ArticlePDF Available

Entrepreneurship & Organization Management Gender Assessment of Nigerian Youths' Perceptions and Attitudes towards Home Economics-Based Entrepreneurship

Authors:
  • Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Ogbomoso Oyo State

Abstract

Entrepreneurs are the seeds of industrial development and the fruits of industrial development are greater employment opportunities to unemployed youths. The study aimed at assessing the Nigerian youths' perceptions and attitudes towards home economics-based entrepreneurship as a sustainable carrier for wealth generation, determine the gender differential in home economics as a carrier and examine the problems associated with home economics as a career. The study was carried out among the Nigerian youths in three local government areas in Ogbomoso, Nigeria where 160 youths were interviewed with the aids of structured questionnaire to obtain information from the respondents. Mainly descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data which include; frequency, percentages, and weight mean. From the analysis, it was revealed that majority of the respondents were youths between 21-25 years old. The predominant religion was Christianity meanwhile, larger percentage of the respondents have their years of schooling between 16-20 years, single and residing in urban area. Likewise Yoruba happens to be the highest tribe among the three major tribes in the country such as Hausa and Igbo considered in the study. The study also revealed that, 74% of males and 71% of females had unfavorable attitude towards home economics as a career. The respondents had an unfavorable (negative) attitude towards home economics as a career because most of them didn't want to live on home economics as a means of livelihood. Their socioeconomic status had nothing to do with attitude towards home economics as a career. Less than 20% each of the respondents believed that there are high differences between male and female role in home economics. They were also able to identify some problems attached to home economics practices.
Open AccessISSN: 2169-026X
Journal of
Entrepreneurship & Organization Management
Research Article
Volume 10:9, 2021
Gender Assessment of Nigerian Youths’ Perceptions and
Attitudes towards Home Economics-Based Entrepreneurship
Abstract
Entrepreneurs are the seeds of industrial development and the fruits of industrial development are greater employment opportunities to unemployed youths. The study
aimed at assessing the Nigerian youths’ perceptions and attitudes towards home economics-based entrepreneurship as a sustainable carrier for wealth generation,
determine the gender differential in home economics as a carrier and examine the problems associated with home economics as a career. The study was carried out
among the Nigerian youths in three local government areas in Ogbomoso, Nigeria where 160 youths were interviewed with the aids of structured questionnaire to
obtain information from the respondents. Mainly descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data which include; frequency, percentages, and weight mean. From
the analysis, it was revealed that majority of the respondents were youths between 21-25 years old. The predominant religion was Christianity meanwhile, larger
percentage of the respondents have their years of schooling between 16-20 years, single and residing in urban area. Likewise Yoruba happens to be the highest tribe
among the three major tribes in the country such as Hausa and Igbo considered in the study. The study also revealed that, 74% of males and 71% of females had
unfavorable attitude towards home economics as a career. The respondents had an unfavorable (negative) attitude towards home economics as a career because
most of them didn’t want to live on home economics as a means of livelihood. Their socio-economic status had nothing to do with attitude towards home economics
as a career. Less than 20% each of the respondents believed that there are high differences between male and female role in home economics. They were also able
to identify some problems attached to home economics practices.
Keywords: Youth • Gender • Entrepreneurship • Home economics-based • Respondents • Descriptive statistics
Ololade Rachel A1* and Adejumo Taiwo J2
1Department of Agricultural Economics, Ladoke University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
2Department of Statistics, Ladoke University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
*Address for Correspondence: Ololade Rachel A, Department of Agricultural
Economics, Ladoke University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria, Tel:
+2348034282970; E-mail: raololade@gmail.com
Copyright: © 2021 Ololade Rachel A, et al. This is an open-access article
distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which
permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided
the original author and source are credited.
Received 07 September 2021; Accepted 22 September 2021; Published 29
September 2021
Introduction
Entrepreneurial skills acquisition through home economics has been widely
accepted as means of contributing to the economic development and reduces
unemployment and poverty problems in our society [1,2]. Entrepreneurship
occurs when an individual develops a new and unique method to an old
business in order to give market place a product or service by using resources
in a new way [3-5]. There is a logical link between Entrepreneurship and
home economics. Entrepreneurship has a rightful place in home economics
because the role of home economics is to enhance the quality of life of
families and individuals, both by equipping them with the means to provide for
their own needs and by offering valuable goods and services to them. Home
economics-based entrepreneurship is a veritable tool for self-reliance, poverty
eradication and sustainable national development [6-8]. Moreover, home
economics, being multi-disciplinary, interdisciplinary, and context-based by
nature provides opportunity to integrate timely knowledge in response to the
needs of society; and finally, home economics is a skills-rich field, providing
a perfect venue for linking livelihood entrepreneurial activities with other
essential skills [3,9,10]. The role of home economics-based entrepreneurship
in enhancing quality of life cannot be over-emphasized. Home economics is
one of the oldest vocations that exist for a very long time. Home economics
and entrepreneurship, as vocations are capable of empowering individuals to
be great entrepreneurs [11,12].
Entrepreneurial development today has become very significant; in view
of its being a key to economic development. The objectives of industrial
development, regional growth, and employment generation depend upon
entrepreneurial development. Entrepreneurs are, thus, the seeds of industrial
development and the fruits of industrial development are greater employment
opportunities to unemployed youth, increase in per capita income, higher
standard of living and increased individual saving, revenue to the government
in the form of income tax, sales tax, export duties, import duties, and
balanced regional development [13]. Entrepreneurship skills therefore by
implication is the act of being an entrepreneur, it involves all the activities
and functions undertaken by an entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship is believed to
provide an important avenue for individuals to advance up the income ladder.
