Covid-19 Sonrası Türkiye Ekonomisi Toplumsal Cinsiyet Eşitliğini Nasıl Geliştirebilir?

  • Izmir Democracy University
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Gender equality is not only a fundamental human right, but it is also necessary for a peaceful society, the attainment of full human potential, and long-term progress. It can also play a significant role in the growth of any modern economy. Therefore, it is critical to realize that men and women may both contribute to societal growth. A holistic approach, sound policies, and long-term commitment by all levels of government are essential for women's empowerment to become a reality. In addition, gender equality must be a priority in developing national policies and initiatives. Despite improvements in Turkish women’s social, political, and economic lives, women's empowerment has yet to be attained. This research explores the position of women in school and the labor market in Turkey before and after the emergence of COVID-19. The research highlights the problems and opportunities that women regarding participating in the Turkish economy.

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The purpose of this study is to identify whether students at Turkish universities are having difficulties in the distance learning process and to reveal their opinions regarding the system. Using a cross-cultural survey design, data were collected from 5052 students. Based on the collected data, 58.5% of the students have asynchronous distance learning classes in their universities. Access to distance learning classes is one of the problems, and it is attributed to computers, internet, and connectivity issues as well as with starting the lessons too early or late. A majority of participants (73.7%) found class materials uploaded by lecturers to distance learning systems to be sufficient or partially sufficient, and 36.7% stated that they had problems accessing resources regarding their homework. Students' satisfaction level with the distance learning system scored 4.4 out of 10. According to the evaluation regarding whether the level of satisfaction of participants varied across the type of university, the satisfaction level of students in public universities is generally low (score of 4.3 out of 10) compared to satisfaction in foundation universities (4.9 out of 10).
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Introduction With more than 40 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 globally, the pandemic is continuing to severely challenge health systems around the world. Countries with high numbers of refugees face an additional burden on COVID-19 preventive and curative services made available and accessible to refugees. Turkey hosts the largest number of refugees globally, with a total of 4 million in 2020. Over 98% of refugees in Turkey reside in urban areas in large, crowded cities such as Istanbul, Gaziantep, and Hatay posing severe challenges for all health responses, including COVID-19. This study provides insights and analysis on the current situation for refugees, migrants under temporary protection and undocumented migrants in Turkey by focusing on the right to health and access to health care under pandemic conditions. Its main aim is to discuss the challenges and opportunities for COVID-19 responses relating to refugees, migrants under temporary protection and undocumented migrants in Turkey. Methods This is a non- systematic and exploratory literature review from academic and grey sources. We reviewed published documents, meeting summaries, media reports/news and policy briefs in Turkish and English on the COVID-19 response in Turkey. Results Since the start of the COVID-19 outbreak in Turkey, the Ministry of Health (MoH) has taken various steps to provide health care for all residents. However, several challenges arise when providing health care to refugees, migrants under temporary protection and other undocumented migrants including language barrier in accessing reliable information and access to health services for existing chronic conditions. Conclusion While refugees, migrants under temporary protection and undocumented migrants have been granted access to services for COVID-19 related health problems, social and cultural barriers remain beyond the current legislation. Solidarity and whole-of-society inclusive approaches should always be the guiding principles in the COVID-19 response.
