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Aspects of Human Adaptation to Life in Mesopotamia in the Light of Pottery Scenes and Pictographic Writing مظاهر تأقلم الانسان مع الحياة في بلاد الرافدين في ضوء المشاهد الفخارية والكتابة الصورية

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Abstract

One of the most important turning points that resulted in the achievements of man and human civilization in history, is first, the great climate change that occurred when the last glacial retreat began about 18,000 years ago, with the Middle Stone Age approximately. Secondly, the stage of man’s transition from gathering food to producing food, which is one of the most important steps that man has taken on his way to stability in the lifestyle thousands of years ago, and because of its importance, researchers called it the Neolithic Revolution. After the great change in the climate in the Near East region, human's confrontation with their new environment and trying to adapt to it constituted one of the most important challenges that man had to face, to ensure survival. And then this challenge led to the most important human discoveries, which are attempts to domesticate and agriculture: they began with attempts to grow grain, then succeeded little by little and became stable agriculture and led to the emergence of agricultural settlements, and this is mainly the content of adaptation. Because of the importance of that stage of human life in which writing was still non-existent and unknown, it was addressed by researchers from several aspects, and in light of archaeological evidence in terms of architectural styles, the development of stone tools, and pottery products (in terms of the accuracy of industry and techniques used), as well as Important studies were conducted on plant and animal remains, and other studies on the human lifestyle in the period following the discovery of agriculture. Despite the aforementioned studies on the archaeological remains, which revealed the many facades of life in Mesopotamia during that stage, the visual picture of the manifestations of adaptation to life and the extent of human harmony with natural phenomena in light of stability in that period, remains an important part to complement what His image is research and studies. Fortunately, the images and scenes painted on pottery from the late Neolithic and Metallic Age serve us, which by studying and analyzing them we aim to see the reflection of the reality of man's interaction and adaptation with his natural environment. Thus, our models come from pottery scenes from the region of Mesopotamia (Iraq and Syria) in the time frame that starts from the period of Hassuna, Samarra, Halaf and Ubaid, and finally some models from the era of Warka and Jemda-Nasr, and these are the models that carry the elements that serve the objectives of the research. One of the objectives of the research is also to track the developments that occurred in these inscriptions, which later became elements of the first and oldest models of writing in history, cuneiform writing, from its pictorial stage, and this confirms more that the elements and symbols of writing are rooted in pottery inscriptions from preceding eras. We use some scenes on pottery models from present-day Iran and Turkey for the purpose of comparison. Keywords: Pottery inscriptions Pictorial writing Adaptation Mesopotamia Prehistoric times
uom.atharalrafedain@gmail.comMail: -E


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ISSN 2664-2794 (Online)
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

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
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


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
             





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


           



           




Email: sarrood.mohammedtaher@su.edu.krd
 
Email: abdullah.othman@su.edu.krd

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

        









 




      

Aspects of Human Adaptation to Life in Mesopotamia in the
Light of Pottery Scenes and Pictographic Writing
Sarood Talib Mohammed Taher Abdullah Bakr Othman
Abstract:
One of the most important turning points that resulted in the
achievements of man and human civilization in history, is first, the great
climate change that occurred when the last glacial retreat began about
18,000 years ago, with the Middle Stone Age approximately. Secondly,
the stage of man’s transition from gathering food to producing food,
which is one of the most important steps that man has taken on his way to
stability in the lifestyle thousands of years ago, and because of its
importance, researchers called it the Neolithic Revolution.
After the great change in the climate in the Near East region, human's
confrontation with their new environment and trying to adapt to it
constituted one of the most important challenges that man had to face, to
ensure survival. And then this challenge led to the most important human