Entrepreneurship provides learners with the basic knowledge, skills, attitude,
and ideas for self-reliance [3,14].
In other words, entrepreneurship through the inculcation of entrepreneurial
skills should make recipients proficient in career related areas and so launch
them into the business world with a view to overcoming the problem of
unemployment and over-dependency on white-collar jobs [15-17]. For some,
it may provide a better route than paid employment, while for others, who
may be disadvantaged when pursuing paid employment; it may provide the
only route. Entrepreneurs are charged with the responsibility of innovating
new products, better production methods, creation of markets and managing
the production process. They are in a nutshell engaged in wealth creation.
According to the United Nations, youth is a term that refers to young men
and women that fall within the age structure of 15-24 years while young
people are those within the age bracket of 10 and 19 years [18]. The basic
entrepreneurial skills acquisition for wealth creation now involves innovation
skills, creativity skills and foresight skills. Unemployment and unemployable
graduates have become a serious challenge to educators, educationist and
the Nigerian government. Globally, opportunities for graduate’s employment
continue to be on decline. Graduate unemployment continues to be an
albatross on necks of societies, hence the glamour for entrepreneurship and
entrepreneurship education in higher education institutions [19]. Promoting
a culture of entrepreneurship among university students has become an
issue of utmost importance such that nurturing a mindset that is opportunity-
oriented driven is seen as very critical. In other words, entrepreneurship is
in fact now seen as a cog for growth and development of any viable society
given its capacity and potential for the creation of job opportunities [20,21].
J Entrepren Organiz Manag, Volume 10:9, 2021Ololade Rachel A, et al.
Page 2 of 6
The global economy has become so complex and uncertain such that people
with complex, creative and diversified entrepreneurial skills and knowledge
are in constant demand to serve as solutions to growing unemployment and
other related issues. Creativity has been identified as one of the most distinct
of human attributes. It is indeed a special case of problem solving in which
originality is emphasized [3]. Kanu claimed that, creativity is the disposition
to make and recognize valuable innovations. It manifests itself in the ability
of the individual to create his own symbols of experience. A person is said to
be creative if he has the ability to combine or rearrange established patterns
of knowledge in a unique fashion. Global economy is so volatile; hence
necessitating a need for a focus on entrepreneurship which is believed to
serve as catalyst for stabilizing economies and creating employments. In
the light of this, entrepreneurship becomes paramount. This is because
entrepreneurship is used to deliver entrepreneurial knowledge, skills and
abilities to the students, helping them to succeed in their entrepreneurial
careers.
In other words, entrepreneurship education trains students to gain innovative
enterprise skills and capture the opportunities to succeed in business
ventures. That is to say, to have an entrepreneurial economy, colleges and
universities must appreciate the immense importance of entrepreneurship
education and what it is capable of contributing to the growth and
development of the economy. Within the Nigerian context, the dwindling
ratio of the so-called white-collar jobs when compared to the rate of turnout
of graduates at all levels of education remains alarming. This necessitates
a need to turn out graduates who will not only be self-reliant but employers
of labor. Entrepreneurship has a rightful place in home economics because
of three essential reasons – first, the role of home economics is to enhance
the quality of life of families and individuals , both by equipping them with
the means to provide for their own needs and by offering valuable goods
and services to them; second, home economics, being multi-disciplinary,
interdisciplinary, and context-based by nature provides opportunity to
integrate timely knowledge in response to the needs of society; and third, home
economics is a skills-rich field, providing a perfect venue for linking livelihood
entrepreneurial activities with other essential skills. Skills in agripreneurship
are critical for youth employment, especially for those in rural areas. With
the increasing domestic and regional demand for diversified and processed
food, there is a high opportunity to develop the agrifood business in Africa
[22,23]. Agripreneurship is a sustainable, community-orientated, directly
marketed agriculture produce and services. By sustainable agriculture we
mean a holistic, systems-oriented approach to farming that is focused on
the interrelationships of social, economic, and environmental processes
for delivering the agricultural produce. Agripreneurship is synonym with
entrepreneurship in the field of agriculture and refers to the establishment of
agribusiness units in the agriculture and allied sector [24-26].
The objective of the study is to assess Nigerian youths’ perceptions and
attitudes towards home economics-based entrepreneurship as a sustainable
carrier for wealth generation, determine the gender differential in home
economics as a carrier and examine the problems associated with home
economics as a carrier.
Methodology
The study was carried out among the Nigerian youths in the three local
governments in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.
Sampling Procedure and Size
160 youths were interviewed and structural questionnaire was used to obtain
information from the respondents [27].
Data analyses and Measurement of Variables
Mainly descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data which include;
frequency, percentages, and weight mean. Personal characters considered
are age, sex, religion, years of schooling, marital status, family background
and years of exposure to kitchen work. The respondents were able to give
direct response regarding their personal characteristics. Where exact figure
could not be given, attitudinal statements were used. The respondents
responded to the statements on a 5-point Lik/ert scale of Strongly Agree
(SA), Agree (A), Undecided (U), Disagree (D) and Strongly Disagree (SD),
scores of 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 were awarded. Using the minimum score of eleven
(11) and maximum score of fifty-five (55), there were eleven statements
in all. Favorable, undecided and unfavorable were finally constructed to
measure the oven all attitude of the respondents to home economics-based
entrepreneurship as a carrier.
