ChapterPDF Available

Strategies of Teaching "le" at the Beginning Level of Chinese as a Foreign Language



This pedagogical report shares a variety of strategies to teach “le” at the beginning level of Chinese as a foreign language. The report introduces various ways to help students conceptualize the meaning of “le”, understand the function of “le”, and scaffold the correct application of “le” by creating relevant mental models and function-driven contexts. Rationales and examples of these strategies are provided. Students’ recordings using “le” are analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of these strategies. Reflections on lessons learned during this first cycle of experimenting these methods are also shared.
A preview of the PDF is not available
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
This reference grammar provides, for the first time, a description of the grammar of "Mandarin Chinese", the official spoken language of China and Taiwan, in functional terms, focusing on the role and meanings of word-level and sentence-level structures in actual conversations.
The paper defines the term "culture shock" and discusses the changes that this state can make in a person's behavior. Culture shock refers to the emotional and physiological reaction of high activation that is brought about by sudden immersion in a new culture. Because one's own culture shields one from the unknown and reduces the need to make choices or defend values, entrance into a new culture takes the body out of its resting state and the tension level (physical and mental readiness to cope with the situation at hand) rises. Physiologically, new stimuli that can't be classified signal to the cortex of the brain an alteration in the environment. An orientation response is triggered; extra adrenalins and nonadrenaline pour into the system, general muscle tone rises, pupils of the eyes dilate, sense organs are directed toward the incoming stimuli, and hands sweat. If the tension level is prolonged, fatigue and feelings of anxiety result. The body becomes ill unless conscious or unconscious protective measures are taken. Common symptoms of culture shock include withdrawal or a hostile and aggressive attitude, a longing for home, abnormal concern over minor things, compulsive actions (hand washing, letter writing), poor memory, and fits of anger over minor frustrations. Suggestions for reducing culture shock include preconditioning oneself by associating with international groups, looking toward a global frame of reference based on trust, and practicing body awareness to detect changes which signify a stress reaction. (Author/KC)
The theory and methods of the natural approach to language acquisition in the classroom are described. The natural approach is based on the theory that language acquisition occurs only when students receive comprehensible input. The emphasis is on reading and listening comprehension for beginning students. The seven chapters cover (1) language teaching approaches, (2) second language acquisition theory, (3) classroom implications of the theory, (4) how to begin using the natural approach, (5) oral communication development through acquisition activities, (6) additional sources of input for acquisition, and (7) testing and classroom management. Curriculum organization, classroom activities, management of classroom activities, the role of reading in the natural approach, homework, vocabulary, and error correction are also discussed. (RW)
The global economy and shifting political tides make the need for intercultural understanding and education obvious. Where historically the focus of intercultural training has been on preparing an individual to work in a new culture, today's organizations routinely ask managers to work in multinational environments and move from country to country. This challenge has created a strong debate about how to prepare managers for such challenging assignments. How ought people be assessed to understand their readiness for such assignments? Do high intelligence quotient (IQ) people adjust better than others to new cultural challenges? The topic of cultural adjustment and its assessment remains compelling but incomplete. Our focus here is the development and exploration of the concept of cultural intelligence, or, CQ (Earley, 2003; Earley & Ang, 2003), along with its implications for training and education for global work assignments. Our approach suggests that training for the global manager should include metacognitive, motivational, and behavioral components. The CQ approach represents a significant break from conventional wisdom of focusing on cultural values for intercultural education.
This study replicates VanPatten and Cadierno (1993) in an attempt to determine whether or not explicit information given to learners receiving processing instruction is responsible for the beneficial effects of instruction. Fifty-nine subjects were divided into three groups: (1) one receiving processing instruction in object pronouns and word order in Spanish as in VanPatten and Cadierno (1993), (2) another receiving explanation only with no activities or practice, (3) and another receiving only the structured input activities with no explanation. A pretest/post-test assessment was used involving two tests, an interpretation test and a sentence-level production test. Results showed that the beneficial effects of instruction were due to the structured input activities and not to the explicit information (explanation) provided to learners.(Received October 06 1995)