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Zmart: Poverty Alleviation and Women Empowerment Program Through Micro Retail Shop Business

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Zmart program is a micro retail shop empowerment program using zakat funds to alleviate poverty, especially in urban areas. This research examines the impact of Zmart program on poverty alleviation and women empowerment. The general poverty indicators based on poverty line and had kifayah standard show that the number of poverty decreases after Zmart intervention. In addition, the impact of Zmart also measured using BAZNAS Prosperity Index (BPI) with a score of 0.68, meaning Zmart has a good impact on its recipient. The Gender Development Index (GDI) in the Zmart program shows an increasing value from 75.97 to 139.32. It means that there is significant emancipation for the female group compared to the male group in the program. These results show that the Zmart program favorably empowers women as it is shown that the GDI value exceeds 100 points.
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Jurnal REKSA: Rekayasa Keuangan, Syariah dan Audit
ISSN 2089-6581 (print) | 2614-3720 (online)
37
Vol. 9, No. 1, Maret 2022, pp. 37-49
http://journal2.uad.ac.id/index.php/reksa
10.12928/jreksa.v9i1.5966 reksa@act.uad.ac.id
Zmart: Poverty Alleviation and Women Empowerment Program
Through Micro Retail Shop Business
Randi Swandarua,b, Priyesta Rizkiningsihb,1,*, Deden Kuswandab
a INCEIF, Malaysia
b The National Board of Zakat, Republic of Indonesia (BAZNAS), Indonesia
1 priyesta@gmail.com*
* Corresponding Author
ABSTRACT
Zmart program is a micro retail shop empowerment program using zakat
funds to alleviate poverty, especially in urban areas. This research examines the
impact of Zmart program on poverty alleviation and women empowerment.
The general poverty indicators based on poverty line and had kifayah standard
show that the number of poverty decreases after Zmart intervention. In
addition, the impact of Zmart also measured using BAZNAS Prosperity Index
(BPI) with a score of 0.68, meaning Zmart has a good impact on its recipient.
The Gender Development Index (GDI) in the Zmart program shows an
increasing value from 75.97 to 139.32. It means that there is significant
emancipation for the female group compared to the male group in the
program. These results show that the Zmart program favorably empowers
women as it is shown that the GDI value exceeds 100 points.
KEYWORDS
Zakat
Women Empowerment
Poverty
Introduction
Gender equality has become one of the main concerns in the Indonesia National Medium Term
Development Plan 2020-2024. It is hoped that it can encourage more sustainable economic growth, fair
and equitable development. However, some indicators show that gender equality still needs a lot of
attention and willpower from all stakeholders. For instance, there is a gender imbalance in terms of
access to people’s business credit. Only 1.2% of women as the head of household have access to credit
than men’s 2.78% (Ministry of Women Empowerment and Child Protection, 2016). Likewise, women’s
participation in the labor force remains low at 53%, whereas men at 82% (Badan Pusat Statistik, 2020).
Thus, The Global Gender Gap Report 2021 ranks Indonesia 101st under the Philippines, Laos,
Singapura, Thailand, and Vietnam (World Economic Forum, 2021)
In its Policy Brief on Gender Equality (2011), the Ministry of Women Empowerment and Child
Protection states that being a woman in Indonesia makes someone’s probability of working in the
informal sector up to 24%. In this regard, we should note that 93% out of 64 micro-small medium
enterprises (MSME) are in the informal sector, and MSME accommodates 97% of the Indonesian
workforce (Bappenas, 2019). Hence, it is clear that women have a big role in the economy and
emancipating women is crucial to reducing poverty.
In this sense, zakat as the Islamic social finance instrument can be integrated as one source of funds
to alleviate poverty. It can be utilized as an empowerment program so that low-income families can be
uplifted (Andika et al., 2020). Bank Indonesia (2020) highlights that zakat is the alternative for
expanding financing instruments for the poor to increase productivity. The National Board of Zakat
(BAZNAS) does an empowerment program for micro-retail shop owners called Zmart since 2017.
Under this program, the participants get access to funds, capacity building, and market enhancement to
sustain their life and business in the middle of tight competition with the modern retail store.