Results and Discussions
Socio-economic characteristics
The distribution of respondent by socio-economic characteristics showed
that majority (71.2%) of males and (78.75%) of females falls within the age
range of 21 – 25 years, 22.5% of males and 45% of females falls within
the age range of 26-30 years while 6.25% of females and males within the
age range of 15-20 years (Table 1). This implies that higher percentages
of the students are still youths pursuing means of livelihood. This is in line
with the previous study by Agumagu [28]. About 70% of males and 73.75%
of females are Christians, 26.3% of males and 26.25% of females are
adherents of Islamic religion while 3.8% of males and females and none of
the females are traditional worshippers. This means that Christianity is the
popular religion among the students. This is in accordance to the study by
Ololade [29]. About 76.2% of males and 8.5% of females have their years
of schooling within 16-20 years. 22.5% of males and 8.7% of females have
their years of schooling within 21-25 years and 1.3% of males and 6.3%
of females have their years of schooling less than 16 years. This means
majority of them have their years of schooling within 16-20 years. This is
similar to what was reported in the previous study by Smits and Permanyer
[30].
Majority (99.5%) of males and (97.5%) females are single and 2.5% of males
and females respectively are married. This implies that almost all of them are
not married still struggling for better living in life. About 62.5% of the males’
parent and 48.8% of the females’ parent have only primary occupation while
37.5% of the males’ parent and 51.3% of the females’ parent have both
primary and secondary occupation. Majority (75%) of males and (80%) of the
females are residing in the urban area while 25% of the males and 20% of
the females are residing in the rural. That is majority of the respondents are
residing in the urban area, which means only a few have rural background.
This is accordance with the study by Alarima and Onokala [31,32]. About
55% of males and 41.3% of females have their position in the family between
1-2. 31.3% of males and 37.5% of females have their position in the family
between 3-4, 11.2% of females and 13.7% of females have between 5-6,
2.5% of males and 5.0% of females have their between 7-8 and none of
the males have their position in the family to be above 8 while 2.5% of
females have their position in the family to be 8. It implies that majority of
the respondents had their position in the family between 1-4. About 83.8%
of males and 91.3% of females are Yoruba, 7.5% of males are Hausa, 8.8%
of males and females respectively are Ibo. This implies that majority of the
respondents are Yorubas. About 16.3% of males and 42.5% of females have
been exposed to kitchen work for less than 11 years, 35% of males and
33.8% of females have been exposed to kitchen work for 11-15 years. 43.7%
of males and 20% of females have been exposed to kitchen work for 16-20
years. 5% of males and 3.7% of females have been exposed to kitchen work
for more than 20 years.
Attitude towards Home Economics as a carrier
Table 2 showed the weighted mean score of male respondents’ attitude
towards home economics. The male student ranked highest home economics
is not only about the kitchen ranked highest with the mean of 4.65. This is
followed by home economics study embraces good nutrition (4.39). Next
is home economics provides opportunities to develop knowledge and skills
(4.16). Others are as follows: as an home economics, you also have the
privilege to be a dietitian (3.78), you know more about taking care of the
home in home economics (3.67), home economics is self-employed (3.45),
J Entrepren Organiz Manag, Volume 10:9, 2021Ololade Rachel A, et al.
Page 3 of 6
knowledge and skills with mean of 4.34. Others are as follows: you know more
about taking care of the home in home economics (4.28), home economics
is not only about the kitchen (4.25), as a home economist you also have the
privileged to be a dietitian (4.05) home economics is self-employed (3.91). I
can establish on home economics after schooling as my means of livelihood
(3.59). Home economics cannot fetch you enough income when practiced
in the rural area (2.7), I cannot live on home economics to earn tangible
income (2.36), there is nothing so special about home economics to be
I can establish home economics after schooling as my means of livelihood
(3.23), home economics cannot fetch you enough income when practiced
in the rural area (2.96), I cannot live on home economics to earn tangible
income (2.64), there is nothing so special about home economics to be
learnt as career (2.45) and home economics is nothing but cooking for the
family ranked least with mean of 1.85. On the other hand, home economics
study embraces good nutrition ranked highest with the mean of 4.35. This
is followed closely by home economics provides opportunities to develop
Characteristics Male Female
Frequency Percentage (%) Frequency Percentage (%)
Age (Years)
15-20 5 6.30 5 6.25
21-25 57 71.20 63 78.75
26-30 18 22.50 12 15.00
Total 80 100 80 100
Religion
Christianity 56 70.00 59 73.75
Islam 21 26.30 21 26.25
Traditional 3 3.80 - -
Total 80 100 80 100
Year of School Living (Years)
< 16 1 1.30 5 6.30
16-20 61 76.20 68 58.00
21-25 18 22.50 7 8.70
Total 80 100 80 100
Marital Status
Single 2 2.5 2 2.5
Married 78 97.5 78 97.5
Total 80 100 80 100
Family Background
(a) Occupation of Parent
Primary 30 62.5 39 48.8
Primary + Secondary 50 37.5 41 51.3
Total 80 100 80 100
(b) Place of Residence
Urban 60 75.0 64 80.0
Rural 20 25.0 16 20.0
Total 80 100 80 100
(c) Position in the Family
1-2 44 55.0 33 41.3
3-4 25 31.3 30 37.5
5-6 9 11.2 11 13.7
7-8 2 2.5 4 5.0
>8 - - 2 2.5
Total 80 100 80 100
Tribe
Yoruba 67 83.8 73 91.3
Hausa 6 7.5 - -
Ibo 7 8.8 7 8.8
Total 80 100 80 100
Exposure to kitchen (Year) - - - -
< 1 13 16.3 34 42.5
11-15 28 35.0 27 33.8
16-20 35 43.7 16 20.0
> 20 4 5.0 3 3.7
Total 80 100 80 100
Table 1. Frequency and percentage distribution of socio-economic characteristics of respondents.