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p>In this study, I aim to provide an analysis of gender equality in the Turkish education system by looking at policies and their outcomes on girl’s schooling. My goal is to demonstrate the ways educational policies have been complicit in reproducing inequality and difference between the sexes by examining what issues regarding education and gender have become a part of public discourse, and which issues have not. The investigation of the role of the state in contributing to gendered outcomes in education is operationalized by two data gathering processes. The first is document analysis of policy documents which are the Article 42. Of the Constitution, Basic Law of National Education. Law 1739, and Basic Education Reform Act. No. 4306. The second is the collection of educational statistics and documents that would shed light to the condition of girls’ education in Turkey. The data draws on policies directly related to education to understand how gender equality is conceptualized. The central finding of the study is that the educational policies and practices in Turkey are based on the premises of “formal equality” and “meritocracy” which aims to provide the same opportunities to every member of society. However, the functional view of schooling based on the concepts of “formal equality” and “meritocracy” fosters the belief that males and females are benefitting equally and serve to mask the inequitable distribution of knowledge and skills between men and women. Therefore, educational policies continue to be gender-neutral, far from challenging the gender dynamics that discriminate against girls and women. Article 42. of the Constitution, the Basic Law of National Education. Law 1739., the Basic Education Reform Act. No. 4306 and its extension, 4+Reform, focuses on the expansion and improvement of primary and secondary education, but does not carry any special measures to change the structures and relations that discriminate against girls. No national policies to counter the impact of negative socialization by curriculum and textbook revision have been adopted. Moreover, high female attrition rates especially in the underdeveloped regions of Turkey continue to exist. Gender-streaming is still apparent in the program choices made in vocational and higher education. Turkey depends on macro education policies without any gender differentiation to ensure educational equality. Article visualizations: </p
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Background/aim: Individuals infected by the Covid-19 potentially are at risk of health and economic well-being. Today, the Covid-19 is a global issue, and the world economy can be interpreted as almost at the standstill. In this context, this study aims to discuss the potential first reactions of short and long term global economic impacts of the pandemic through sectors by assessing its costs according to the data announced for both the world and Turkey. In addition, this study tries to put forth possible economic and political scenarios for the post-pandemic world. Materials and methods: This is a review article that summarizes the current reports and discussions about the economic consequences of this historical event, and tries to make some inferences considering them. Results: This pandemic has severe adverse effects on the employees, customers, supply chains and financial markets, in brief, most probably it will cause a global economic recession. Nevertheless, due to the uncertainty of the end of this pandemic, both the length and scale of this contraction are not predictable. Conclusion: It takes a while for the world economy to recover from the contraction. It seems that this pandemic will lead to a permanent shift in the world and its politics, especially in health, security, trade, employment, agriculture, manufacturing goods production and science policies. Since this new world might provide great opportunities for some countries that did not dominate world production before, governments should develop new strategies to adjust the new world order without much delay.
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Pandemics leave significant marks on the memories of societies with their permanent impacts. Going beyond a cause of disease or death, they can have consequences in many aspects, psychological, social and economic ones being in the first place. The Covid-19 outbreak, which first emerged in China and has spread to the whole world as of the first months of 2020, has the potential to constitute a breaking the course of history, as well. Turkey is located on the transit point between Asia and Europe with its geographical position, and thus, received its share from the outbreak of Covid-19, which spreads through social contact. The first official case was recorded on 11 March 2020, and then the virus spread rapidly. This study aims to assess the attitude of the public towards Covid-19 at times when the impact of the disease reached maximum. To this end, data were collected from 1586 people with different socio-demographic features through Covid-19 Pandemic Community Scale. The impact of the pandemic on the society was measured in three dimensions as Sensitivity to Pandemic, Protection against Pandemic and Social Trust. The research results showed that the people had high levels of sensitivity to the pandemic, exerted the maximum effort for protection and social trust was above the average although it fell behind the other dimensions. As a consequence, it can be concluded that Covid-19 has had a significant impact on the Turkish people.
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This research aimed to determine the opinions of undergraduate and graduate level distance education students about the education they received. Phenomenology design, one of the qualitative research designs, was used in this study. Semi-structured interview form was used as data collection method. In this research, focus group interviews were conducted in three sessions with a total of 27 distance education students (14 master and 13 undergraduate). Distance education students prefer distance education because they work in a job; they consider distance education as a great opportunity for those who cannot receive formal education. The students stated that the distance education infrastructure of the university is technically very good; they have almost no technical problems, but they have problems when connected via mobile applications. They stated that the course contents related to informatics are old because they have received education especially in the field of informatics and emphasized the importance of renewal.
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The report on “The role of education and skills in bridging the digital gender divide – Evidence from APEC economies”, produced by the OECD with the support of Chile in the context of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), explores the root causes of the gender digital divide; the demands of the workforce for digital skills of women; the skills needed to succeed in the digital transformation and what this implies for women; and the role of education on building skills for the digital era and bridging the digital gender divide. The report further proposes an education-centered future-looking strategy which identifies existing evidence relevant to bridging the digital gender gap and outlines possible actions in support of policy making aimed to narrow the digital gender divide in APEC economies.