This paper is aimed to cover two main objectives as follow:
1. To evaluate the impact of Zmart on poverty alleviation
2. To examine the impact of Zmart on women empowerment
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Vol. 9, No. 1, Maret 2022, pp. 37-49
Swandaru, R., Rizkiningsih, P., & Kuswanda, D. (Zmart: Poverty Alleviation and Women Empowerment Program...)
Literature Review
Zakat on Poverty Alleviation and Women Empowerment
Zakat is one of the pillars in Islam that has a socio-economic impact on society. It is levied from the
wealth that has surpassed the threshold (nishab) and being disbursed to the eligible recipients or known
as mustahik (Zayas, 1960; Qaradawi, 1999). Zakat can be a social safety net and give basic protection for
sustaining life (Chapra, 2008). Moreover, Mohieldin et al. (2011) elucidate that zakat mobilization could
help to solve extreme poverty in Muslim countries. In this sense, zakat is being distributed and fulfills
the basic needs of the mustahiq. However, it is not merely enough to bring socio-economic
advancement to society. Hence, zakat is also utilized under an empowerment program that can give
long-lasting benefits for the beneficiaries. In this regard, the zakat fund is structured so that it can allow
financing for productive economic activities, enlarge capacity building opportunity, and open access to
the market (Purwakananta, 2018)
Studies have shown that empowerment programs based on the zakat fund have positively brought
advancement to human development and poverty alleviation. Nurzaman (2016) shows that the
productive zakat program has significantly increased the recipients’ human development index.
Moreover, using the CIBEST model, Mubarokah et al. (2018) conclude that the zakat empowerment
program increases the beneficiaries’ income. Center of Strategic Studies BAZNAS (2019), in its report,
shows that the empowerment program in BAZNAS has positively contributed to poverty alleviation
under several indicators: poverty line, kifayah, and nishab with rice and gold standard.
Muthmainnah (2011) and Hilyatin (2014) emphasize the role of zakat for women empowerment
considering the strategic role of women in family and society. This consciousness also has been realized
by the government, zakat administrators, and NGOs. They came up with a retail shop business program
that can empower women and maintain their role as mothers who nurture kids at home. It is expected
that the program can raise additional income and livelihood from the head of the family. Nonetheless,
this business also becomes the main income, especially when the mothers are single parents or her
husband has difficulty finding a decent job.
Susanti (2013) discusses how the E-Warong program, an initiative by Ministry of Social Service, can
access social and economic resources. Another research by Sriharini and Moh Abu Suhud (2017) shows
that Warung Beres, a program by Dompet Dhuafa in Gunung Kidul has positive economic impact for
poor peole in Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta. Nonetheless, most research on women empowerment
through retail shop business is done qualitatively and with limited samples. Hence there is a genuine
need to conduct research in this area that involves many participants with a quantitive approach.
An Overview of Zmart Program
Zmart is a micro retail shop empowerment program that BAZNAS initiates. This program aims to
enhance the capacity of the micro retail shop owners to alleviate them from poverty. In this regard,
BAZNAS has structured zakat fund into this program to give inclusive financing facility, capacity
building, assistantship and mentoring, and opportunity for market enlargement. In addition, this
program also allows the participant access the technology to increase customer satisfaction.
There are two kinds of Zmart in this empowerment model: Zmart Point and Zmart Distribution
Center. Zmart points are micro-retail shops that are owned by mustahik and become the main locus
intervention. In contrast, Zmart Distribution Center is a cooperative designed to increase the market
competitiveness of participants by being the main distributor for Zmart points. In addition, this model
also allows the surrounding micro business in the neighborhood to join this program by becoming the
supplier. Fig. 1 illustrates the model of the Zmart program.
The Zmart program is implemented in three different stages: preparation, implementation, and
monitoring & evaluation. There are two main activities in the preparation stage, namely assessment and
program socialization to the targeted participant. Assessment is conducted to meticulously choose the
right participant based on the asnaf and the commitment to join the program. Meanwhile, the
socialization process is obtained to ensure that the participant is well aware of program regulation and
ready for the consequence if they are joining. Afterward, the participant will enter the implementation
stage consisting of various activities as illustrated by the following table. The third stage is monitoring
and evaluation. BAZNAS staff will conduct impact evaluation using several methods such as Social
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Swandaru, R., Rizkiningsih, P., & Kuswanda, D. (Zmart: Poverty Alleviation and Women Empowerment Program...)
Return on Investment, Sustainable Livelihood Impact Approach, BAZNAS Prosperity Index, etc.
