ArticlePDF Available

Abstract

Climate change exerts adverse effects on crop production in Nigeria. This study highlights the processes, mechanisms, and traits that will ensure future sustainability of crop quality and yield in Nigeria. It critically evaluates recent advances in our understanding of climate change impact on soil fertility and plants, within the context of climate-smart agriculture. It further identifies soil fertility as another critical concern which can be influenced by climate change and thereby affect crop production in Nigeria. Soil degradation has been discovered to negatively affect crop production in Nigeria. In agricultural ecosystems depleted of soil organic carbon, it will be increasingly difficult to produce higher yields. The impact of climate change is felt profoundly on crop production in Nigeria which leads to food insecurity. This study is therefore very significant as it explores the mitigation and adaptation strategies to the impacts of climate change on crop production in Nigeria.
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International Journal of Research in Civil Engineering and Technology 2022; 3(1): 36-39
E-ISSN: 2707-8272
P-ISSN: 2707-8264
IJRCET 2022; 3(1): 36-39
Received: 12-11-2021
Accepted: 13-12-2021
Benjamin Anabaraonye
Institute of Climate Change
Studies, Energy and
Environment, University of
Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
Uchenna C Okonkwo
Department of Environmental
Management, Nnamdi Azikiwe
University, Awka, Nigeria
Beatrice O Ewa
Institute Of Climate Change
Studies, Energy and
Environment, University of
Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
Corresponding Author:
Benjamin Anabaraonye
Institute of Climate Change
Studies, Energy and
Environment, University of
Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
The impact of climate change on crop production in
Nigeria
Benjamin Anabaraonye, Uchenna C Okonkwo and Beatrice O Ewa
Abstract
Climate change exerts adverse effects on crop production in Nigeria. This study highlights the
processes, mechanisms, and traits that will ensure future sustainability of crop quality and yield in
Nigeria. It critically evaluates recent advances in our understanding of climate change impact on soil
fertility and plants, within the context of climate-smart agriculture. It further identifies soil fertility as
another critical concern which can be influenced by climate change and thereby affect crop production
in Nigeria. Soil degradation has been discovered to negatively affect crop production in Nigeria. In
agricultural ecosystems depleted of soil organic carbon, it will be increasingly difficult to produce
higher yields. The impact of climate change is felt profoundly on crop production in Nigeria which
leads to food insecurity. This study is therefore very significant as it explores the mitigation and
adaptation strategies to the impacts of climate change on crop production in Nigeria.
Keywords: Adaptation, climate change, crop production, education, mitigation
Introduction
Climate change is a rising global concern; it refers to changes in atmospheric gaseous
composition by anthropogenic activities, in addition to natural climate variability (Moser and
Dilling 2004; Lorenzoni et al. 2007; UNFCC 1994) [12, 10]. The earth’s atmosphere is majorly
composed of nitrogen, oxygen, argon and the concentration is as follows, 78.09%, 20.95%,
and 0.93%, respectively. The minor gases, which are present, are methane (CH4), carbon
dioxide (CO2), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), nitrous oxide (N2O), and ozone (Qiancheng
1998) [19]. These minor gases are called the greenhouse gases (GHG), have high absorption
for thermal long wave infrared radiations and increase the temperature of atmosphere, seas,
and terrestrial planets. These greenhouse gases in excess lead to global warming and also
exert negative effects on crop production in Nigeria. Climate change refers to any change in
climate overtime, which may be due to natural variability or as a result of human activity
(Inter-government Panel on Climate Change, IPCC, 2001) [9]. The United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992) defines climate change as changes in
climate that is usually attributed straightforwardly or not directly to human activity which
alters the composition of the overall atmosphere in addition to the usual climate
changeability observed over similar periods. The reality of climate change is actually very
frightening. We are already in times of terrific climate change, with worse forecast if we
continue with business as usual through pouring excessive greenhouse gases into the
atmosphere. The natural causes of climate change are as a result of variations in earth’s orbit,
variation in ocean circulation, variation in albedo of the continents, as well as variation in
solar radiation. The human causes are, however, results of deforestation, air pollution, poor
agricultural practices such as bush burning, excess and wrong application of inorganic
fertilizers, burning of fossil fuels, urbanization, industrialization, inefficient transport system,
among others (Anabaraonye, Okafor & Ikuelogbon, 2019) [4]. Climate change is one of the
most important factors affecting the formation of soil with important implications for their
development, use and management perspective with reference to soil structure, stability,
topsoil water holding capacity, nutrient availability and erosion. Scientists have predicted
that expected changes in temperature, precipitation and evaporation as a result of climate
change will cause significant change in organic matter turnover and CO2 dynamics thereby
significantly impacting soil fertility(Okafor, Oladejo, & Ikem, 2019) [14]. Climate change is
one of the paramount global issues today which threatens the survival and thrive of humans,
animals, crops and ecosystems all over the world. Climate change has strong impact on
health, water resources and land use, coastal Infrastructure, environment and other sectors
International Journal of Research in Civil Engineering and Technology http://www.civilengineeringjournals.com/ijrcet
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and even a stronger impact on agriculture especially in
developing countries like Nigeria (Onu & Ikehi, 2016) [17].
