ArticlePDF Available

Ivanova, I. Factors which affect university students involvement and success in online education. Лингвистични проблеми, год.II, кн. 2. Научни текстове от юбилейната международна конференция "Филологията - традиция и предизвикателства в новата реалност" по повод 30-годишнината от създаването на Филологическия факултет при ЮЗУ "Неофит Рилски", стр. 388-397. Благоевград: Университетско издетелство "Неофит Рилски". ISSN: 2682-9673.

Abstract

The shift to online education due to the Covid-19 pandemic posed new challenges to learners and educators, especially in higher education contexts characterized by traditional instructional models and lack of experience in distance learning formats. The need to harness the full potential of online learning has necessitated a better understanding of the factors which affect students’ performance and increase their chances of success. The article discusses the results of a survey conducted among 56 MA students of foreign language teaching pedagogy from a Bulgarian state university. The impact of five groups of factors is investigated: learners’ personality factors, personal experience of online learning, course content and format, lecturers’ qualities and attitudes, and features of the online learning environment. The data analysis shows that after a year of distance learning, students are still in the process of getting accustomed to studying in an online environment, and although different factors affect this process of transition, students’ involvement and success in learning do not seem to be negatively affected.
ЛИНГВИСТИЧНИ ПРОБЛЕМИ
LINGUISTIC PROBLEMS
MS
Година IІ, кн. 2
Year ІІ, Issue 2
2
НАУЧНИ ТЕКСТОВЕ
ОТ ЮБИЛЕЙНАТА МЕЖДУНАРОДНА НАУЧНА КОНФЕРЕНЦИЯ
ФИЛОЛОГИЯТА ТРАДИЦИЯ И ПРЕДИЗВИКАТЕЛСТВА
В НОВАТА РЕАЛНОСТ“ (7-9 ОКТОМВРИ 2021 Г. )
ПО ПОВОД 30-ГОДИШНИНАТА
ОТ СЪЗДАВАНЕТО НА ФИЛОЛОГИЧЕСКИЯ ФАКУЛТЕТ
ПРИ ЮГОЗАПАДНИЯ УНИВЕРСИТЕТНЕОФИТ РИЛСКИ
Благоевград, 2021
Изданието е отпечатано с финансовата подкрепа на ФондНаучни
изследвания по проект за финансиране на Юбилейна международна научна
конференцияФилологията традиция и предизвикателства в новата
реалност“ (7-9.10.2021 г.), договор КП-06-МНФ/11.
Публикуваните текстове са преминали през анонимно рецензиране.
Редакционна колегия
Editors
Биляна Тодорова отг. ред.
Гергана Падарева
-Илиева отг.
ред.
Bilyana Todorova editor in chief
Gergana Padareva
-Ilieva
editor in chief
Мария Багашева
София Мицова
Милена Накова
-Петрова
Красимира Хаджиева
Наделина Ивова
Любка Ненова
Петър Цонев
Радослав Цонев
Антони Стоилов
Борислав Попов
Зарина Маркова
Mariya Bagasheva
Sofiya Mitsova
Milena Nakova
-Petrova
Krasimira Hadzhieva
Nadelina Ivova
Lyubka Nenova
Petar Tsonev
Radoslav Tsonev
Antoni Stoilov
Borislav Popov
Zarina Markova
Редактор на английски език: Мария Багашева
Предпечатна подготовка: Лъчезар Перчеклийски
Авторите носят отговорност за оригиналността на приетите за публикуване
текстове.
Лингвистични проблеми ІІ
Университетско издателство Неофит Рилски Благоевград
ISSN: 2682-9673
ПечатницаИнфовижън“, Ловеч
http://www.info-vision.info
СЪДЪРЖАНИЕ
Ъ
ЪРЖАНИ
ИСТОРИЯ НА ЕЗИКА. ДИАЛЕКТОЛОГИЯ
Диана Иванова. ЗА ТЪРГОВСКИТЕ ПИСМА И ТЪРГОВСКАТА ТЕРМИНОЛО-
ГИЯ В ПИСМЕННИК ОБЩЕПОЛЕЗЕН (1835) НА ХРИСТАКИ ПАВЛО-
ВИЧ……………………………………………………………………....................
7
Надка Николова. ЛЕКСИКА И ТЕРМИНОЛОГИЯ В ПРЕВОДА НА АНАСТАС
ГРАНИТСКИЗА ТРЪГОВСКО ПИСМОПИСАНИЕОТ 1858 Г. ………
..….
14
Любка Ненова. ТЕОДОРИНИТЕ МИТАРСТВА В РЪКОПИСИТЕ ОТ ЗОГРАФ-
СКАТА СВЕТА ОБИТЕЛ………………………………………………………
.
26
Теодора Г. Илиева. ХАПАКСИТЕ В ТВОРЧЕСТВОТО НА СТОЯН МИХАЙЛОВ-
СКИ (БУКВИ А М)……………………………………………………………
.....
35
Магдалина Домозетска. ИМЕНА НА ЛИЦА В ЦАРСТВЕНИКАНА ХРИСТА-
КИ ПАВЛОВИЧ (С ОГЛЕД НА СЛОВООБРАЗУВАНЕТО)…………...………
45
Сенем Конедарева. ЕВИДЕНЦИАЛНИТЕ ФОРМИ ВЪВ ВЛАХО-БЪЛГАРСКАТА
КНИЖНИНА ОТ ПЕРИОДА КРАЯ НА XIV – XV В. ……………………..
…..
55
Снежана Александрова. НАЗВАНИЯ ЗА ГОРНО ЖЕНСКО ОБЛЕКЛО В БЪЛ-
ГАРСКИТЕ ДИАЛЕКТИ (ЛЕКСИКAЛНО-СЕМАНТИЧНИ ОСОБЕНО-
СТИ)…………………………………………………………………………
68
Александра Димитрова. НАРОДЕН ТРАДИЦИОНЕН ЕТИКЕТ В БАНСКО……....
79
МОРФОЛОГИЯ И СИНТАКСИС НА БЪЛГАРСКИЯ ЕЗИК
Красимира Чакърова, Радостина Колева. ЗНАЧЕНИЕТО МЪЖКОЛИЧНОСТ В
СВЕТЛИНАТА НА ФУНКЦИОНАЛНО-
СЕМАНТИЧНАТА ГРАМАТИКА...