Having this evaluation allows BAZNAS to improve its program.
Fig. 1. Zmart Empowerment Model
Table 1. Zmart Implementation Activities
No
Activities
Description
1
Basic Training
Foundational capacity building that highlights the program structure,
comprehension on zakat, and ended with participant pledge
2
Shop Renovation
The shop is being renovated to restore if there is any decay or damage. It is
also being painted with Zmart branding
3
Capital Assistance
The participant gets capital assistance in the form of money, goods or
commodity, and types of equipment (i.e., shelf)
4
Zmart Mobile Instalation
Each Zmart will receive Zmart mobile application system that allows
transaction recording and producing automatic transaction bill
5
Online Payment
Partnership Program
Based on the area, the participant may have the opportunity to join an online
payment partnership program to increase their income
6
Modern Retail Shop
Management Training
It is a capacity building on financial management, store management,
motivation, and entrepreneurship
7
Social and Spiritual
Activities
These activities help the participant to increase their knowledge about Islam
and bring impact to society via social giving to the surrounding community
9
Business Mentorship &
Assistantship
Regularly, the area program supervisor will visit each Zmart to listen and
offer solutions for the challenges they face.
10
Supply Integration with
Distribution Center
This activity allows the participant to get competitive commodity prices and
enable online orders to replenish their goods.
Source: Authors Analysis (2021)
Until December 2020, there are 986 Zmart in 20 cities/regencies in 5 provinces in Indonesia. It
involves 743 women and 243 men as its participant, making a portion of 75.35% as the participant. It
clearly shows that Zmart is targeting women as its participant. The next part of this paper will elucidate
the impact of this program on poverty alleviation and women empowerment.
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Swandaru, R., Rizkiningsih, P., & Kuswanda, D. (Zmart: Poverty Alleviation and Women Empowerment Program...)
Fig. 2. Zmart Business Mentorship in Garut
Research Method
This research using both primary and secondary data to perform the analysis of Zmart program. The
primary data is collected by conducting a structured interview using a questionnaire towards the zakat
recipients under the Zmart program. The participant of this research is confined to those who only have
joining the program for at least six (6) months. Then the data is processed to measure the impact of the
Zmart program. The secondary data applied in this research are poverty line (PL) and had kifayah
standard (HK).
Poverty Alleviation Measurement
In order to measure the impact of Zmart program in poverty alleviation, this research using General
Poverty Indicator and BAZNAS Prosperity Index.
General Poverty Indicator (GPI)
General Poverty Indicator is used to evaluate poverty conditions under certain territorial. There are
5 (five) indicators that are used to evaluate the poverty condition in this research. Moreover, this
research is also measuring the time needed to escape poverty. The measurement of all indicators (H, I,
P1, P2 and P3) in this research are in the household unit.
a. Headcount Index (H) measures the total number of poor people in certain territorial. The
Headcount Index ranges between 0 and 1, where one means more people are poor, and 0 means
fewer people are poor in that territory. A good zakat distribution program will have less H value
after the program implementation than the initial condition.
b. Income Gap Ratio (I) is used to measure the income gap between people where we conduct this
research. If the I value is near to zero (0) it means the income gap is lessened and becomes equal.
A good zakat distribution program will have a lower I value after the program is implemented.
c. Poverty Gap (P1) shows the poverty depth and is measured with currency in IDR. The less value
of P1 and if it is closer to zero (0), the poverty depth is lessened. A good zakat distribution
program will have a lower P1 value after the program is implemented.
d. Sen index
(P2) shows the poverty severity within people in a certain area. It ranges between 0 and
1. The closer the value of P2 to zero (0) means the lower inequality among the poor.
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Swandaru, R., Rizkiningsih, P., & Kuswanda, D. (Zmart: Poverty Alleviation and Women Empowerment Program...)
e. FGT Index (P3) shows the poverty severity within people in a certain area. It ranges between 0
and 1. The closer the value of P3 to zero (0) means the poverty severity is lessened. A good zakat
distribution program will have a lower P3 value after the program is implemented
This research also evaluates the time needed for the participant to escape poverty using time taken
to exit poverty
formula
(Morduch, 1998)
.
The following discourse illustrates how to measure it.
󰇛󰇜󰇛󰇜

where: z is poverty line, y is income, g is income growth, i is total person in a population, and q is total
person with income y that is under the poverty line.