Crop production is affected by some climatic factors which
include temperature, rainfall and other extreme weather
events (Onu & Ikehi, 2016) [17]. The impact of climate
change on crop production in Nigeria requires urgent
actions to be taken by farmers, educators, government
agencies and non-governmental organizations to stop a
global warming too unbearable for mankind and to achieve
sustainable economic growth in Nigeria (Anabaraonye,
Okafor & Hope, 2018) [3].
Methodology
Data used for this study is derived from published works
including academic journal articles, conference papers,
textbooks and internet materials. The researchers gathered a
lot of materials for the research but summarized the
characteristics of the papers that centred more on the
adaptation and mitigation strategies to the impacts of
climate change on crop production in Nigeria. This enabled
the researchers to generate the synthesis of various
researchers’ views on the subject matter.
Mitigation and adaptation strategies to the impact of
climate change on crop production in Nigeria
Nigeria’s agricultural sector is broadly divided into four
segments namely- crop production, livestock, fishery and
forestry amongst which Crop production is the largest
segment accounting for about 87.6% of the sector’s total
output (Oyaniran, 2020) [18]. Between the third quarter of
2019 to the second quarter of 2021, agriculture has
contributed an average of 25.52% to the GDP in Nigeria
(Statista, 2021) [22] largely through the production of food
and cash crops. There is no doubt there has been some
changes in climatic variables in Nigeria, which has affected
crop production in Nigeria. Low harvest or yield of crop has
led to hike in prices of crops in Nigeria and in extreme cases
scarcity. Nigeria is gradually heading to a serious case of
food insecurity. The United Nations through its Department
of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) presented and
provides substantive support for the Sustainable
Development Goals (SDGs) of which goal 2 emphasises
“End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition
and promote sustainable agriculture” by the year 2030
(UNDESA, 2021) [23], which is why it is important to
discuss issues bothering on crop production. The
agricultural sector in Nigeria contributes effectively to the
economy of the country, likewise, encounters different
setbacks such as unfavourable land tenure system,
inadequate irrigation, climate variability and land
contamination which impedes productivity (FAO, 2021) [7].
It becomes imperative to address some of the issues related
to crop production in Nigeria of which climate change is
one of them.
Climate change refers to changes or obvious variations and
alterations in climatic factors such as temperature, rainfall,
solar intensity, and relative humidity, over a long period of
time. Climate change is one of the paramount global issues
today which threatens the survival and thrive of humans,
animals, crops and ecosystems all over the world. Most
predominantly in developing nations like Nigeria, climate
change strongly impacts on various sectors including health,
water and land resources, and agriculture (Onu & Ikehi,
2016) [17]. Some climatic factors majorly temperature and
rainfall to a great extent influences crop production (Onu &
Ikehi, 2016) [17].
Soils are very crucial in crop production in Nigeria and
changing climate has effect on soil fertility and the output of
crops planted on them. Projected changes in temperature
and evapo-precipitation affiliated to climate change has
been predicted by researchers and consequently, impact
negatively on soil fertility due to changes in recycling of
organic matter and Carbon dioxide dynamics (Okafor,
Oladejo & Ikem, 2019) [14]. Soils are intricately linked to
climate system through the biogeochemical cycles such as
carbon, nitrogen, and hydrologic cycles (Shourine & Singh,
2021) [20]. Climate change invariably has a great effect on
soil processes and properties (St.Clair & Lynch, 2010) [21].