89
Милена Видралска. ВРЪЗКАТА МЕЖДУ ЛЕКСИКАЛНО-ГРАМАТИЧНИТЕ
ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ ТРАНЗИТИВНОСТ~
ИНТРАНЗИТИВНОСТ И КАТЕ-
ГОРИЯТА ЗАЛОГ В СЪВРЕМЕННИЯ БЪЛГАРСКИ ЕЗИК……...
………….
100
Татьяна Лоикова-Насенко. ОСОБЕННОСТИ СЕМАНТИКИ БЕСПРЕФИКСА-
ЛЬНЫХ ПЕРВИЧНЫХ ГЛАГОЛОВ ДВИЖЕНИЯ В БОЛГАРСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ
(НА ПРИМЕРЕ КОРПУСНЫХ ДАННЫХ)…………….……………...
...............
110
Радослав Цонев. THE CORRELATIVE (DISJUNCTIVE) CONJUNCTIONS IN BUL-
GARIAN COLLOQUIAL SPEECH …………………………..………………
124
Мирела Дурчова. РАЗГОВОРНИТЕ СЪЮЗИ АМА, АМИ И ПЪК В ТЕТРАЛО-
ГИЯТА НА ДИМИТЪР ТАЛЕВ
……………………………….………………...
133
ЛЕКСИКОЛОГИЯ И ЛЕКСИКОГРАФИЯ. СЛОВООБРАЗУВАНЕ
Анна Чолева-Димитрова. МЪЖКИТЕ ЛИЧНИ ИМЕНА В НАЧАЛОТО НА 21.
ВЕК
………………………………………………………………………………….
142
Yana Manova-Georgieva. ON MAGIC AND NAMING (AN OVERVIEW OF TERRY
PRATCHETT’S “WYRD SISTERS” CHARACTONYMS)
…………………..…..
152
Ана Кочева. ЗООНИМИ СЪС ЗНАЧЕНИЕКОТКА В БЪЛГАРСКАТА ФРА-
ЗЕОЛОГИЯ (НА ЕВРОПЕЙСКИ ФОН)
………………………………………….
159
Кристияна Симеонова. ТЕРМИНОЛОГИЧЕН ЕНЦИКЛОПЕДИЧЕН РЕЧНИК ПО
ИКОНОМИЧЕСКИ НАУКИ ЕДНО НОВО ДОСТИЖЕНИЕ НА БЪЛГАР-
СКАТА ТЕРМИНОЛОГИЧНА ЛЕКСИКОГРАФИЯ
…………………………...
174
Елена Крейчова, Надежда Михайлова-Сталянова. СЛАВЯНСКИТЕ ДВУЕЗИЧ-
НИ РЕЧНИЦИ В КОНТЕКСТА НА ЛЕКСИКОГРАФСКАТА ПРАКТИКА И
ФИЛОЛОГИЧЕСКОТО ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ
……………………………………….
182
Робертино Стоилов. АОРИСТНИЯТ СУФИКС S В БЪЛГАРСКИЯ ЕЗИК
МАРКЕР ЗАДРУГОСТИЛИ СТИЛИСТИЧНО ОЦВЕТЯВАНЕ
……………
189
Благовест Тодоров. APPROACHES TO TRANSLATING NEWLY-COINED TER-
MINOLOGY AND THE PROBLEMS NEOLOGISMS POSE
……………………
198
СЪПОСТАВИТЕЛНО ЕЗИКОЗНАНИЕ
Milena Milenova. STRESS EFFECTS ON THE SPECTRAL MEAN OF THE VOICE-
LESS ALVEOLAR SIBILANTS IN BULGARIAN AND MODERN GREEK
205
Весела Чергова. СЪПОСТАВИТЕЛНИ БЕЛЕЖКИ ЗА ЛЕКСИКАЛНОТО АКЦЕН-
ТУВАНЕ В БЪЛГАРСКИЯ И ПОРТУГАЛСКИЯ ЕЗИК
……………………….
214
Жанет Соломон. ИЗБРАНИ СТРУКТУРНИ МОДЕЛИ НА СЪСТАВНО ГЛАГОЛ-
НО СКАЗУЕМО В ТУРСКИЯ ЕЗИК И ПРЕВОДНИТЕ ИМ ЕКВИВАЛЕНТИ
В БЪЛГАРСКИЯ ЕЗИК. ПАРАЛЕЛНО-СТРУКТУРЕН АНАЛИЗ…………….
225
Тијана Балек. ВИДСКЕ И СЕМАНТИЧКЕ КАРАКТЕРИСТИКЕ ГЛАГОЛА ИЗ
ТЕМАТСКОГ ПОЉАТЕМПЕРАТУРА /–/” У РУСКОМ ЈЕЗИКУ У
З КРА-
ТАК ОСВРТ НА МОГУЋЕ ЕКВИВАЛЕНТЕ У СРПСКОМ ЈЕЗИКУ
…………
235
Соня Христова. УНИВЕРСАЛЬНОСТЬ ВЕЖЛИВОСТИ В АСПЕКТЕ СОЦИО-
ЛИНГВИСТИЧЕСКИХ МАРКЕРОВ И РЕЧЕВОГО ЭТИКЕТА РУССКОЙ И
АНГЛИЙСКОЙ АРИСТОКРАТИИ XIX ВЕКА (СОПОСТАВИТЕЛЬНЫЙ
АНАЛИЗ НА ПРИМЕР
АХ ФОРМУЛ ИЗВИНЕНИЯ И МАРКЕРА
«СОЦИАЛЬНОИЕРАРХИЧЕСКАЯ ПРИНАДЛЕЖНОСТЬ»)
…………….....
242
Емилия Авгинова-Николова. СИМВОЛИКАТА НА ВОДАТА У БЪЛГАРИТЕ И
ГЪРЦИТЕ И ОТРАЖЕНИЕТО Ѝ В ЕЗИКА……………………....................
....
251
Марія Онищук. ЗІСТАВНА ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКА ВІДТВОРЕННЯ ПРИКМЕТ-
НИКІВ НА ПОЗНАЧЕННЯ……………………………………………………
….
259
СТИЛИСТИКА. ПРАГМАТИКА. МЕДИИ И КОМУНИКАЦИИ
Йовка Тишева. ЗА СИСТЕМАТИЗАЦИЯТА И ФУНКЦИИТЕ НА ПРАГМАТИЧ-
НИТЕ МАРКЕРИ
…………………………………………………………………..