BAZNAS Prosperity Index (BPI)
BAZNAS Prosperity Index (BPI) is a part of the score for the National Zakat Index and consists of
three other indices, which are CIBEST Prosperity Index, Modified HDI Index, and Independence
Index. If BPI is closer to 1, it means the impact of distributed zakat is better. The explanations of each
index are as follows:
Table 2. BPI Score Range
Score Range
Description
0,00 0,20
Poor
0,21 0,40
Bad
0,41 0,60
Fair
0,61 0,80
Good
0,81 1,00
Excellent
Source: Center of Strategic Studies BAZNAS, 2019
1. CIBEST Prosperity Index
The CIBEST Model Beik and Arsyianti’s (2016) background is the idea that we need a
measurement tool for poverty that is in line with the point of view of Islamic economics. It is because
the mainstream measurement tool for poverty only measures poverty in a materialistic view. As a
matter of Sharia’s point of view, there is a kind of poverty that is more vital and needs to be
prioritized, named spiritual poverty. Departs from this idea, they developed a model that could
measure poverty in a materialistic view and in a spiritual view, which is widely known by CIBEST
Model.
a. Determining CIBEST Quadrant
CIBEST Model consists of 4 indices: welfare index, material poverty index, spiritual poverty
index, and absolute poverty index. The measurement is done by household analysis unit and divided
into six sub-groups: Head of Household, working adult, non-working adult, teenagers, children (7-13
years old), and children (0-6 years old). To know the poverty level of a household, CIBEST divides a
household into four categories.
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Swandaru, R., Rizkiningsih, P., & Kuswanda, D. (Zmart: Poverty Alleviation and Women Empowerment Program...)
Fig. 3. CIBEST Quadrant
Source: Beik and Arsyianti (2016)
First is the household in Quadrant-1. Household in this quadrant is categorized as prosperous
family. It means that the household can fulfill material and spiritual needs. The second is the
household in Quadrant-II. Household in this quadrant is categorized as a materially poor household.
In this quadrant, the household can fulfill its spiritual needs well, yet the household cannot meet its
material needs properly. The third is the household in Quadrant-III. Household in this quadrant is
categorized as a spiritually poor household. This household has fulfilled its material needs well, but it
has not been fulfilled in terms of spiritual needs. Fourth is the household in quadrant-IV. Household
in this quadrant is categorized as an absolute poor household. This means that household in this
quadrant is at the lowest poverty point because they cannot fulfill their spiritual and material needs.
Determining the quadrant of a household is done by calculating the indicator of material and
spiritual poverty first. The CIBEST model measures aspects of material poverty or Material Value
(MV) through 3 approaches. The approach is a periodic survey of basic material needs, the standard
poverty line according to Statistic Indonesia, and the limit of zakat-related assets (nishab). For the
standard poverty line, according to the Statistic Indonesia, it is necessary to make adjustments in
advance from per capita income to household income. The standard nishab is included because it is
the boundary between mustahik and muzakki. In the spiritual aspect, the CIBEST Model measures
each household based on 5 variables which are prayer, fasting, zakat and infaq, household
environment, and government policy. The five variables have a relationship with each other and
become a minimum standard that must be met related to the spiritual aspects.
Table 3. Score Indicator for Spiritual Needs
Variabel
Likert Scale
Poverty
Standard
1
2
3
4
5
Prayers
Blocking
others to
pray
Against the
concept of
prayer
Performing
obligatory
prayer but
not on
regular
basis
Always
performing
obligatory
prayer but not
in
congregational
prayer
Performing
congregational
prayer for
obligatory one
and perform
recommended
prayer
Average
score for
spiritualy
poor
household
is equal to
3 (SV=3)
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Swandaru, R., Rizkiningsih, P., & Kuswanda, D. (Zmart: Poverty Alleviation and Women Empowerment Program...)