Erosion rates, organic-carbon losses, root growth and
function, root-microbe associations, soil moisture and plant
phenology are all impacted on by climate change and are
correlated to the mineral nutrition of soils (Gupta,
Sundaram, Mishra, Saggu, & Thakur, 2021) [8]. In
developing countries, Nigeria inclusive, the negative
impacts of climate change on soil fertility and mineral
nutrition of crops outweighs the beneficial effects, which
consequently escalates food insecurity (Shourine & Singh,
2021; Gupta, Sundaram, Mishra, Saggu, & Thakur, 2021)
[20, 8]. Studies have also predicted that over a long-run
climate change factors such as carbon dioxide emission,
rainfall, temperature and carbon emission (due to
manufacturing and industrial activities) will have a
significant influence on crop production (Agba, Adewara,
Adama, Adzer, & Atoyebi, 2017) [1]. Climate change affects
soil from its formation to its level of plant production and
inversely, Soil affects climatic changes directly and
indirectly as it is the main place of different biological and
biochemical cycles (Shourine & Singh, 2021) [20]. Mondal,
(2021) [11] opined that owing to the glaring facts that soils
are interrelated to climate system in a very complicated way
through biogeochemical cycles, global climate change is
predicted to have a possible impact on soil fertility through
the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil
since there is rise in temperature, alternation in precipitation
pattern, increase in greenhouse gas concentration in the
atmosphere, etc.
The impact of climate change of soil fertility and crop
production in general would vary from the North to the
Southern part of Nigeria since their climatic characteristics
are clearly distinct. In as much as more rainfall would
favour the soil with better hydration it would lead to
erosion, flooding and high rates of leaching-out of soil
nutrients mostly in the southern part of the country.
Likewise high temperatures invariably result to reduced soil
organic matter content. A study was made to assess the
potential impact of climate change on the main crops that
characterize Nigerian agriculture in the framework of the
Project Climate Risk Analysis in Nigeria (founded by World
Bank Contract n.7157826) and it was revealed that there
would be a general reduction in crop yields in particular in
the dryer regions of northern Nigeria (Ayinde, Muchie, &
Olatunji, 2017) [6]. Anabaraonye, Okafor, Ewa, and
Anukwonke (2021) [2] posed an argument that the rate in
agricultural productivity was consistently higher between
1981 and 1995, followed by a lesser growth rate in the
1996-2000 sub period with variations in the rainfall patterns
and temperature. Rainfall had positive effects while
temperature had negative effects on agricultural
International Journal of Research in Civil Engineering and Technology http://www.civilengineeringjournals.com/ijrcet
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productivity. However, rainfall from the previous year
negatively influenced the current year’s agricultural
productivity (Anabaraonye, Okafor, Ewa, & Anukwonke,
2021) [2].
Usman, et al., (2013) [26] in their study sought the perception
of farmers about the impact of climate change and soil
degradation. The farmers were of the opinion that soil and
its properties has changed as a result of soil erosion,
desertification, dessert encroachment, leaching, and other
related issues, and subsequently have resulted to reduced
soil quality, crop performance and crop yield in Kebbi State
(Northern Nigeria).
From the above-stated facts it becomes pertinent to
highlight some mitigation and adaptation strategies to aid
Nigerians to cope with the impact of climate change on crop
production. These mitigation and adaptation measures are
either simple conventional/indigenous planting methods or
emerging advanced technological methods and practices.
Some of the measures identified from empirical review
includes the following but are not limited to:
1. Changes in planting and harvesting periods in order to
grow crops according to the prevailing climate
condition.
2. Mixed cropping, multiple cropping, planting of cover
crops and crop rotation.
3. Use of resistant improved varieties and early maturing
crops.
4. Tree planting and afforestation.
5. Use of wetland or river valley.
6. Irrigation practices and water shed management.
7. Increased frequency of weeding.
8. Indigenous land husbandry practices (which comprises
of microclimate management and ethno-engineering).