269
Петя Осенова. МЕТАФОРИТЕ НА ПАНДЕМИЯТА В БЪЛГАРСКАТА ПАРЛА-
МЕНТАРНА РЕЧ: КОРПУСНО ИЗСЛЕДВАНЕ
………………………………...
279
Katerina Hristozova. FORMALITY OF LANGUAGE MEASURING FORMALITY
IN DIPLOMATIC CORRESPONDENCE
………………………………………….
287
Olena Klymentova, Olha Soroka. UKRAINIAN RELIGIOUS MARKETING:
FEATURES OF COMMUNICATION……………………………………
………..
296
Dominika Kubišová. SOCIAL MEDIA PERMANENT CAMPAIGN: CROATIAN HDZ
IN JULY 2021……………………………………………………………………….
302
Христина Христова. МЕДИЙНИ НАРАТИВИ В СТРУКТУРАТА НА КОРПОРА-
ТИВНИТЕ САЙТОВЕ
……………………………………………………………..
309
Нихал Йозерган. ЦИВИЛИЗАЦИОННИЯТ ДИСКУРС НА ТУРСКИЯ ДЪРЖАВЕН
ГЛАВА РЕДЖЕП ТАЙИП ЕРДОГАН ПРЕЗ ПОГЛЕДА НА ОСНОВНИТЕ
КОЛУМНИСТИ В ТУРСКИТЕ МЕЙНСТРИЙМ ВСЕКИДНЕВНИЦИ И
ДРУГИ МЕДИИ В ПЕРИОДА 2010 – 2020
………………………………………
321
МЕТОДИКА НА ОБУЧЕНИЕТО ПО БЪЛГАРСКИ И ЧУЖД ЕЗИК
Едина Жолчак-Димитрова. НЯКОИ ОСОБЕНОСТИ НА УНГАРСКИЯ ЕЗИК В
СВЕТЛИНАТА НА ГРЕШКИТЕ, ДОПУСКАНИ ОТ ИЗУЧАВАЩИ УНГАР-
СКИ ЕЗИК БЪЛГАРИ
……………………………………………………………..
332
Елена Руневска. ОБУЧЕНИЕТО ПО БЪЛГАРСКИ ЕЗИК НА БЕСАРАБСКИ БЪЛ-
ГАРИ ОТ ТЕРИТОРИЯТА НА ДНЕШНА УКРАЙНА КАТО ЧУЖД ИЛИ
КАТО РОДЕН?...............................................................................................
340
Мира Душкова, Ния Пенева. ПРИЛАГАНЕ НА ТЕХНОЛОГИЯТА НА РОЛЕ-
ВАТА ИГРА
В ОНЛАЙН ОБУЧЕНИЕТО ПО БЪЛГАРСКИ ЕЗИК НА
ЧУЖДЕСТРАННИ СТУДЕНТИ
…………………………………………………
348
Айля Илиязова. ДА МОДИФИЦИРАМЕ ИНТЕЛИГЕНТНОСТТА СИ: РЕФЛЕК-
СИЯ И КОМУНИКАЦИОННА СРЕДА………………………………………….
357
Stella Zhivkova. IMPLEMENTING VIDEO GAME IMMERSION AS A TEACHING
TOOL AND CREATING A VIDEO TEXTBOOK ON MIMETICS: JAPANESE
GITAIGO ONOMATOPOEIC WORDS MADE EASIER
………………………...
371
Гергана Герова. THE ONLINE INSTRUCTION CHALLENGE AND YOUNG
TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS
……………………………………………………...
379
Ирина Иванова. FACTORS WHICH AFFECT UNIVERSITY STUDENTS’ INVOL-
VEMENT AND SUCCESS IN ONLINE EDUCATION…………
………………..
388
Магдалена Маркова. НЯКОИ КОМУНИКАТИВНИ АСПЕКТИ ПРИ МОНОЛО-
ГИЧНИ И ДИАЛОГИЧНИ СИТУАЦИИ НА ФРЕНСКИ ЕЗИК КАТО
ЧУЖД
В РАЗЛИЧНИ СРЕДИ НА ВЗАИМОДЕЙСТВИЕ
………………………………
398
Антонина Тверицкая. БЪЛГАРСКИЯТ РАЗГОВОРЕН КЛУБ В МОСКВА: НЕЩО
ПОВЕЧЕ ОТ ЧАСОВЕ ПО ЧУЖД ЕЗИК
………………………………………..
407
Mimoza Hasani Pllana. INNOVATIONS AND CHALLENGES IN E-LEARNING OF
PHILOLOGY
………………………………………………………………………..
415
Ирена Димова-Генчева. ИГРИТЕ С ПАМЕТТА В ЧАСА НА КЛАСА……………...
420
388
FACTORS WHICH AFFECT UNIVERSITY STUDENTS’
INVOLVEMENT AND SUCCESS IN ONLINE EDUCATION
Irina IVANOVA, Konstantin Preslavsky University of Shumen
Abstract: The shift to online education due to the Covid-19 pandemic posed
new challenges to learners and educators, especially in higher education contexts
characterized by traditional instructional models and lack of experience in distance
learning formats. The need to harness the full potential of online learning has neces-
sitated a better understanding of the factors which affect students’ performance and
increase their chances of success. The article discusses the results of a survey con-
ducted among 56 MA students of foreign language teaching pedagogy from a Bul-
garian state university. The impact of five groups of factors is investigated: learners’
personality factors, personal experience of online learning, course content and for-
mat, lecturers’ qualities and attitudes, and features of the online learning environ-
ment. The data analysis shows that after a year of distance learning, students are still
in the process of getting accustomed to studying in an online environment, and alt-
hough different factors affect this process of transition, students’ involvement and
success in learning do not seem to be negatively affected.