Variabel
Likert Scale
Poverty
Standard
1
2
3
4
5
Fasting
Blocking
others to
undertake
fasting
Against the
concept of
fasting
Not fully
performing
obligatory
fasting
Performing
only
obligatory
fasting
Performing
obligatory and
recommendable
fasting
Zakat dan
Infak
Blocking
others to
pay
zakat and
infak
Against the
concept of
zakat and infak
Not paying
infak even
once in a
year
Paying zakat
al-fitr and zakat
al-maal
Paying zakat
al-fitr, zakat
almaal,
and infak
Houshold
Environment
Forbid
Ibaadah
Against
implementation
of ibaadah
Consider
ibaadah as
private
matter
Support
implementation
of
ibaadah
Creating
environment
which obligates
implementation
of ibaadah
Government
Policy
Forbid
Ibaadah
Against
implementation
of ibaadah
Consider
ibaadah as
private
matter
Support
implementation
of
ibaadah
Creating
environment
which obligates
implementation
of ibaadah
Source: Beik and Arsyianti (2016)
Likert scale is used to measure all five variables on spiritual needs. A range of number 1 to 5 is used
to fill in each variable. The higher the Likert scale, the better the fulfillment of spiritual needs for these
variables, and vice versa. If a household has a Spiritual Value (SV) equal to or smaller than 3, that
household is declared spiritually poor. The value of fulfilling the spiritual needs of each household
member is calculated using the formula below:
     
Where: Hi is actual value of household member i, Vpi is prayer value of household member i, Vfi is
Fasting value of household member i, Vzi is zakat and infaq value of household member i, Vhi is
household environment value of household member i, Vgi is government policy value of household
member i.
After Hi value is obtained, it is necessary to calculate the value of all household members to obtain
the spiritual value of the household. The formula for calculating the spiritual value of a household is as
below:



Where: SH is spiritual score for household member h and MH is total household member.
When MV and SV have been measured, the determination of the position of each household in the
CIBEST quadrant is measured by the combination of the actual MV and SV. An explanation regarding
the combination of MV and SV can be seen in the table below:
Table 4. Combination of Actual Household MV and SV
Actual Score
< MV Score
> MV Score
> Score SV
Spiritually rich, materially poor
(Quadrant II)
Spiritually and materially rich
(Quadrant I)
< Score SV
Spiritually and materially poor
(Quadrant IV)
Materially rich, spiritually poor
(Quadrant III)
Source: Beik and Arsyianti (2016)
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Swandaru, R., Rizkiningsih, P., & Kuswanda, D. (Zmart: Poverty Alleviation and Women Empowerment Program...)
b. Calculation for CIBEST Prosperity Index
After the quadrant of each household has been determined, the next step is to calculate CIBEST
Prosperity Index. CIBEST Prosperity Index consists of Material Poverty Index, Spiritual Poverty
Index, Absolute Poverty Index, and Welfare Index. The calculation of each index can be seen as
follows.
Table 5. CIBEST Calculation
CIBEST Prosperity
Index
Formula
Note
Material poverty
 
Pm : material poverty index; 0 ≤ Pm ≤ 1
Mp : number of household who is materially poor but spiritually rich
N : total population of household observed
Spiritual poverty
 
Ps : spiritual poverty index; 0 ≤ Ps ≤ 1
Sp : number of household who is spiritually poor but materially rich
N : total population of household observed
Absolute poverty
 
Pa : absolute poverty index; 0 ≤ Pa ≤ 1
Ap : number of household who is materially and spiritually poor
N : total population of household observed
Welfare
W : indeks kesejahteraan; 0 ≤ w ≤1
w : number of welfare household (materially and spiritually rich)
N : total population of household observed
Source: Beik and Arsyianti (2016)
2. Modified Human Development Index (HDI)
The second composite index of BPI is the modified HDI. This index can measure the welfare of
observed households. In this index, measurements are in terms of health and education. After the
scores of the two indices are obtained, the next step is to weigh the two scores. The weighting will
provide a modified HDI index calculated by the following formula: HDI: (0.5 x education index) +
(0.5 x health index).
3. Independence Index
The measurement of the independence index of observed households is done by identifying
whether or not observed households have a permanent job, business and savings. The Likert scale is
used to measure the independence of the observed households.
Table 6. Likert Scale for Independence Index
Criteria
(1= very weak, 2= weak, 3= moderate, 4= strong, 5= very strong)
1
2
3
4
5
Doesn’t have
any job or business
Have a job but
non-permanent
Have a job or own
a business
Have a job or own
a business, and have
savings
Have a job, own
a business, and
have savings
Source: (Center of Strategic Studies BAZNAS, 2019)
Women Empowerment Measurement
This research using Gender Related Development Index in order to measure the impact of women
empowerment in Zmart program.