Technical Report
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This report has been produced at the request of the Australian Government to support advancement of the 2017 G20 Roadmap for Digitalisation: Policies for a Digital Future, in particular its dimension on supporting the equitable participation of women in the digital economy. It aims to provide policy directions for consideration by all governments, including G20 economies’ governments through identifying, discussing and analysing a range of drivers at the root of the digital gender divide. In bolstering the evidence base and drawing attention to critical policy areas, the analysis complements the important initiative of the 2018 Argentinian G20 Presidency to share those policies, actions and national practices that have had a significant and measurable impact in bridging the digital gender divide, and supports Argentina's approach of mainstreaming gender across the G20 agenda. The report presents the outcomes and findings of a multifaceted approach integrating complementary work, articulated around the following key areas of analysis: 1. The gender divide and digital technologies, providing an overview of the gender divide in access, uptake and usage of technological tools and the extent of digital financial inclusion worldwide, in particular regarding the use of ICT and digital platforms, mobile phones and digital payments by women. 2. Leapfrogging opportunities for reducing the gender gap, discussing some of the many opportunities that digital technologies offer for narrowing the digital gender divide. 3. Skills for the digital era, discussing how the pervasiveness of digital technologies changes the way individuals access and elaborate knowledge, understand and interact with the reality around them, and whether women and girls possess the (set of) skills allowing for a deeper understanding and meaningful use of digital technologies. The objective should be to equip women and girls with the skills needed to thrive in the digital era. 4. Jobs and skills in the digital transformation, shedding light on whether women are equipped with the skills needed to navigate the world of work in the digital economy; analysing the returns to skills, in terms of wages, for men and women in digital and less digital intensive sectors; and discussing how digital platforms can be leveraged to boost women's labour force participation and help achieve the G20 “25 by 25” goal. 5. Women and innovation, proposing a first-time analysis of the participation of women in innovation activities and output at the core of the digital transformation, i.e. both technological developments and open-source software. This section also includes an analysis of tech entrepreneurial activity as reflected in VC activity. 6. Learning from experience, presenting existing national practices for economic empowerment of women, drawing on a stocktaking exercise of national initiatives. 7. Bridging the digital gender divide: the role of policy, synthesising the main policy implications of the overall analysis and identifying possible policy directions for consideration by G20 governments. In each of its components, the report seeks to identify and discuss the broad range of drivers at the root of the digital gender divide, ranging from barriers to access and affordability, to education and technical literacy, to socio-cultural attitudes and biases.
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The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the reasons for parental resistance to girls' schooling. The study was conducted in Ordu, Giresun, Gümüşhane, and Sinop provinces of Turkey where school enrollment rates for girls were among the lowest in the Black Sea Region. The results showed that obstacles for female education varied and measures should be taken according to each context. Lack of adequate accommodation facilities for girls was the most iterated factor. Transportation, poverty, concerns for girls' chastity, the need for girls' labor at home, conservatism, preference for Koran schools with boarding facilities, early marriages, and high unemployment rates among educated youth were detected as significant obstacles for female education. Effective strategies addressing to each factor should be adopted. © 2011 Eḡitim Dani{dotless}şmanli{dotless}ḡi{dotless} ve Araşti{dotless}rmalari{dotless} İletişim Hizmetleri Tic.
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There are thousands of children who remain out of school at both primary and secondary levels in Turkey. The current disparities in access to education in Turkey are mostly driven by systematic regional differences and high gender inequalities. Although several existing studies have paid close attention to gender-based inequities in school access, none of the existing studies have attempted to systematically understand regional differences in schooling. This study therefore intends to address this gap in the literature. Results of the study indicated several key factors, such as gender, household poverty and gender role attitudes, that contributes to the regional inequalities in access to education in Turkey. Based on these findings, suggestions for policy makers and future research were made. © 2015 British Association for International and Comparative Education
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is seriously threatening world public health security. Currently, >200 countries and regions have been affected by the epidemic, with the number of infections and deaths still increasing. As an extreme event, the outbreak of COVID-19 has greatly damaged the global economic growth and caused a certain impact on the environment. This paper takes China as a case study, comprehensively evaluating the dynamic impact of COVID-19 on the environment. The analysis results indicate that the outbreak of COVID-19 improves China's air quality in the short term and significantly contributes to global carbon emission reduction. However, in the long run, there is no evidence that this improvement will continue. When China completely lifts the lockdown and resumes large-scale industrial production, its energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are likely to exceed the level before the event. Moreover, COVID-19 significantly reduces the concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the atmosphere. The decline initially occurred near Wuhan and eventually spread to the whole country. The above phenomenon shows that the decreasing economic activities and traffic restrictions directly lead to the changes of China's energy consumption and further prevent the environment from pollution. The results in this study support the fact that strict quarantine measures can not only protect the public from COVID-19, but also exert a positive impact on the environment. These findings can provide a reference for other countries to assess the influence of COVID-19 on the environment.