Key words: online education, university students, involvement, success, fac-
tors
Introduction
More than a year since the forced transition to full-scale online educa-
tion, researchers have started to gain some initial insights into the nature of
change brought about by the Covid-19 pandemic and its consequences in the
field of education. With the imposed lockdowns traditional face-to-face
teaching was replaced first by asynchronous distance learning, and then,
with the full inclusion of modern technologies and electronic resources, by
synchronous online teaching. In search of an optimal environment that does
not reduce the quality and efficiency of the tuition, and does not limit the
possibilities of effective communication and learning, universities first start-
ed using educational platforms such as Microsoft Teams and Google Class-
room, and then began to create their own or adapt existing learning man-
agement systems (LMS) such as Moodle or Blackboard. Some universities
created their own LMS, whose functionalities were customized for the pur-
poses of teaching and learning in the particular universities. In view of these
circumstances and in order to guarantee the quality of online education, it is
important to continually evaluate the effectiveness of the respective LMS by
getting regular feedback from both students and lecturers. Hence, the pur-
pose of the present study is to examine university students’ attitudes to one
of the most important aspects of online education - its effectiveness and the
factors that influence it. This is particularly important with regard to courses
taught in a foreign language, as this mode of instruction increases the poten-
tial challenges in communication, which might negatively affect students’
willingness to participate in online classes or curb their enthusiasm to learn.
389
Previous research in the field
The effectiveness of online courses in higher education in comparison
with traditional face-to-face ones has been the focus of a number of studies
since the appearance of online education (Means et al, 2013; Bignoux &
Sund, 2018). For example, the data by Soffer and Nachmias (2018) obtained
from comparing face-to-face and online courses show that based on both
objective and subjective indicators such as assessment of students’ perfor-
mance, structure and content of courses, and quality of communication,
online courses are superior to traditional ones. Comparative studies also
indicate that there is no significant difference in terms of student satisfaction
with one or the other type of tuition provided that they are well organized
and delivered (Driscoll et al., 2012). In addition, students attending online
courses reported a better understanding of the subject matter, better commu-
nication with instructors, and increased motivation, commitment and satis-
faction with this type of learning. In Bulgaria, a comprehensive study of the
consequences of distance learning on the effectiveness of school education
was conducted among secondary school students and their parents and
teachers (Hristova et al., 2020). Its results revealed a complex correlation of
factors measured against a number of indicators such as cognitive, emotional
and behavioural involvement, motivation, self-efficacy, self-directed learn-
ing, structured instruction, and teachers’ self-efficacy. The data showed that
71.8% of the students did not experience difficulties and required no help
and 52% of them said they were satisfied with online education. However,
about half of the students had some difficulties understanding the material
and had to spend more time studying compared to face-to-face teaching
(ibid., p. 116).
An important factor for students’ successful learning is their active
participation in online classes. There is a direct relationship between the
frequency of students’ participation in online classes and their results in the
final exams (Sharma et al., 2020). In a way, online and distance learning
provide wider access to education by eliminating spatial and temporal obsta-
cles, providing flexible time for learning, and removing difficulties associat-
ed with travelling to university. A study involving 307 Indian university
students showed that 70% of them opted for this type of education, despite
the fact that most of them used only their smartphones (Muthuprasad 2021).
A study by Georgieva and Balanska (2020), based on a survey of teacher-
trainees from a state university in Bulgaria, showed that with the beginning
of the lockdown 90.32% of students joined online education, and 96.77% of
them relied mainly on materials provided by university lecturers.
The effectiveness of online learning depends on a number of factors
associated with the teachers and students psychological predispositions,
with the interactive nature of educational materials, the frequency and dura-
tion of communication between teachers and students and among students in
their learning communities, and the ability of teachers and students to work
390
with modern teaching tools and applications (Sun & Chen 2016). Psycholog-
ical factors which affect the process of learning are also important in online
education. Their impact is measured by the so-called Big Five tests which
use a diagnostic technique originally developed by psychologists. These
factors measure participants’ openness to experience, conscientiousness,
extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism, and are often presented as sets
of dichotomies (Roccas et al., 2002). In addition to psychological factors,
researchers also focus on the importance of perceived self-efficacy (Şahin &
Çetin, 2017;), learners’ motivation through engagement in the process of
tuition (Markova & Yaneva 2020; Stefanova & Zabunov 2020), personal
experience of online learning (Blackmon & Major, 2012; Kim, 2020), the
organization and presentation of course content (Stein 2004; Jiang & Ting,
2000), instructors’ preparedness and attitudes, often referred to as faculty
readiness (Cutri et al., 2020), and, lastly, the features of the online learning
environment (Meylani et al, 2015). Following these research trends, the pre-
sent survey is organized around the same groups of factors.
Participants and method
The data for the study were obtained from a survey of 56 students (47
female and 9 male, aged between 24 and 45 years) enrolled in an MA pro-
gramme in Methods in English Language Teaching (the Bulgarian equiva-
lent of MA in TESOL) in a Bulgarian state university. By the time of the
study, which was conducted in March 2021, the trainees had completed the
third semester of their studies, which means that they had attended a suffi-
cient number of courses taught in English. The survey is made up of 30
statements which reflect five main groups of factors by checking the degree
of respondents’ agreement with the statement’s validity. The groups of fac-
tors and the number of statements which correspond to them are as follows:
1. Learners’ personality factors 1 6
2. Personal experience of online learning 7 12
3. Course content and organisation 13 18
4. Lecturers’ qualities and attitudes 19 24
5. Features of the online learning environment 25 30.
The method of research is quantitative, meaning that participants’
opinion is presented as figures (distribution of their preferences for each
statement as a percentage). The survey was prepared as a Google Forms
document, a link to which was sent to the participants via e-mail. The items
provided options in the form of the psychometric Likert scale reflecting the
degree of participants’ agreement or disagreement with each statement.
The main aim of the research was to decide on the importance of dif-
ferent groups of factors and their role in students’ participation and success-
ful learning in the context of online education.
391
Discussion of results
The results of the survey are presented in Table 1 below:
Statements
Disagree
Some-
what
disa
gree
Neither
agree
nor
disagree
Agree
Strongly
agree
1. I am quick to under-
stand things.
3,6
8,9
17,9
37,5
32,1
2. My English is good
and I don’t have prob-
lems with online teach-
ing in English.
10,9
43,6
20
16,4
9,1
3. I am always pre-
pared.
5,6
3,7
35,2
31,5
24,1
4. I do not mind being
the centre of attention.
18,5
9,3
40,7
20,4
11,1
5. I am not interested
in other pe
o
ple’s prob-
lems.
37,7
22,6
24,5
5,7
9,4
6. I get stressed out
easily.
20,4
18,5
48,1
7,4
5,6
7. I like online learning
more than trad
i
tional
face-to-face learning.
27,8
13
27,8
20,4
11,1
8. In discussions I
prefer to listen to others
with my camera
switched off.