The Gender Related Development Index (GDI)
The Gender Related Development Index (GDI) is calculated by comparing Human Development
Index between women and men.
 

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The HDI is calculated using the following indicator:
Table 7. Indicator for Human Development Index
Dimension
Indicator
Long and Healty Life
Life expectancy at birth, male and female
Knowledge
1. Expected years of schooling, male and female
2. Mean years of schooling, male and female
A decent standard of living
Expected income, male and female
The following are the interpretations of GDI,
1. If the result is closer to 100, then the gap or inequality between women and men is narrowing
2. GDI < 100, women achievement < men achievement
3. GDI = 100, women achievement is equal to men achievement
4. GDI> 100, women achievement > men achievement
Results and Discussion
The following discourse will elaborate on the impact of the Zmart program on the participant’s
welfare using the General Poverty Indicators & BAZNAS Prosperity Index. Moreover, it will also
evaluate the impact of this program on gender empowerment using the Gender-Related Development
Index (GDI)
The Impact of Zmart on Poverty Alleviation
The participant’s welfare level is measured using the General Poverty Index and BAZNAS
Prosperity Index. Participant’s income is measured up against two different standards: poverty line
(IDR 440.583 per capita/month) and had kifayah (IDR 772.088 per capita/month).
Table 8. Zmart Program General Poverty Indicator
General Poverty Indicator
Poverty Line
Had Kifayah
H
Before
0.60
0.98
After
0.22
0.72
-0.38
-0.26
I
Before
0.35
0.49
After
0.52
0.35
0.17
-0.14
P1
Before
616,985
1,510,903
After
907,607
1,096,130
290,622
(414,773)
P2
Before
0.36
0.67
After
0.15
0.43
-0.21
-0.24
P3
Before
0.13
0.29
After
0.07
0.14
-0.06
-0.15
Source: Authors Analysis (2021)
The GPI calculation shows that overall, there is a decline in H value throughout the PL and HK
standards, which are 38% and 26%. Therefore, we can infer that the Zmart program has eradicated the
participant from poverty.
The above table also shows that the income gap (I) based on had kifayah standard is declining by
14%. This result shows that zakat has successfully narrowed the income gap among the observed
community. However, the I value against the poverty line standard after the program implementation
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is observed higher in comparison to the preliminary condition. It happens because the incremental
income of the observed participant that is far under poverty line is lower than the observed participant
that lies near the poverty line. Moreover, there are many more participants who live far under the
poverty line compared to participants who live near the poverty line. This aligns with the increase of
P1 value that being measured against the poverty line, whereas other P1 values for had kifayah.
The poverty depth that is represented by P2 and P3 show a decrease across the standard that are
applied in this research. It shows that the Zmart program has shallowing the poverty depth among the
observed participant. In addition, the time taken to exit poverty using Morduch (1998) shows that the
Zmart program has shortened the time for the participant to escape poverty across the standard
applied, as shown in the table below.
Table 9. Time Taken to Exit Poverty Zmart
Time Taken to Exit
Poverty
Poverty Line
Had
Kifayah
Without Zakat
8,44
18,08
With Zakat
4,12
9,05
Source: Authors Analysis (2021)
The calculation of the BAZNAS Prosperity Index also has shown that the Zmart program has a
good impact on poverty alleviation. The impact of this program is observed at 0.68 (Good) when it is
measured against the poverty line. The following table showcases the detailed result.
Table 10. BAZNAS Prosperity Index Calculation Result
No.
Poverty Standard
CIBEST
Prosperity Index
Modified
HDI
Independence
Index
Impact of
Zakat
1
Poverty Line
0,75
0,50
0,68
0,68
2
Had Kifayah
0,25
0,50
0,68
0,43
Source: Authors Analysis (2021)
In addition, the following table shows that about 78% of the observed participant are in Quadrant I
(prosperous both in material and spiritual), and 22% are in Quadrant II (prosperous in spiritual but
poor in material). There is no observed participant in Quadrant III and IV.