The COVID-19 pandemic is considered as the most crucial global health calamity of the century and the greatest challenge that the humankind faced since the 2nd World War. In December 2019, a new infectious respiratory disease emerged in Wuhan, Hubei province, China and was named by the World Health Organization as COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). A new class of corona virus, known as SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) has been found to be responsible for occurrence of this disease. As far as the history of human civilization is concerned there are instances of severe outbreaks of diseases caused by a number of viruses. According to the report of the World Health Organization (WHO as of April 18 2020), the current outbreak of COVID-19, has affected over 2164111 people and killed more than 146,198 people in more than 200 countries throughout the world. Till now there is no report of any clinically approved antiviral drugs or vaccines that are effective against COVID-19. It has rapidly spread around the world, posing enormous health, economic, environmental and social challenges to the entire human population. The coronavirus outbreak is severely disrupting the global economy. Almost all the nations are struggling to slow down the transmission of the disease by testing & treating patients, quarantining suspected persons through contact tracing, restricting large gatherings, maintaining complete or partial lock down etc. This paper describes the impact of COVID-19 on society and global environment, and the possible ways in which the disease can be controlled has also been discussed therein.
Challenging current theories about gender and achievement, this book assesses the issues at stake and analyses the policy drives and changing perceptions of gender on which the 'gender and achievement' debates are based. This new topical book guides the reader through the different theories and approaches, drawing together and reviewing work on gender and educational performance. The authors also highlight the continuing problems experienced by girls in terms of achievement and classroom interaction. The subjects covered include: perspectives on gender and achievement the construction of gender and achievement in education policy evaluating boys' underachievement the future for boys and girls? raising achievement: 'What works in the classroom?' Teachers, education professionals and students engaged in teacher training will welcome the editors' objective yet critical expertise. © 2005 Becky Francis and Christine Skelton. All rights reserved.
This chapter critically reviews contrasting frameworks which present different ways of understanding the nature of the challenge to achieve gender equality in education. Different meanings of gender equality and schooling have consequences for our understanding of two Millennium Development Goals (MDGs): MDG 2, which is concerned with gender equality in schooling, and MDG 3, concerned with the empowerment of women. Different meanings entail different actions, and, as will be shown, organisations have interpreted gender, education, development, empowerment, and equality in very different ways. These interpretations are underpinned by different approaches to research and analysis: how one undertakes research on gender and women will determine the conclusions. This chapter examines different meanings of the challenge for gender equality in education and evaluates the implications of each approach for policy and practice.
Despite the social equity work that still needs to be done in schools and society, many researchers, politicians, and social commentators claim that gender equity work in schools has been accomplished. These people assume that actions in school lead to gender equity outside it. But, there may be two problems with this assumption: 1) achieving equity in academic work may mask still‐inequitable gender work in schools and 2) girls’ and boys’ equal academic achievement does not promise social equality, inside or outside schools. The following study offers evidence from a recent middle school study that reveals how children’s gender identities are naturalized as neutral “student” identities, making the effects of children’s gender identity work invisible. This author argues that schooling at best maintains the inequity of the American gender status quo, and perhaps may work to actually lessen chances for women and men’s equitable life opportunities.
The Eastern Anatolian project extends opportunity and access to quality education. The study examines the selection and learning systems adopted within the framework of gender equity, family background and higher order skills. Performance data on a range of selection measures and the initial programme are analysed. Results show that selection was successful in choosing high achievers and establishing equitable occupational and gender access. Girls out-performed boys in skills-based selection measures, showed greater relative gains in language learning, and evinced better higher order skills, reversing the trend in state examinations.
Spotlight: Turkey boosts online education amid coronavirus lockdown
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Toplumsal cinsiyet eşitliği politikaları ve küreselleşme
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