, its creating more renewable energy than the dirty energy it uses
The authors of this presentation suggest changing the city's climate policy from “Copenhagen Carbon Neutral” in “Copenhagen
Sustainable City”, which means: Copenhagen completely independent of external energy sources and drinking water.
The CPH 2025 Climate Plan,
Copenhagen Climate Plan 2025:
ENERGY CONSUMPTION: Energy-efficient heating;
Electricity savings; PV Action Plan and Conversion of
individually oil-heated buildings.
ENERGY PRODUCTION: Sustainable biomass; Green town
gas, Carbon neutral water supplies; District cooling; Wind
turbines; Large-scale PV; Biogas solution for organic
household waste;
MOBILITY: 100%no-emission buses, shore-based power
supply for ships.
Thus, carbon neutral does not mean that Copenhagen will
be without fossil fuels by 2025, but only that it will
compensate for that emission from fossil fuels by producing
energy from the RES system.
Energy consumption (2015): 28,627 TJ
GLOBAL COVENANT of MAYORS for CLIMATE & ENERGY, Copenhagen municipality, Region Hovedstaden, Denmark, European Union & Western Europe,
Energy by type
District heating and
Liquid fuels
Gaseous fuels
Natural gas
70% RES, 30% Fossil fuel and Nuclear
Transport: 991 GWh
Case Study: Sustainable City Copenhagen
Results: Consumption→Production
Characteristic parameters
Direct solar radiation
Electricity consumption
Eel [GWh/a]
Water consumption
V [hm3/a]
Nominal electric power
Collector field area
Acoll [km2]
Thermal energy production
Electricity production
Eel [GWh/a]
Drinking water production
VDW [hm3
Volume of hydro storage
VPSH [hm3]
Volume of drinking
water WDW [hm3
The produced electricity of 5041 GWh/a will satisfy
the electricity consumption of 2465 GWh/a, 2576
GWh/a would be used in the transport sector (991
GWh), and the remaining 1585 GWh/a would be used
for: power supply of geothermal heat pumps,
producing electrolytic hydrogen that would be stored
and used for uninterruptible power supplies (current
diesel generators) and where town gas is now
unavoidable (e.g. waste to energy, industry, etc.).
Produced thermal energy of 14,403 GWh/a, including losses (which due to the distance of the SSE system from the
city, about 20 km, as well as losses in seasonal thermal energy storage would rise to 50%); it would be about 7,000
GWh/a (which would cover thermal energy for heating of 3,896 GWh/a and approximately the same amount of
heat for absorption cooling).
The produced drinking water of 58 hm3would, with a certain safety reserve, meet the annual water
consumption of 36 hm3.
Adapted from: Copenhagen, Copenhagen Municipality,
Capital Region of Denmark, 1357, Denmark (55.68672 12.57007)
Collector fields of SSE technology, Upper water reservoir of PSH technology and Distribution loops
of electricity, thermal energy (heating and cooling) and drinking water for the city of Copenhagen
Investment in Sustainable Cities: Zagreb and Copenhagen
SSE system (equipment,
installations and works)
Unit values Zagreb Copenhagen
Quantity Total Quantity Total
SSE collectors
39,000,000 m2
6,903,000,000 $
30,000,000 m2
5,310,000,000 $
PSH (Pump
Storage Hydroel.)
703,000,000 W
305,000,000 $
508,000,000 W
220,472,000 $
PSH2 (regulation high water)
305,000,000 $
- -
(P, G, T)
500,000,000 $
500,000,000 $
35 km
3.5 billion $
32 km
3.2 billion $
Adaptations and network
1 billion $
1 billion $
Total investment
12.5 billion $ 10.2 billion $
6GDP 20.7 billion $ 45 billion $
Repayment period
30 years 10 years
from GDP (
1.93 % 2.26 %
Considering that this is acompletely new SSE technology,as well as the original way of distribution of heat
(heating and cooling) and electricity and drinking water; the necessary investments in the sustainable systems of
Zagreb and Copenhagen can only be made by avery rough estimate on the basis of similar systems performed
and the author's professional engineering experience. The total investment in the SSE system
would be approximately $ 12.5 billion
for Zagreb and approximately $ 10.2
billion for Copenhagen.
If the repayment period for this
investment would be 30 years for
Zagreb and 10 years for Copenhagen;
then about 2% of GDP should be
allocated annually.
However, if more energy efficiency
measures were to be applied, this
period could be shortened to 15 years
for Zagreb and
only 5 years for Copenhagen with
practically the same allocation from
GDP, which could be very acceptable
and extremely interesting.
A Concept for Solving the Sustainability of Cities Worldwide,
Cities over 1 million
(different strategies)
(1)Cities in locations with over 1000 kWh/m2/a SSE technology can also be used, so that
collectors are placed above the lower quarters of the city as canopies;
(2)Cities in locations with below 1000 kWh/m2/a Using the energy of the RES system
produced outside these cities and converted into thermal energy in the city, using SSE
Since fossil fuels are responsible for such large cities,
then they should be depopulated so that RES systems can be applied.
Acceleration in Global Warming → Climate breakdown!
1) Because of accelerated rise in global temperature from 2017 to the present (WMO), with the
threat of climate breakdown (climate system will not be able to withstand such sudden changes);
humanity is pursuing the wrong climate policy;
1) Therefore, it is necessary to urgently adopt a new climate policy, which will not be aimed at
"limiting global temperature" (as in the Paris Agreement because it is impossible to achieve,
especially with NDCs instruments that boil down to "as much as you can" and "carbon neutral" a
principle that can only encourage further CO2emissions); but also a new strategy for its
2) In their previous papers, the authors suggested:
- The new policy, called "Climate New Deal“;on a "top-down" principle which basically provides
for the allocation of 2% of GDP for the reorientation of "high carbon economy" to "green
economy“; Radically new technology as a new strong “weapon” against climate change;
- A new strategy, based on the "bottom-up" principle, which is based on making all cities in the
world (which account for as much as 80%of energy consumption) sustainable.
Integrated Seawater Steam Engine System as Next generation of RES technologies
Unlike the previous
approach for achieving
urban sustainability, which
comes down to carbon
neutral city; This
presentation proposes that
cities be made
by providing them with as
many as four resources
throughout the year:
electricity, thermal energy
(heating and cooling) and
drinking water, which can
be done with the
Integrated Seawater Steam
Engine System as Next
generation of RES
… Conclusion
Solving the Sustainability of Cities Worldwide
Given that SSE technology, in addition to solar, can also use the energy of other RES (such
as wind); and that new technology can ensure continuous energy supply; but also
continuous drinking water supply from seawater and other unclean watercourses; SSE
technology could ensure sustainability for virtually all cities in the world.
Based on all of the above, the authors of this presentation suggest that we should not
wait for global climate policy to change,but should propose solutions to city
governments (on a "bottom-up" basis) on how to make each city sustainable.
In regard to this presentation:
(1) We openly invite all scientists at this conference, to help us to develop SSE technology
(2) We propose to the City of Copenhagen that, instead of aiming for Copenhagen to be a
carbon-neutral city, it becomes:
Copenhagen World's First Sustainable City
As a paradigm of sustainability for all other cities in the world!
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