3,7
5,6
18,5
46,3
25,9
9. It is more difficult to
co
ncen
trate and follow
online lectures.
38,2
14,5
21,8
12,7
12,7
10. I have to work
harder during the se-
mester.
12,7
5,5
32,7
32,7
16,4
11. There are fewer
chances to ask about
things I don’t under-
stand or want to know
more about.
36,4
12,7
23,6
21,8
5,5
12. I cannot compare
my work to the work of
my colleagues and get
an idea of how I am
doing.
21,8
16,4
29,1
27,3
5,5
13. In online education
course co
ntent and
stru
cture are more
explicit.
9,1
14,5
36,4
29,1
10,9
392
14. There is more
transpare
n
cy in terms
of r
equire
ments for
course completion.
9,1
14,5
45,5
23,6
7,3
15. There are no uni-
fied r
equire
ments for
pr
esent
ing course mate-
rials.
29,1
14,5
25,5
20
10,9
16. Different presenta-
tion fo
r
mats (slides, pdf
files, videos, books,
etc.) faci
litate my
learning.
5,5
1,8
14,5
32,7
45,5
17. Most of the teach-
ing is done in a tradi-
tional lecture mode.
5,5
16,4
29,1
32,7
16,4
18. We have to look at
the mat
erials and pr
e-
pare in advance.
23,6
21,8
27,3
20
7,3
19. Most lecturers are
well pr
epared for
online teaching.
1,8
3,6
18,2
32,7
43,6
20. Most lecturers
seem to e
n
joy online
teaching.
15,4
11,5
26,9
30,8
15,4
21. I don’t get enough
fee
d
back on my learn-
ing.
32,7
12,7
21,8
23,6
9,1
22. I miss the face-to-
face co
n
tact with the
lecturers.
13,2
13,2
15,1
34
24,5
23. Some lecturers
avoid contact with
st
u
dents outside teach-
ing hours.
32,7
18,2
29,1
16,4
3,6
24. Most lecturers only
upload
mate
rials for
individual study.
16,4
18,2
38,2
14,5
12,7
25. The university
platform is easy to
work with.
1,9
5,7
30,2
30,2
30,1
26. I have all necessary
facil
i
ties to study from
home.
3,6
1,8
12,7
29,1
52,7
27. Online learning
allows for auton
o
my
and self-direction.
1,9
11,3
17
39,6
30,2
28. Online learning is
1,8
5,5
16,4
9,1
67,3
393
more convenient for
me in terms of time and
cost.
29. Online learning
enviro
nments al
low for
more flex
i
bility and
multi-tasking.
0
7,3
12,7
36,4
43,6
30. Online learning is
less social than face-to-
face learning.
5,5
5,5
16,4
34,5
38,2
The results for the group of psychological factors (Table 1) show that
about 70% of the students have a high opinion of their own cognitive abili-
ties which is linked to the feature called openness to experience (Robins et
al., 2001). The strong belief in ones own cognitive abilities (high self-
esteem) and intellectual curiosity is a prerequisite not only for success in
learning, but also for openness to new forms of communication and new
experiences provided by online communication. About 55% of the respond-
ents consider themselves prepared for online classes, and it can be assumed
that planning and preparation are important for successful achievement of
learning goals.
Extroversion is also considered important since openness and the need
for communication are an integral part of learning. Although most of the
respondents are ambivalent on this feature (40.7%), their preferences reveal
a significant percentage of introversion, signalled by the participants’ unwill-
ingness to be the center of attention. This is not surprising as there are stud-
ies which confirm introverts’ preference for online communication and
learning (Amichai-Hamburger et al., 2002). According to research, people
predisposed to neuroticism associate the manifestation of their real I with
Internet communication, while extroverts and emotionally stable participants
tend to prefer live communication (Marriott & Buchanan, 2014). The results
of our survey revealed a relatively small percentage of participants who are
easily susceptible to stress, a potential indicator of neuroticism, so such
learners may benefit from online learning. With regard to agreeableness, the
figures showed that only about 15% of the participants admit that they are
not interested in the problems of others, which suggests that socially dis-
tanced online learning may appeal to students who are high in agreeableness
(Rivers, 2021).
The second group of factors is related to participants’ personal experi-
ences of online learning. The importance of personal experience and a per-
son-centred approach is emphasized by Velikova (2019), who points out that
it promotes more effective and sustained learning by incorporating self-
reflection, peer-collaboration, and identity development. In view of Bulgari-
an students’ inexperience with online learning, it is perhaps not surprising
that only about 32% of students said they prefer online to face-to-face learn-
394
ing. In online classes 70% prefer to listen to lecturers or their fellow students
with their cameras turned off and answer only when asked a question. Only
about 25% admit to having difficulties in concentrating and following online
lectures. This might be because online learning is characterized by fewer
distractions than live communication. The results of the survey show that
online teaching in general does not limit the quality of understanding or the
ability to ask questions or ask for clarification. Nevertheless, about half of
the respondents agree that they have to work harder when studying online,
although a high percentage is unsure. Comparing students’ results and work
online seems to be more difficult, which suggests reduced opportunities for
cooperative learning.
The next group of factors is related to the role of course content and
organization in online learning (statements 13-18). Forty percent of the re-
spondents agree that there is increased explicitness of course content and
structure in online education. In terms of understanding requirements for
course completion, students seem to prefer face-to-face contact with their
lecturers, which can be seen from the high percentage of the ambivalent
answers 45.5%. One of the possible drawbacks of online learning is the
lack of standardized requirements for presenting course materials about
30% of respondents agree. However, the variety of presentation formats
might also be interpreted as flexibility, since different formats appeal to stu-
dents’ different learning styles and preferences. Indeed, about 78% of the
respondents think that different presentation formats facilitate their learning.
Only half of the students agree that teaching is conducted in the form of tra-
ditional lecture, which shows that many lecturers strive to make lectures
more interactive through questions and discussions. Regardless of this, more
than half of the respondents (58.5%) admit that they miss direct contact with
lecturers and their fellow students. The question of whether independent
preliminary work with course materials makes understanding more difficult
caused a mixed reaction among students. In higher education, especially in
post-graduate studies, self-study is just as important as active participation in
seminar discussion. However, the idea of flipped classrooms which require
students to familiarize themselves with study material in advance and thus
make more time for clarification and discussion in class, is still not very
popular in Bulgarian higher education.