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discoveries, which are attempts to domesticate and agriculture: they
began with attempts to grow grain, then succeeded little by little and
became stable agriculture and led to the emergence of agricultural
settlements, and this is mainly the content of adaptation. Because of the
importance of that stage of human life in which writing was still non-
existent and unknown, it was addressed by researchers from several
aspects, and in light of archaeological evidence in terms of architectural
styles, the development of stone tools, and pottery products (in terms of
the accuracy of industry and techniques used), as well as Important
studies were conducted on plant and animal remains, and other studies on
the human lifestyle in the period following the discovery of agriculture.
Despite the aforementioned studies on the archaeological remains, which
revealed the many facades of life in Mesopotamia during that stage, the
visual picture of the manifestations of adaptation to life and the extent of
human harmony with natural phenomena in light of stability in that
period, remains an important part to complement what His image is
research and studies. Fortunately, the images and scenes painted on
pottery from the late Neolithic and Metallic Age serve us, which by
studying and analyzing them we aim to see the reflection of the reality of
man's interaction and adaptation with his natural environment. Thus, our
models come from pottery scenes from the region of Mesopotamia (Iraq
and Syria) in the time frame that starts from the period of Hassuna,
Samarra, Halaf and Ubaid, and finally some models from the era of
Warka and Jemda-Nasr, and these are the models that carry the elements
that serve the objectives of the research. One of the objectives of the
research is also to track the developments that occurred in these
inscriptions, which later became elements of the first and oldest models
of writing in history, cuneiform writing, from its pictorial stage, and this
confirms more that the elements and symbols of writing are rooted in
pottery inscriptions from preceding eras. We use some scenes on pottery
models from present-day Iran and Turkey for the purpose of comparison.
Keywords: Pottery inscriptions, Pictorial writing, Adaptation,
Mesopotamia, Prehistoric times.


           


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         
 


       
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   




 
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Breniquet
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
           

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97
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            
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     
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

 

TholoiCampbell


           


98




32, p.20:Fig.1935, Mallowan & Cruikshank()18,8, Fig.2010Campbell, (
         




          












Tobler






 
           



(Tobler 1950, PL. CXLV:398, Figs. 514, 523)




99

             





           Campbell


(Labat, 1994, p.2)

     













  



            



100
     














  
)5.18: fig. 1987; Akkermans, 13.5, fig.1997Nieuwenhuyse, Mallowan & (
)10, 7: 77:Fig. 1935, Cruikshank
 
(Tobler, 1950, Figs :244, 245, 275, 471)





 






101


(Lioyd, 1945, Fig.10 :7, Fig.13 :2, Fig.14 :9)







Mallowan



 
Mallowan & Cruikshank, 1935 : Fig.42 :2) (Mallowan, 1947, PL.LXXX :19 ; 20)




Campbell




   


102

  


(Labat, 1994, p.2, 104, 164)



















    
(Labat, 1994, p.2, 104, 164) (Mallowan & Cruikshank, 1935 :Fig.77:11)





103



        





 



















  
(Mallowan & Cruikshank, 1935 : Fig.42 :2 (Hijara, 1997: fig. 50.6)
  

6
GE




104
 



Labat, p.192-193)


A




 


(Hijara, 1980, p.148 :Fig.30 :5) (Ippolitoni, 1970, Fig.R:6(Labat, 1994,p.236)



   













105
           







(Akkermans, 1987, p.30 :11, 12) (LIyod & others,1945, Fig.2 :9)



2
U





(Labat, 1994, p.144)






            



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




106








     
     




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




           





         











(Mallowan & Cruikshank, 1935: fig. 77.5) (Goff, 1963: fig. 83.2)


107
      

 








     

.

(Goff, 1963, Fig.41) (Bernbeck, 1994, PL. IV)



            





(Labat,1994, p.138) (Mallowan & Cruikshank, 1935 p.154 : Fig.73)

108
 












 

)p.65; Grimbergen, 2016, :14,22 Fig.74Mallowan & Cruikshank, 1935, (





















AkkermansSchwartz




             
   



109


(Mallowan, 1936 : 50) (Grimbergen, 2016, p.67)





 




I 
(Maloowan, 1935, Fig.77:1) (Tobler, 1950, CXXXV, 256)



(Robert, 2010: Planche 4.20.1)




II

110














)65, p.2016Grimbergen, (


      



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




   

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


       



111
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


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     
 
 



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








(Tobler 1950, PL. CXLV:398) (Tobler 1950, PL. CXLV:398)
      






112




(Mallowan & Cruikshank,1935: fig.77.12) (Tobler,1950,CXXXIII,fig.252)





 