J Entrepren Organiz Manag, Volume 10:9, 2021Ololade Rachel A, et al.
Page 4 of 6
learnt as a career (1.98) and home economics is nothing but cooking for the
family ranked least (1.63). The respondents ranked high those statements
expressing what home economics is about and ranked low those statements
expressing taking home economics as a career. They do not attach meaning
to it believing home economics is part of their daily living and there are better
things to embark on than home economics.
Table 3 showed the frequency and percentage distribution by attitude
towards home economics as a career. Majority (74%) of males and (71%)
of females had unfavorable attitude towards home economics as a career,
only 16% of males and 15% of females had a favorable attitude towards
home economics as a career while about 10% of males and 14% of females
were undecided in their attitude. Since attitude is more or less permanent
feelings, thoughts and predispositions that people have about certain aspect
of their environment and the perception of an event helps in the attitude
exhibited towards such an event. Change in attitude involves a gradual
process therefore efforts at its improvement will require a gradual process
as well. This means more action need to be taken in order to improve their
attitude towards home economics as a career and this could be best done by
the parents and teachers.
Gender Differential in Role-Played in Economics
Table 4 showed the ranking of gender differential of male and female
respondents’ attitude towards home economics as a career. The male
students ranked highest, men have to support women in seeing to the health
state of the family with mean of 4.46. Next is the care of the home should
be the concern of both gender with mean of 4.35. others are as follows:
the relevance of home economics to life must be understood by both
gender (4.33), females also have to contribute to the monetary aspect of
the family (4.11), females are naturally endowed to have more interest in
home economics than males (3.88), the management of the home is not
done by females (3.84), culturally men are not supposed to be in the kitchen
(3.45), males do not really see the need for them to be concerned with home
economics (3.28). Only females can choose home as a career (2.95), the
beautification of the home is the duty of females and not males (2.7) and
only female must know about good nutrition ranked least with mean score of
1.78. On the other hand, the female respondents ranked highest men have
to support women in seeing to the health state of the family with the mean
of 4.60. This is followed by the relevance of home economics to life must be
understood by both gender with mean of 4.38. Next is female also had to
contribute to the monetary aspect of the family with mean of 4.36. Others are
as follows: the care of the home should be the concern of both gender (4.35),
females are naturally endowed to have more interest in home economics
than males (4.16) the management of the home is not only done by females
(4.0), male do not really see the need for them to be concerned with home
economics (3.61), culturally men are not supposed to be in the kitchen
(2.95), the beautification of the home is the duty of females and not males
(2.45), only female can choose home economics as a career (2.26) and only
female must know about good nutrition ranked least with mean score of 1.75.
It is observed that there are variations in the ranking of male and female
respondents. This should be, because they are of opposite sex and their
roles differ. Also, both of them are against some cultural behave and they
now understand based on the knowledge they had in home economics that
both man and woman must join hands together to make a standard home.
Table 5 show the distribution of respondents by gender differences. About
72% and 74% males and females, respectively believed that there is not
much difference between male and females’ role in home economics. About
14% and 16% males and females, respectively believed that there are high
differences in the roles of be played by male and female in home economics
while about 14% and 10% of females believed there are little differences
between the roles to be performed. This means larger percentage of them
believe that there are low differences in male and female role in home
economics because they both had the experience that what woman can do
man can also do in home economics.
Problems Associated with Home Economics
Table 6 showed the distribution of male and female respondents by problems
associated with Home economics. Majority (78.8%) male respondents
acknowledge storage as a problem about 75% revealed taste. Others are in
Statement Male (WMS) Female (WMS)
Home economics is only about the kitchen 4.65 4.254
Home economics study embraces good nutrition 4.39 4.351
Home economics provide opportunities to develop knowledge and skill 4.16 4.342
As home economist you also have the privilege to be a dietician 3.78 4.055
You know more about taking care of the home in home economics 3.67 4.283
Home economics is self employed 3.45 3.916
I can establish on home economics after schooling as my means live hood 3.23 3.597
Home economics cannot fetch you enough income when practiced in areas 2.96 2.708
I cannot live on home economics to earn tangible income 2.64 2.399
There is nothing so special about home economics to be learnt as a career 2.45 1.910
Home economics is nothing but cooking for the family 1.85 1.6311
Table 2. Weighted mean table showing male respondents attitude towards home economics.
Male Female
Attitude Frequency Percentage (%) Attitude Frequency Percentage (%)
Favourable 13 16 Favourable 12 15
≥ 40 - - ≥ 40 - -
Undecided 8 10 Undecided 11 14
33 – 40 - - 34 – 40 - -
Unfavorable 59 74 Unfavorable 57 71
≤ 33 - - ≤ 34 - -
Total 80 100 - 80 100
Mean = 36.9750 - - Mean = 37.4750 - -
S.D = 3.7144 - - S.D = 3.4 - -
Table 3. Distribution of respondents by attitude towards home economics as a career.
J Entrepren Organiz Manag, Volume 10:9, 2021Ololade Rachel A, et al.