Factors related to lecturers’ qualities and attitudes are covered by
statements 19 24. About 75% of the respondents believe that most lecturers
are well prepared for online teaching, but they are not so sure that the pro-
cess of online teaching is equally enjoyable for the instructors, as only 45%
gave positive responses. In terms of feedback, which is an important con-
tributor to successful learning, students do not seem to feel neglected by
teachers, which suggests that online instruction is equally effective in its
support for students. Still, about 60% of the respondents agree that they miss
face-to-face contact with the lecturers who they perceive as open and ap-
395
proachable outside teaching hours. Students seem unsure whether lecturers
avoid teaching online and only upload materials for individual study, as the
majority of students are ambivalent in their responses.
The last group of factors relates to the impact which features of the
online learning environment have on students’ participation and success in
learning. Sixty percent of the respondents find the university online platform
easy to use and more than 80% have all necessary facilities to study from
home. Therefore, it is perhaps not surprising that about 70% of the respond-
ents believe that online learning contributes to the development of autonomy
and independence, a result corroborated by research (Bailly 2020). Seventy-
six percent of the students find that online learning is more convenient for
them in terms of time and cost, and 80% think that it allows for more flexi-
bility and multi-tasking. However, students are also confident that social
communication is more limited in online learning - 72.7% agree or strongly
agree with this. Since communication in an online environment is a form of
social interaction, albeit more limiting, it also has advantages, which do not
diminish its quality and usefulness for students.
Conclusion
The survey reveals the complex nature of the transition to studying in
an online environment and the factors which have impact on university stu-
dents’ involvement in the process of tuition. Results suggest that successful
learning is viewed by the participants as resulting from a combination of
groups of factors, both intrinsic, such as learners’ personality and their expe-
rience of online learning, and extrinsic, such as course content and organiza-
tion, the lecturers’ qualities and attitudes, and the features of the online
learning environment. Whereas most participants appear ambivalent about
the role of their personal qualities and preferences in learning, their choices
suggest that online teaching and learning might not be significantly different
from face-to-face learning in terms of difficulties in understanding lectures
or participating in the teaching and learning process. Most of the students are
well-equipped to study from home and acknowledge the choice and flexibil-
ity offered by different presentation formats. The limitations of the study lie
mainly in the closed nature of the statements to which students were asked to
respond. Further qualitative data obtained from interviews might add further
insights into student perceptions of online study.
REFERENCES
Amichai-Hamburger, Y., Wainapel, G.,Fox, S. (2002). “On the Internet no one
knows I'm an introvert”: Extroversion, neuroticism, and Internet interaction.
Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 5(2), 125128.
Bailly, S. (2020). Supporting autonomy development in online learning environ-
ments: what knowlеdge and skills do teachers need? Villanueva, M., Ruiz,
396
N., Luzon, J. (eds). Genres Theory and New Literacies: Applications to Au-
tonomous Language Learning. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 81-100.
Bignoux, S., Sund, K. J. (2018).Tutoring executives online: What drives perceived
quality? Behaviour & Information Technology, 37 (7), 703-713.
Blackmon, S. J. & Major, C, H. (2012). Student experiences in online courses: A
qualitative research synthesis. Quarterly Review of Distance Education,
13(2), 77-85.
Cutri, R. M., Mena, J., Feinauer Whiting, E. (2020): Faculty readiness for online
crisis teaching: transitioning to online teaching during the COVID-19 pan-
demic. European Journal of Teacher Education. https://doi.org/10.1080/02
619768.2020.1815702
Georgieva, S., Balanska, N. (2020). Дистанционните форми на обучение през
погледа на студентите бъдещи педагози. Образование и технологии, т.
11, 30-34.
Driscoll, A., Jicha, K., Hunt, A. Tichavsky, L., Thompson, G. (2012). Can online
courses deliver in-class results?: a comparison of student performance and
satisfaction in an online versus face-to-face introductory sociology course.
Teaching Sociology, vol. 40, issue 4, 312-331.
Hristova, A., Petrova, S., Papazova, E. (2020). Оценка на въздействието на
обучението от разстояние в електронна среда или други неприсъствени
форми върху ефективността на училищното образование. Институт за
изследвания в образованието.
Jiang, M., Ting, E. (2000). A study of factors influencing students’ perceived learn-
ing in a web-based course environment. International Journal of Educational
Telecommunications, 6(4), 317-338.
Kim, J. (2020). Learning and Teaching Online During Covid̻19: Experiences
of Student Teachers in an Early Childhood Education Practicum. Internation-
al Journal of Early Childhood (2020) 52:145158. https://doi.org/10.1007/
s13158-020-00272-6
Markova, Z., Yaneva, D. (2020). The Motivation of University Students of Interna-
tional Relations to Learn English. English Studies at NBU, 6(1), 5-28.
https://doi.org/10.33919/esnbu.20.1.1
Marriott, T., Buchanan, T. (2014). The true self online: Personality correlates of
preference for self-expression online, and observer ratings of personality
online and offline. Computers and Human Behaviour, 32, 171-177.
Means, B., Toyama.Y., Murphy, R., Baki, M. (2013). The effectiveness of online
and blended learning: a meta-analysis of the empirical literature. Teachers
College record, vol. 115, 030303.
Meylani, R., Bitter, G., Legacy, J. (2015). Desirable characteristics of an ideal
online learning environment. Journal of Educational and Social Research,
vol. 5(1), DOI: 10.5901/jesr.2015.v5n1p203
Muthuprasad, T., Aiswarya, A., Aditya, K. S., Jha, G. K. (2021). Students’ per-
ception and preference for online education in India during Covid-19 pan-
demic. Social Sciences and Humanities Open, Vol. 3 (1).
Rivers, D.J. (2021). The role of personality traits and online academic self-efficacy
in acceptance, actual use and achievement in Moodle. Education and Infor-
mation Technologies, 26, 43534378.
397
Robins, R., Tracy, J., Trzesniewski, K, Potter, J., Gosling, S. (2001). Personality
correlates of self-esteem. Journal of Research in Personality. http://www.
idealibrary.com, doi:10.1006/jrpe.2001.2324
Roccas, S., Sagiv, L., Schwartz, S., Knafo-Noam, A. (2002). The Big Five person-
ality factors and personal values. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
28(6), 789-801.
Şahin, F., Çetin, F. (2017). The mediating role of general self-efficacy in the rela-
tionship between the big five personality traits and perceived stress: A week-
ly assessment study. Psychological Studies, 62, 3546.