Table 11. BAZNAS Prosperity Index Based on Poverty Line
CIBEST Welfare Index
0,75
Quadrant*)
Quadrant I
78,00%
Quadrant II
22,00%
Quadrant III
0,00%
Quadrant IV
0,00%
Modified HDI
0,50
Index
Health
0,43
Education
0,38
Independence Index
0,68
Variable*)
Regular income
100%
Non regular income
22,00%
Leased asset
0,00%
Savings
72,00%
BAZNAS Prosperity Index
0,68
*) shows the percentage of the participant
Source: Authors Analysis (2021)
Then, the calculation of modified HDI shows the Zmart program is fairly good in increasing the
HDI with a score of 0.5 where the health index at 0.43 and education index at 0.38. Lastly, the
Jurnal REKSA: Rekayasa Keuangan, Syariah dan Audit
47
ISSN 2089-6581 (print) | 2614-3720 (online)
Vol. 9, No. 1, Maret 2022, pp. 37-49
Swandaru, R., Rizkiningsih, P., & Kuswanda, D. (Zmart: Poverty Alleviation and Women Empowerment Program...)
independence index is 0.68 (Good). Based on the observation, all of the participants have already had a
regular income and on top of that, about 22% of participants have a non-regular income. It is also
observed that 72% participant has savings.
The following table represents the result of the CIBEST Index using the had kifayah standard. The
CIBEST Index measured up against the had kifayah is 0.25, with 28% of the observed participant in
Quadrant I and 72% in Quadrant II. There is not any participant in Quadrant III and IV.
Table 12. CIBEST Welfare Index Result
CIBEST Index Based on Had Kifayah
0,25
Quadrant*)
Quadrant I
28,00%
Quadrant II
72,00%
Quadrant III
0,00%
Quadrant IV
0,00%
*) shows the percentage of the participant
The Impact of Zmart on Women Empowerment
This research compares the human development index in micro-scale between the male and female
group to understand the gender empowerment impact between the two groups. The GDI value is an
HDI ratio between females and males before and after the Zmart program implementation. The
following table shows an increase in GDI value from 75.97 to 139.32. It means that there is significant
emancipation for the female group compared to the male group in the program. In other words, these
results show that the Zmart program favorably empowers women as it is shown that the GDI value
exceeds 100 points.
Table 13. Gender Development Index Estimation
Index
Before Zmart
Implementation
Before Zmart
Implementation
HDI Male
35,34
25,08
HDI Female
26,85
34,94
Gender Development Index
75,97
139,32
Source: Authors Analysis (2021)
Conclusion
Zmart program is a micro retail shop empowerment program using zakat funds to alleviate poverty,
especially in urban areas. The empowerment of micro-retail shops is relevant to be implemented in the
midst of the increasing number of modern retail stores that have eroded the portion of the micro-retail
shop, which is the basis of life for the small community. By implementing the Zmart program, it is
hoped that micro-retail shop entrepreneurs will be able to increase their capacity to increase their
livelihood. Zakat, a part of Islamic social finance, can play an active role in encouraging inclusive and
sustainable growth. Zmart program is also very possible to be replicated either using zakat funds or
using other social funds. In addition, this program also empowers women who are categorized as
mustahik to increase their quality of life.
The findings in this research show that the Zmart program has a Good impact on their participant in
poverty alleviation, as illustrated by the BAZNAS Prosperity Index score of 0.68 based on the poverty
line standard.The GPI calculation shows that overall, there is a decline in H value throughout the PL
and HK standards, which are 38% and 26%. Therefore, we can infer that the Zmart program has
eradicated the participant from poverty. The income gap is narrowing, and the poverty depth is also
lower after the program intervention.
In the case of Zmart’s impact in women empowerment, the Gender Development Index (GDI) in
the Zmart program shows an increasing value from 75.97 to 139.32. It means that there is significant
emancipation for the female group in comparison to the male group in the program.
48
ISSN 2089-6581 (print) | 2614-3720 (online)
Jurnal REKSA: Rekayasa Keuangan, Syariah dan Audit
Vol. 9, No. 1, Maret 2022, pp. 37-49
Swandaru, R., Rizkiningsih, P., & Kuswanda, D. (Zmart: Poverty Alleviation and Women Empowerment Program...)