Page 5 of 6
the following order: economy of the nation (66.3), seasonality of agricultural
produce (65%), perishability of some ingredients (58.8%), and much time
is consumed in preparation (56.3%), low technical know-how (53.8%), and
lack of commitment (51.3%) and highly expensive to establish (51.3%). It is
energy consuming (50%) and weather or environmental condition (43.8%).
Majority (85%) of female’s respondents, storage revealed as the paramount
problem. This is followed by taste of people (70%). Next is perishability of
some ingredient (65%). Others are as follows: much time is consumed in
preparation (62.5%), seasonality of agricultural produce (56.3%) and it is
energy consuming (56.3%), low technical know-how (51.3%) and economy
of the nation (51.3%), lack of commitment (43.8%), highly expensive to
establish (38.8%) and weather or environmental condition (36.3%).
Conclusion
Majority of the respondents (74.98%) were between 21-25 years old. The
predominant religion was Christianity, while 26.27% practiced Islamic religion.
About 80.6% of the respondents have their years of schooling between 16-
20 years. About 97.5% of the students were single while 2.5% were married.
Majority of the youths (77.5%) are residing in urban area while 22.5% are
living in rural area. 87.55% of the youths were Yoruba while 8.8% were Ibo.
29.4% of the respondents have been exposed to kitchen work for less than
11 years, 34.4% for 11-15 years, 31.9% for 16-20 years and 4.3% for more
than 20 years. 55.6% of the respondent parents have only main occupation
while 44.4% of their parent have both main and additional occupation. 16%
of the males and 15% of the females had a favorable attitude towards home
economics as a career. 10% of males and 14% of females were undecided
in their attitude towards home economics as a career. Majority of them i.e.
74% of males and 71% of females had unfavorable attitude towards home
economics as a career. The respondents had an unfavorable (negative)
attitude towards home economics as a career because most of them didn’t
want to live on home economics as a means of livelihood. Their socio-
Statement Male (WMS) Female (WMS)
Men have to support women in seeing to the health state of the family 4.66 4.601
The care of the home should be the concern of both gender 4.35 4.354
The relevance of home economics to life must be understood by both gender 4.33 4.382
Females also have to contribute to the monetary aspect of the family 4.11 4.363
Females are naturally endowed to have more interest in home economic than males 3.88 4.165
The management of the home is not only done by females 3.84 4.006
The management of the home is not only done by females 3.45 2.958
Males do not really see the need for them to be concerned with economics 3.28 3.617
Only female can choose home economics as a career 2.95 2.2610
The beautification of the home is the duty of females and not males 2.70 2.459
Only female must know about good nutrition 1.78 1.7511
Table 4. Weighted mean table of the gender differential in attitude.
Male Female
Roles Frequency Percentage (%) Roles Frequency Percentage (%)
High 11 14 Favourable 13 16
≥ 44 - - ≥ 42 - -
Low 58 72 Undecided 59 74
≤ 33 - - ≤ 34 - -
Little 11 14 Unfavorable 08 10
33-34 - - 34-42 - -
Total 80 100 - 80 100
Mean = 39.2875 -- - Mean = 38.50 - -
S.D = 5.4149 - - S.D = 4.28 - -
Table 5. Distribution of respondents by gender differences in role played in home economics.
Problems Male Female
Frequency Percentage (%) Frequency Percentage (%)
Storage 63 78.8 68185
Taste of people 60 75 56270
Economy of the nation 53 66.3 41851.3
Seasonality of agricultural produce 52 65 45556.3
Perishability of some ingredients 47 58.8 52365
Much time is consumed in preparation 45 56.3 50462.5
Low technical know-how 43 53.8 41751.38
Lack of commitment 41 51.3 3.5943.89
Highly expensive consuming 41 51.3 3110 38.8
It is energy consuming 40 50 45656.3
Weather or environmental condition 35 43.8 2911 36.3
Table 6. Distribution of male and female respondents by problems associated with home economics.
J Entrepren Organiz Manag, Volume 10:9, 2021Ololade Rachel A, et al.
Page 6 of 6
economic status had nothing to do with attitude towards home economics as
a career. Less than 20% each of the respondents believed that there are high
differences between male and female role in home economics. They were
also able to identify some problems attached to home economics practices.
Youths should see home economics as a life issue, which the knowledge
of it will help to make a good standard of living. Parents should also help in
impacting a preliminary knowledge of home economics into their children
before they start schooling. Workshop should be provided in the department,
which will embrace different fields of home economics. Regardless of the
gender of the child, they both need the knowledge of home economics, since
it is not only women that need good nutrition.
References
1. Chiekezie Obianuju, Nzewi Hope, Erhinmwionose Iyekekpolor.
“Entrepreneurial Skill Acquisition and Job Creation in Benin City, Nigeria.”
EPRA Int J Econ Bus Rev 4 (2016): 94-101.
2. Ahmed Rakiya. “Correlation between Home Economics Education
and Entrepreneurial Skills Acquisition for Wealth Creation and Poverty
Reduction in Nigeria.” ATBU J Sci Technol Education 6 (2018): 293-299.
3. Boldureanu, Gabriela., Ionescu M Allina., Bercu A Maria and Bedrule-
Grigorut MV. “Entrepreneurship Education through Successful
Entrepreneurial Models in Higher Education Institutions.” Sustainability
Leadership and Education 12 (2020): 1-33.
4. Malerba Franco, McKelvey Maureen. “Knowledge-intensive innovative
entrepreneurship integrating Schumpeter, evolutionary economics, and
innovation systems.” Small Bus Econ 54 (2020): 503–522.