Sharma, B., Nand, R., Naseem, M., Reddy, E. (2020). Effectiveness of online
presence in a blended higher learning environment in the Pacific. Studies in
Higher Education, 45:8, 1547-1565.
Soffer, T., Nachmias, R. (2018). Effectiveness in learning in online academic
courses, compared with face-to-face courses in higher education. Journal of
Computer assisted learning, vol. 34(5), 534-543.
Stein, D. (2004). Course structure: Most important factor in student satisfac-
tion. Distance Education Report, February 1, 2004, 4.
Stefanova, A., Zabunov, G. (2020). Enhancing Student Motivation in ESP by In-
creasing the Level of Engagement: A Proposed Model. English Studies at
NBU, 6(2), 201-216.
Sun, A., Chen, X. (2016). Online education and its effective practice: A research
review. Journal of Information Technology Education, v. 15, 157-190.
Velikova, S. (2019). Teacher Learning as Becoming: Reflections on Language
Teacher Identity. Veliko Tarnovo: IVIS. ISBN 978-619-205-116-7.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Informed by the educational conditions being shaped by the novel coronavirus pandemic and an increased reliance upon online learning solutions and technologies, this article examines the role of personality traits and online academic self-efficacy on the acceptance, actual use and achievement in Moodle within a compulsory 15-week socially distanced asynchronous university course in Japan. With a sample of 149 university students the study adopts SEM path-analysis model testing and shows that agreeableness and conscientious have positive direct effects on online academic self-efficacy in addition to positive indirect effects on the acceptance of Moodle. None of the five-factor model personality traits were found to have an influence on actual Moodle use. Only agreeableness and conscientious had an indirect effect on course achievement. A respecified model further affirmed the importance of agreeableness and conscientious and their role in online academic self-efficacy, the acceptance and actual use of Moodle and course achievement outcomes. A total of 14% of the variance in course achievement was explainable by the respecified model. The discussion highlights the implications to be drawn from the data in relation to the current educational landscape from the perspective of the educator.
Article
Full-text available
Educational institutes across the world have closed due to the COVID-19 pandemic jeopardizing the academic calendars. Most educational institutes have shifted to online learning platforms to keep the academic activities going. However, the questions about the preparedness, designing and effectiveness of e-learning is still not clearly understood, particularly for a developing country like India, where the technical constraints like suitability of devices and bandwidth availability poses a serious challenge. In this study, we focus on understanding Agricultural Student’s perception and preference towards the online learning through an online survey of 307 students. We also explored the student’s preferences for various attributes of online classes, which will be helpful to design effective online learning environment. The results indicated that majority of the respondents (70%) are ready to opt for online classes to manage the curriculum during this pandemic. Majority of the students preferred to use smart phone for online learning. Using content analysis, we found that students prefer recorded classes with quiz at the end of each class to improve the effectiveness of learning. The students opined that flexibility and convenience of online classes makes it attractive option, whereas broadband connectivity issues in rural areas makes it a challenge for students to make use of online learning initiatives. However, in agricultural education system where many courses are practical oriented, shifting completely to online mode may not be possible and need to device a hybrid mode, the insights from this article can be helpful in designing the curriculum for the new normal.
Article
Full-text available
The article considers the opportunity to enhance student motivation in the acquisition of English for specific purposes by increasing the level of learner engagement. The authors propose to use an interdisciplinary approach by applying tools that have been approved in marketing theory and practice for the management of consumer involvement in the purchasing process and adapting them to teaching ESP to increase course effectiveness. Marketing literature analysis reveals two important points. The first one is that in classical marketing, the concepts of enduring involvement and situational involvement are used and combined together to form a complex consumer response. In modern marketing, this complex response is called consumer engagement. The second point is that situational involvement plays a key role in shaping the complex consumer response. The authors' suggestion is to use situational involvement as the major tool for boosting student motivation taking into consideration factors such as the specific features of the new generations and the growing use of modern technologies in everyday communication and learning. A description of model tasks is given to exemplify their interdisciplinary nature as well as observations related to their use in class supplemented by student feedback.
Book
Full-text available
Пандемията от COVID-19 и свързаните с нея извънредни мерки за ограничаване на разпространението на вируса в България доведоха до прекратяване на всички присъствени форми на обучение в училищата от 13 март 2020 г. Учебният процес беше реорганизиран и до края на учебната 2019/2020 година беше проведен от разстояние в електронна среда и в други неприсъствени форми на обучение. В този доклад са представени резултатите от изследване, проведено по поръчка на Министерството на образованието и науката. Целта на изследването е да оцени въздействието на обучението от разстояние в електронна среда или други неприсъствени форми, проведено в периода март-юни 2020 г., върху ефективността на училищното образование в България. Изследването е осъществено по извадка, подготвена на базата на пълни данни за училищната система в страната, предоставени от Центъра за информационно осигуряване на образованието към МОН. В изследването участваха 135 училища, 28% от които се намират в големи градове, включително София; 30% – в малки градове, и 42% – в села. Изследването обхваща директори на училища, ученици от V до XII клас, учители и родители от цялата страна. В изследването участваха 4448 ученици от IV до XII клас. Около 55% от тях са момичета, а 45% – момчета. Учителите са 1885 на брой. Около 87% от тях са жени, а 13% – мъже. Почти две трети от всички участвали учители са с преподавателски стаж над 15 години – 65%, докато учителите с преподавателски стаж до 3 години са едва 10%. Директорите, които взеха участие в изследването са 135. В изследването участваха и 5403 родители на ученици от V до XII клас. Създаден е рамков логически модел за оценка, който обвързва ресурсното обезпечаване на образователния процес от разстояние, организацията и протичането на процесите на преподаване и учене, наличните системи за адаптиране и подкрепа на ученето и постигнатите резултати за учениците, учителите, родителите и училището (Creemers&Kyriakides, 2008; Hanushek 1986, 1997, 2020; Levin, 1974, 1994). Всеки от факторите за образователна ефективност е измерен чрез конкретни индикатори. За целите на изследването са адаптирани и валидирани за българския контекст специални психометрични скали, чрез които се измерват резултати с висока степен на абстрактност, които не могат да бъдат наблюдавани и измерени директно (например мотивация и ангажираност). Резултатите от изследването са анализирани по отделно за директорите, учителите, родителите и учениците и групирани съобразно следните пунктове: Ресурсно осигуряване на обучението от разстояние, Организация на учебния процес от разстояние, Професионално развитие на учителите за преподаване в дигитална среда, Ефективност на преподаването в условията на обучение от разстояние, Достъп до електронни образователни ресурси и използване на ИКТ в образователния процес от разстояние, Емоционална, когнитивна и поведенческа ангажираност на учениците към училището и учебния процес, Самооценка на способността за учене в условията на обучение от разстояние, Самоуправление в учебен контекст в условията на обучение от разстояние, Обща удовлетвореност на учениците, учителите и родителите от обучението от разстояние, Взаимодействие между учителите в условията на обучение от разстояние, Взаимодействие между родители и учители, Ролята на родителите в условията на учебен процес от разстояние; ангажирана училищна общност, Ефективност на обучението от разстояние и потенциал за устойчиви промени в организацията на образователния процес. Резултатите могат да се използват за подпомагане на усилията на училищата за по-бързо преодоляване на негативните ефекти от пандемията, за оптимизиране на бъдещата организация на онлайн и смесени форми на учене, и не на последно място за цялостно подобряване на качеството на образованието.