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Article
Full-text available
This research attempts to analyze the role of productive-based zakat program in reducing poverty level of mustahik (zakat recipient) households from the perspective of material and spiritual dimensions. The study utilizes primary data which is obtained from interview through questionnaire in DKI Jakarta and Bogor Regency. 221 respondents are selected and interviewed as research samples. They are zakat beneficiaries managed by BAZIS DKI Jakarta and Dompet Dhuafa. The primary data collection was conducted on February until May 2015. CIBEST model comprising four indices is used as tool of analysis. These indices are welfare index, material poverty index, spiritual poverty index and absolute poverty index. It is found that the presence of zakat utilization program is able to increase welfare index of the mustahik by 96.8 percent. The material poverty index and absolute poverty index can also be reduced by 30.15 percent and 91.30 percent, respectively. Unpredictable result occurs on spiritual poverty index in which there is an increase of two households living under spiritual poverty. It means that these two zakat recipient households suffer weakening spiritual values despite materially better-off in the presence of zakat program. Keywords: CIBEST model, Poverty, Productive-based zakat program JEL Classification: O150, R290, Z120, Z190
Article
Full-text available
The core principles of Islam lay great emphasis on social justice, inclusion, and sharing of resources between the haves and the have nots. Islamic finance addresses the issue of "financial inclusion" or "access to finance" from two directions -- one through promoting risk-sharing contracts that provide a viable alternative to conventional debt-based financing, and the other through specific instruments of redistribution of the wealth among the society. Use of risk-sharing financing instruments can offer Shariah-compliant microfinance, financing for small and medium enterprises, and micro-insurance to enhance access to finance. And redistributive instruments such as Zakah, Sadaqat, Waqf, and Qard-al-hassan complement risk-sharing instruments to target the poor sector of society to offer a comprehensive approach to eradicating poverty and to build a healthy and vibrant economy. Instruments offered by Islam have strong historical roots and have been applied throughout history in various Muslim communities. The paper identifies gaps currently existing in Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) countries on each front, that is, Shariah-compliant micro-finance and financing for small and medium enterprises and the state of traditional redistributive instruments. The paper concludes that Islam offers a rich set of instruments and unconventional approaches, which, if implemented in true spirit, can lead to reduced poverty and inequality in Muslim countries plagued by massive poverty. Therefore, policy makers in Muslim countries who are serious about enhancing access to finance or"financial inclusion"should exploit the potential of Islamic instruments to achieve this goal and focus on improving the regulatory and financial infrastructure to promote an enabling environment.
Sudah Saatnya Integrasi Keuangan Komersial dan Sosial Syariah Diberlakukan
  • Aldi Andika
  • Annisa
Andika, Aldi, & Annisa. (2020). Sudah Saatnya Integrasi Keuangan Komersial dan Sosial Syariah Diberlakukan. Komite Nasional Keuangan Syariah. https://knks.go.id/berita/247/sudah-saatnyaintegrasi-keuangan-komersial-dan-sosial-syariah-diberlakukan?category=1
Booklet Survei Angkatan Kerja Nasional Agustus 2020
  • Statistik Badan Pusat
Badan Pusat Statistik. (2020). Booklet Survei Angkatan Kerja Nasional Agustus 2020. Badan Pusat Statistik.
Laporan Ekonomi dan Keuangan Syariah
  • Bank Indonesia
Bank Indonesia. (2020). Laporan Ekonomi dan Keuangan Syariah 2019. In Bank Indonesia, Bank Sentral Republik Indonesia. https://www.bi.go.id/id/publikasi/laporan-tahunan/ekonomi-dankeuangan-syariah/Pages/Laporan-Ekonomi-dan-Keuangan-Syariah-2019.aspx
Rancangan Teknokratik Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Nasional 2020 -2024 : Indonesia Berpenghasilan Menengah -Tinggi Yang Sejahtera, Adil, dan Berkesinambungan
  • Bappenas
Bappenas. (2019). Rancangan Teknokratik Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Nasional 2020 -2024 : Indonesia Berpenghasilan Menengah -Tinggi Yang Sejahtera, Adil, dan Berkesinambungan. In Kementerian PPN/ Bappenas. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004
Pemberdayaan Perempuan Melalui Pendayagunaan Zakat
  • D L Hilyatin
Hilyatin, D. L. (2014). Pemberdayaan Perempuan Melalui Pendayagunaan Zakat. Jurnal Studi Islam, Gender Dan Anak, 9(2), 124-147.
Poverty, economic growth, and average exit time
  • J Morduch
Morduch, J. (1998). Poverty, economic growth, and average exit time. Economics Letters, 59(3), 385-390. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0165-1765(98)00070-6