5. Ratten Vanessa, Jones Paul. “Covid-19 and entrepreneurship education:
Implications for advancing research and practice.” Int J Manag Education
19 (2021): 100432.
6. Anekwe R Ifeoma, Ndubuisi-Okolo Purity, Attah E Yusuf. “Effect of
Entrepreneurship Development on Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria.” IOSR J
Bus Manag 20 (2018): 80-87.
7. Hussaini, Umaru, Noma I Ahmed. “Entrepreneurship as a viable tool for
poverty reduction in Nigeria.” Int J Commerce Manag Res 5 (2019): 5-12.
8. Oladokun A. “Vocational Home Economics Education: A Veritable
Tool for Self Reliance, Poverty Eradication and Sustainable National
Development.” UJAH 21 (2020): 213-224.
9. Brante Goran, Brunosson Albina. “To double a recipe interdisciplinary
teaching and learning of mathematical content knowledge in a home
economics setting.” Education Inquiry 5 (2014): 301-318.
10. Haapaniemi Janni, Venalainen Salla, Malin Anne and Palojoki Paivi.
“Home economics education: exploring integrative learning, Educational
Res 61 (2019): 87-104.
11. Anerua FA and Obiazi AE. “Entrepreneurship Education in Home
Economics: Problems and Prospects.” J Qualitative Education 7 (2011):
1-7.
12. Akpan ID, Unung PE and Usoroh CI. “Entrepreneurial Skills and Students’
Interest in Home Economics in Uyo Educational Zone of AkwaIbom State,
Nigeria.” Int J Academic Res Bus Soc Sci 4 (2014): 36-43.
13. Gajraj A and Saxena R. “Entrepreneurship: A Weapon to Fight with
Unemployment.” Gap Interdisciplinarities 2 (2019): 6-9.
14. Ozaralli Nurdan, Rivenburgh K Nancy. “Entrepreneurial intention:
antecedents to entrepreneurial behavior in the U.S.A. and Turkey.” J Glob
Entrepr Res 6 (2016): 1-32.
15. Chibuzor AN. “Enhancing Creativity in Entrepreneurship through Home
Economics Education in Nigeria.” Amer Int J Contemp Res 4 (2014): 104-
107.
16. Iyam MA and Udonwa RE. “Enhancing Creativity in Tertiary Institution
through Home Economics Education for Educational Sustainability in
South-South Nigeria.” European J Education Studies 4 (2018): 240-251.
17. Matthew M James, Haruna F Dowchem, Ameh M Edoka and Maisamari
M Abare. “Impact of Entrepreneurship Education on Entrepreneurial
Development of Students in College of Education Billiri, Gombe State.”
African J Educational Manag Teaching Entrepren Studies 1 (2020): 60-67.
18. Reguia C. “Product Innovation and the Competitive Advantage.” European
Scientific J 1 (2014): 1857-7881.
19. Undiyaundeye Florence, Out A Expungu. “Entrepreneurship Skills
Acquisition and the Benefits amongst the Undergraduate Students in
Nigeria.” European J Soc Sci Education Res 2 (2019): 9-14.
20. Okon FI, Firday UA. “Entrepreneurial Education: A Panacea for Youth
Unemployment in Nigeria.” Int J Small Bus Entrepren Res 3 (2015): 11-22.
21. Atanda L Ayanlola, Ugwulebo J Emeka. “Graduate Joblessness:
Conviction for Entrepreneurship Studies in Library and Information Science
Programme of Nigerian Tertiary Institutions.” Int J Sociol 4 (2020): 52-63.
22. Rakiya Ahmed., Gaite S Sofia, Salami Samuel. “Entrepreneurial Skills
Acquisition and Utilization among Home Economics Education Graduates
of Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria.” KIU J Soc Sci 3 (2017): 125-
131.
23. Consuelo Chua. “The Place of Entrepreneurship in Home Economics and
Its Role in Alleviating Poverty.” The J Pathescu 19 (2018): 47-57.
24. Barau, A.A. and Afrad, M.S.I. (2017). Potentials of Rural Youth
Agripreneurship in Achieving Zero Hunger. World Rural Observations.
9(2): 1-11.
25. Claudia SL Dias, Ricardo G Rodrigues, Joao J Ferreira. “Agricultural
entrepreneurship: Going back to the basics.” J Rural Studies 70 (2019):
125-138.
26. Pia Ulvenblad, Henrik Barth, Per-Ola Ulvenblad and Jenny Stahl.
“Overcoming barriers in agri-business development: two education
programs for entrepreneurs in the Swedish agricultural sector.” J Agri
Education Ext 26 (2020): 443-464.
27. Ponto J. “Understanding and Evaluating Survey Research.” J Advan
Practitioner Oncol 6 (2015): 168-171.
28. Agumagu AC, Ifeanyi-obi CC and Agu C. “Perception of Agriculture
Students towards Farming as a Means of Sustainable Livelihood in Rivers
State, Nigeria.” Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Agricultural
Extension Society of Nigeria 22 (2018): 108-116.
29. Adejumo T Joel and Ololade RA. “Econometric Analysis of Accessibility
and Repayment Ability of Agricultural Credit among Rural Root and Tuber
Crops Farmers in Oyo State Nigeria.” Global J Manag Bus Res 18 (2018):
17-29.
30. Jeroen Smits and Inaki Permanyer. “The Subnational Human Development
Database.” Sci Data 6 (2019): 38.