9. Strengthening research and development for new
technologies.
10. Strengthening the establishment and implementation of
laws and regulations.
11. Intensify ecological agriculture.
12. Effective soil management practices.
13. Education and trainings for farmers and stakeholders.
14. Use of Agricultural Extension Services.
15. Establishment of functional metrological centres in the
rural areas to improve accurate and Timely Weather
Forecasting.
[Okpe & Aye (2015) [16]; Nwaiwu, et al., (2014) [13]; Onu &
Ikehi (2016) [17]; Okoli & Ifeakor, (2014) [15]]
Conclusion
The impact of climate change on crop production in Nigeria
is very profound. Educating farmers in rural and urban areas
in Nigeria on climate change adaptation and mitigation
strategies is an urgent task which needs to be undertaken by
governmental agencies, NGOs, community leaders, and
passionate climate change professionals for our sustainable
economic growth and development in Nigeria
(Anabaraonye, Okafor, & Hope, 2018) [3]. Grants and Loan
facilities should be readily available for farmers in both
rural and urban areas to support them in adaptation and
mitigation of the impact of climate change on crop
production in Nigeria. Environmental Leadership summits
for farmers on climate change and environmental
sustainability, intensive awareness outreach, climate change
poems and blogs, are recommended as important tools
which can be used in climate change education in rural and
urban areas in Nigeria for sustainability locally, nationally
and globally(Anabaraonye,Nji & Hope, 2018) [5]. Education
is seen as a human right, a key to civilization and
enlightenment and as source of wealth and power. It is the
cornerstone of the growth and development of any country’s
social, economic and political institutions.
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... In a study conducted by Musetha (2016) in Vhembe District Municipality, Limpopo Province South Africa, it was found that 99% of farmer's crops were affected by climate change. In Sekhukhune district, food production was negatively affected because of changes in rainfall patterns resulting in shortage of food availability (Masekoameng & Molotja, 2016). ...
Thesis
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Feeding the world’s growing population is a serious challenge. Food insecurity is concentrated in developing nations, where drought and low soil fertility are primary constraints to food production. Many crops in developing countries are supported by weathered soils in which nutrient deficiencies and ion toxicities are common. Many systems have declining soil fertility due to inadequate use of fertility inputs, ongoing soil degradation, and increasingly intense resource use by burgeoning populations. Climate models predict that warmer temperatures and increases in the frequency and duration of drought during the 21st century will have net negative effects on agricultural productivity. The potential effects of climate change on soil fertility and the ability of crops to acquire and utilize soil nutrients is poorly understood, but is essential for understanding the future of global agriculture. This paper explores how rising temperature, drought and more intense precipitation events projected in climate change scenarios for the 21st century might affect soil fertility and the mineral nutrition of crops in developing countries. The effects of climate change on erosion rates, soil organic carbon losses, soil moisture, root growth and function, root-microbe associations and plant phenology as they relate to mineral nutrition are discussed. Our analysis suggests that the negative impacts of climate change on soil fertility and mineral nutrition of crops will far exceed beneficial effects, which would intensify food insecurity, particularly in developing countries. KeywordsDrought-Erosion-Food security-Precipitation-Soil degradation-Soil organic carbon-Temperature
The impacts of Climate Chnage on Soil Fertility in Nigeria
  • B Anabaraonye
  • J C Okafor
  • B O Ewa
  • C C Anukwonke
Anabaraonye B, Okafor JC, Ewa BO, Anukwonke CC. The impacts of Climate Chnage on Soil Fertility in Nigeria. In D. K. Choudhary, A. Mishra, & A. Varma (Eds.), Climate Chnage and the Microbiome. Soil Biology Cham: Springer. 2021;63:607-621.
Educating Farmers in Rural Areas on Climate Change Adaptation for Sustainability in Nigeria
  • B Anabaraonye
  • C J Okafor
  • J Hope
Anabaraonye B, Okafor CJ, Hope J. Educating Farmers in Rural Areas on Climate Change Adaptation for Sustainability in Nigeria. Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018. W. Leal Filho (ed.), Handbook of Climate Change Resilience, Hyperlink, 2018. "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-71025-9_184-1" https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-71025-9_184-1