Article
Full-text available
Online learning is an educational process which takes place over the Internet as a form of distance education. Distance education became ubiquitous as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic during 2020. Because of these circumstances, online teaching and learning had an indispensable role in early childhood education programs, even though debates continue on whether or not it is beneficial for young children to be exposed extensively to Information and Communication Technology (ICT). This descriptive study demonstrates how a preservice teacher education course in early childhood education was redesigned to provide student teachers with opportunities to learn and teach online. It reports experiences and reflections from a practicum course offered in the Spring Semester of 2020, in the USA. It describes three phases of the online student teachers’ experiences–Preparation, Implementation, and Reflection. Tasks accomplished in each phase are reported. Online teaching experiences provided these preservice teachers with opportunities to interact with children, as well as to encourage reflection on how best to promote young children’s development and learning with online communication tools.
Article
Full-text available
This article reports on the findings of a study investigating the motivation of Bulgarian undergraduates of International Relations to learn English as a second language (L2). First, we consider language learning motivation in the context of three influential theoretical developments in research on motivation. Then, we report on a small-scale survey aiming to define the motivational profile of students of International Relations through the lens of the L2 Motivational Self System. The analysis of the survey data reveals similarities with findings of previous research as regards the favourable attitude towards English language learning, the prominent role of the ideal L2 self in the motivational pattern, and some doubt over the relation between the ought-to L2 self and the intended learning effort. The study results also indicate relations between travel orientation and the ought-to L2 self, and between the two types of instrumental motivation which have not been reported in previous research. These motivation peculiarities are explained through the specifics of the surveyed group that refer to students’ aspirations and potential careers in international relations.
Article
Full-text available
Studies of learning and student satisfaction in the context of online university programmes have largely neglected programmes catering specifically to business executives. Such executives have typically been away from higher education for a number of years, and have collected substantial practical experience in the subject matters they are taught. Their expectations in terms of both content and delivery may therefore be different from non-executive students. We explore perceptions of the quality of tutoring in the context of an online executive MBA programme through participant interviews. We find that in addition to some of the tutor behaviours already discussed in the literature, executive students look specifically for practical industry knowledge and experience in tutors, when judging how effective a tutor is. This has implications for both the recruitment and training of online executive MBA tutors.
Article
This mixed-methods study was designed to measure and elaborate constructs of faculty online readiness from pre- COVID-19 pandemic literature. Bringing together the validation of a scale to measure these constructs and insights from a focus group, findings suggest that the negative connotations of risk-taking and making mistakes while learning to teach online seem to have been mitigated by a combination of affective factors such as humility, empathy, and even optimism. Teacher educators explained that transitioning online in a context of a crisis contorts normal longitudinal perceptions of preparation and readiness. This new sense of temporality was connected to unexpected benefits of bringing them into partnership with their students. However, quantitative and qualitative results are interpreted to show that assessing students’ equitable access to online learning and managing the demands of scholarship and university-based and academic community service duties are areas in need of attention from professional development designers and policy makers.
Article
The widespread use of technology has facilitated many changes in the education sector including higher education. Academic institutes are concentrating their efforts on measuring the level of student engagement and participation in online learning environments for student success. This paper analyses student log data to quantify the effectiveness of online presence on student performance in a blended course using frequency and duration as indicators. The analysis shows both frequency and duration having a statistically significant impact on the students’ final marks. The study proposes a multiple linear regression model using these measurements to predict the final mark of students in a blended learning environment. The predictive regression model, explained through the use of two new models; Online Measurable Presence Model (OMPM) and Slingshot model, can be used to determine the effectiveness of student online presence for success in a blended higher learning environment in the Pacific.
Article
This study examined the effectiveness of 3 online courses compared with the same 3 courses in a face‐to‐face (F2F) format, which had the same characteristics (e.g., the same instructor and final exam content and place). Effectiveness was examined by utilizing a wide range of variables, including 2 objective measures (N = 968): grades and completion rate; and 9 subjective measures (N = 360): 7 measures include instructional aspects (course structure, learning content, lessons watched, assignments, communication), engagement, and satisfaction. Findings indicate significant differences between online and F2F courses in most of the examined variables. Students in the online courses reported better understanding of the course structure, better communication with the course staff, watching the videos lessens more, and higher engagement and satisfaction. Students in the F2F courses reported better contribution of the learning content. Students' final grades were higher in the online courses, and no differences were found in the completion rate. The findings suggest that in many of the examined effectiveness aspects, online courses are as effective as, or more effective than, F2F courses. Interpretations of the findings are discussed. Lay Description What is currently known about the subject matter? • Course effectiveness is defined by students' motivation and satisfaction or their grades. • Some studies report more satisfaction and motivation in online courses, rather than face‐to‐face (F2F) courses. • Online learning is more or less as effective as F2F learning in regard to grades. What the paper adds to this: • Expansion of the term “effectiveness” by measuring it using a large scope of variables. • Examination of courses across various disciplines, with a relatively large sample size. • Online courses were as effective as, or more than, F2F courses in most variables measured. • Differences between the formats relate to the course discipline. Implications of the study findings: • Online learning may be a suitable alternative to academic F2F courses. • Well‐structured course design should be considered when developing online courses. • Content and discipline characteristics should be considered when developing online courses.