31. Alarima CI. “Factors Influencing Rural-Urban Migration of Youths in Osun
State, Nigeria.” Agro Sci J Trop Agri Food Environ Ext 17 (2018): 34-39.
32. Chukwuedozie K Ajaero and Patience C Onokala. “The Effects of Rural-
Urban Migration on Rural Communities of Southeastern Nigeria.” Int J
Population Res 13 (2013): 1-10.
How to cite this article: Ololade Rachel A and Adejumo Taiwo J. "Gender
Assessment of Nigerian Youths’ Perceptions and Attitudes towards Home
Economics-Based Entrepreneurship." J Entrepren Organiz Manag 10 (2021):
328.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to understand what the Nigerian graduates are passing through, most especially graduate of library and information science programme of Nigerian tertiary institutions. Findings: The statistics of unemployed graduates in Nigeria as at 2011 showed that a disheartening figure of 42.7 million with over 1,8 million graduates churned out of our higher institutions yearly. It was further revealed that the unemployment rate in Nigeria stood at 38 percent in 2013 with further increase expected in succeeding years. The slow rate of economic growth and undeveloped private sector, faulty manpower planning, high expectations of the fresh graduate attitude towards some types of jobs, recruitments, the quest for higher education, inadequate educational curricular, immobility of labour, the long period of initial unemployment among graduates of higher institution, use of capital intensive technology, wide rural-urban migration Conclusion: It is evident that entrepreneurship education is important for Library and Information Science students in higher institution of learning. The training of Library and Information Science students must reflect the 21st century development in the field which is influenced by the emergence of Information Technology, hence, Library and Information Science students must have computer proficiency, familiarity with metadata, database management and application, web development and design, knowledge of electronic resources and services
Article
Full-text available
Entrepreneurship is integrated in the Home Economics curriculum with the goal of providing sustainable livelihood options to families. However, the place of entrepreneurship in home economics remains unclear to both laymen and experts. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the place of entrepreneurship in the home economics curriculum and the role it plays in alleviating poverty. The paper explains the connection between entrepreneurship and home economics by focusing on the role of home economics in enhancing quality of life; the nature of home economics as multidisciplinary , interdisciplinary and context-based; and its quality of being a skills-abundant field. The role of home economics-based entrepreneurship (HEE) in poverty alleviation is also examined by presenting an HEE framework that illustrates the components of HEE that enhance the chance of sustainable livelihood for families.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The paper compares two government-sponsored education programs for agricultural entrepreneurs: a Leadership program and a Lean program. Methodology: The paper takes both a qualitative and a quantitative approach in its collection and analysis of data from 54 semi-structured interviews and from a survey with 109 participants. Findings: The main challenges to business and personal development are time pressure and the need for better communications. The Leadership program participants emphasize the effect of internal barriers such as fixed mind-sets. The Lean program participants emphasize the effect of external barriers such as financing. Both groups emphasize personal and business growth more than the control group. Practical Implications: Entrepreneur education programs can help participants, program developers, and advisory organizations identify and manage business challenges and barriers. Theoretical Implications: The paper contributes to the literature about educations for entrepreneurs in the agricultural sector with its examination of agricultural entrepreneurs’ reflections on barriers and challenges in business development and their linkage to overcoming barriers focused on a resource-based perspective with different types of resources. Originality/Value: The paper encourages examination of development challenges and barriers from the perspective of participators in entrepreneur education programs.
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the factors that contributed to the agricultural credit accessibility and repayment ability among rural tuber crops farmers in Oyo State Nigeria. The study specifically described the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents, sources of credit, conditions for obtaining credit and effects of socioeconomic characteristics on repayment of credit. Random sampling technique was used to select 144 respondents in the study area, and the structured questionnaire was administered to collect data. Descriptive statistics and logit model was used in analyzing the data. The results showed that a higher percentage (56.9%) of both categories of tuber crops farmers were within the age bracket of 30-50 years. About 74.3% of those that obtained credit were male farmers. Majority of the respondents (91.7%) were married. 38.9% of the farmers have formal education. Only 48.7% of the farmers have secondary occupation. Most of the farmers have the family sizes between 6-10 people and most of the farmers had been practicing and cultivating tuber crops for at least 10-50 years. Most of these farmers are cultivating yam and cassava only a few are planting cocoyam as major or mixed crop. Majority of the farmers source for credit from cooperative societies, commercial bank, SPFS and friends. Abstract-This study examined the factors that contributed to the agricultural credit accessibility and repayment ability amo ng rural tuber crops farmers in Oyo State Nigeria. The study specifically described the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents, sources of credit, conditions for obtaining credit and effects of socioeconomic characteristics on repayment of credit. Random sampling technique was used to select 144 respondents in the study ar ea, and the str uctured questionnaire was administered to collect data. Descriptive statistics and logit model was used in analyzing the data. The results showed that a higher percentage (56.9%) of both categories of tuber crops farmers were within the age bracket of 30-50 years. About 74.3% of those that obtained credit were male farmers. Majority of the respondents (91.7%) were married. 38.9% of the farmers have formal educatio n. Only 48.7% of the farmers have secondary occupation. Most o f the farmers have the family sizes between 6-10 people and most of the farmers had been practicing and cultivating tuber crops for at least 10-50 y ears. Most of these farmers are cultivating yam and cassava only a few are planting cocoyam as major or mixed crop. Majority of the farmers source for credit from cooperative societies, commercial bank, SPF S and friends. The Coefficient of determination (r 2 = 0.26) indicates that 26% of the variation in the value of all the explanatory variables (independent variables), leaving only 74% of variatio n in the dependent variable (credit repayment). Logit regr ession estimated for the credit repayment showed that secondary occupation, family size, and farming experience are significant variables at 5% level of significance while other factors did not co ntribute significantly to the credit repayment.
Article
Full-text available
Design Type(s) longitudinal study design • data integration objective Measurement Type(s) Socioeconomic Factors Technology Type(s) digital curation Factor Type(s) geographic location • temporal_interval Sample Characteristic(s) Afghanistan • Angola • Albania • Argentina • Armenia • Australia • Austria • Azerbaijan • Burundi • Belgium • Benin • Burkina Faso • Bangladesh • Bulgaria • Bosnia and Herzegovina • Belarus • Belize • Bolivia • Brazil • Barbados • Bhutan • Botswana • Central African Republic • Canada • Switzerland • Chile • China • Cote d'Ivoire • Cameroon • Democratic Republic of the Congo • Republic of Congo • Colombia • Comoros • Cape Verde • Costa Rica • Cuba • Czech Republic • Germany • Djibouti • Kingdom of Denmark • Dominican Republic • Algeria • Ecuador • Egypt • Eritrea • Kingdom of Spain • Estonia • Ethiopia • Finland • Fiji • French Republic • Gabon • United Kingdom • Georgia • Ghana • Guinea • Gambia • Guinea-Bissau • Equatorial Guinea • Greece • Guatemala • Guyana • Honduras • Croatia • Haiti • Hungary • Indonesia • India • Republic of Ireland • Iran • Iraq • Italy • Jamaica • Jordan • Japan • Kazakhstan • Kenya • Kyrgyzstan • Cambodia • South Korea • Kuwait • Laos • Lebanon • Liberia • Libya • Lesotho • Lithuania • Latvia • Morocco • Moldova • Madagascar • Maldives Archipelago • Mexico • Macedonia • Mali • Malta • Myanmar • Montenegro • Mongolia • Mozambique • Mauritania • Mauritius • Malawi • Malaysia • Namibia • Niger • Nigeria • Nicaragua • The Netherlands • Kingdom of Norway • Nepal • New Zealand • Pakistan • Panama • Peru • The Philippines • Poland • Portuguese Republic • Paraguay • Palestinian Territories • Romania • Russia • Rwanda • Saudi Arabia • Sudan • Senegal • Sierra Leone • El Salvador • Somalia • Serbia • South Sudan • Sao Tome and Principe • Suriname • Slovak Republic • Slovenia • Sweden • Swaziland • Syria • Chad • Togo • Thailand • Tajikistan • Turkmenistan • Timor-Leste • Trinidad and Tobago • Tunisia • Turkey • Tanzania • Uganda • Ukraine • Uruguay • United States of America • Uzbekistan • Venezuela • Viet Nam • Vanuatu • Kosovo • Yemen • Republic of South Africa • Zambia • Zimbabwe • anthropogenic environment Machine-accessible metadata file describing the reported data (ISA-Tab format)
Article
The increasing rate of poverty, unemployment and retrenchment and so many other social problems is worrisome. However, unemployment is not peculiar to Nigeria alone but to other third world countries. This paper examined the objectives of Home Economics education as it is geared towards improving the standard of living. It looked at self-reliance, poverty Eradication through Home Economics Education, and the role of entrepreneurship in economic development. It also examined Home Economics income generating business ventures in the major areas of Home Economics for employment and wealth creation for sustainability. The paper concluded and recommended, among others things, that entrepreneurship education be made compulsory at all levels of education and soft loans be made available to graduate for business set up. Keywords: Self-Reliance, Poverty Eradication, Entrepreneurship, National Development
Article
This article aims at critically examining the linkage between entrepreneurship education and COVID-19 in order to help understand future research and practice paths. Due to the large global impact COVID-19 has had on society, new entrepreneurial education management practices are required to deal with the change. To do this, this article discusses why COVID-19 can be a transformational opportunity for entrepreneurship education research due to the new thought processes raised by the pandemic. The article suggests several assumptions that have changed as a result of COVID-19 and how entrepreneurship education is required in order to help solve the pandemic. By doing this, the article suggests that more entrepreneurship education research embedding a COVID-19 context is required to breakthrough new frontiers and reset the research agenda. By taking an entrepreneurial stakeholder perspective that looks at entrepreneurship education as a holistic process, an enhanced analysis of how response mechanisms including recovery and change are conducted can be made. This enables a way to view the COVID-19 crisis as an opportunity for more attention placed on the importance of entrepreneurship education for society.
Article
Through a Systematic Literature Review, this study aims to analyse how the research in agricultural entrepreneurship is approached in the period until 2012 and compare it with the period 2013-2017, which was found by Dias, Rodrigues, & Ferreira (2019). This comparison allows identifying which research topics are underlined in each period as well as examine different perspectives on the same topic in both periods. Based on articles from the Scopus database, this review identifies two main thematic areas in the period until 2012: “Entrepreneurial Skills and Income Sources”; and “Market and Resources”. Researchers state that farmers can be considered as entrepreneurs and as decision-makers who aim to maximize profits, developing various typologies of agricultural diversification, although conclude that entrepreneurial skills required for diversified farming are different from the ones required in conventional farming. Attending to the increasingly liberalization of agricultural markets, the literature also focuses on the ways how farmers had recombined existing farm resources into new uses namely land, human, financial and natural resources. In both periods, we conclude that entrepreneurial skills are underlined but, in the period 2013-2017, new research topics were introduced.