):130 (Akkermans, 1988, PL.17 (Tobler, 1950, CXXXV, Fig.280)

            



113


(Labat,1994, p 72, 74-75)











(Mallowan & Cruikshank, 1935, fig. 77.8)











114


( Goff, 1963: fig. 80) (Mallowan & Cruikshank, 1935, Fig. 77 :14)
























             



(Mallowan & Cruikshank, 1935,Fig.39 :3)


115









(Goff, 1963, Fig. 37)
Goff
        



AkkermansSchwartz






)158, p.236, p.1994Labat, () 1165.THL 15: Lámina 2013Cruells, (


116


(Braidwood, 1952Fig.12:5)
          
Breniquet




          
             


 


(Robert, 2010: Pl. 4.25.2) (Labat, 1994, p.170:374)

)Mallowan & Rose, 1935: fig. 77.8(




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          
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

.senJacob
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118
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            
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      
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      
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
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




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


(Goff, 1963, Figs. 32, 33, 34)
Goff

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
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
            




119
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)65, p.2016Grimbergen, ()1071.THL 15: Lámina 2013Cruells, (
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         










  

  

120
 





(Lyiod & others, 1945, Pl.17 :2 &3(Ippolitoni,1970-71 p.136)








    



  



(Goff, 1963, Fig.97) (Akkermans, 1987, p.28 :4)


121








(Garfinkle, 1998, Fig.3 :3) (Garfinkle, 1998, Fig.3 :5)

(Garfinkle, 1998, Fig.3 :2)





 
 

  









122
  5
(Goff, 1963, Fig. 101) (Mallowan,1935, Fig.77 :19)

)3: .x , Fig1970Ippolitoni, (

















)7: 2, Fig.1998Garfinkle, (


123


 
 




 )9& 8: 4, Fig.1998Garfinkle, (
          








   

 
(Garfinkle, 2003: fig. 8.3.d) (Akkermans, 1989, 210)


124

)Ipek, 2019, p.170, Fig.85:6(
II



II)4.36.7: Planche 2010Robert, (

   
      
           




    







125
   
(Grimbergen, 2016, p.65) (Goff, 1963, Fig.30) 
  
        
   
   
   Breniquet     








Breniquet





        


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
           






 










            





1. Mellart, J., (1975) The Neolithic of the Near East, New York : Scribner, p.148
2. Breniquet, C., (1992)b, ‘’ A propos du vase halafien de la Tombe G2 de Tell
Arpachiyah’’, Iraq 54, p. 5-30
3. Mallowan, M., and Cruikshank, J., (1935), “Excavations at Tall Arpachiyah,
1933”, Iraq , Vol. 2/1, pp.154165
4. Campbell, S., (2010), “Understanding symbols: putting meaning into the painted
pottery of prehistoric northern Mesopotamia”, In: The Development of Pre-state
Communities in the Ancient Near East: Studies in Honour of Edgar Peltenburg,
Oxbow Books, p.144



127

Campbell, S., (1992), The Halaf Period in Iraq:
Old Sites and New”, The Biblical Archaeologist 55/4
5. Breniquet, 1992b, p.75
6. Weninger, B., P., & others, (2009) “The Impact of Rapid Climate Change on
Prehistoric Societies during the Holocene in the Eastern Mediterranean”,
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


             


Arpachiyah




M. Mallowan



   Excavations at Tell ‘’ )1935Mallowan M. and Cruikshank J. ( 42, Iraq; Hijara, I. (1980) ‘’Arpachiah’’, 178-1, pp. 1 IraqArpachiyah, 1933’’, .154-pp.131
 Tepe Gawra 




’’, urbain de Mésopotamie-Tepe Gawra et le monde proto ) ‘’2009Butterlin, P. ( urbain de Mésopotamie, about Tepe -: A propos de Tepe Gawra, le monde proto dans . 15-23, pp.1 Subartuurban World in Mesopotamia, P.Butterlin (dir.), -Gawra, a proto
10. Hijara, I. (1997). The Halaf Period in Northern Mesopotamia. London: Nabu
Publications, pp.131-154
11. Campbell, 1992, p.182
  DomuzTepe 
  
   
 



 Elusive Complexity : New Data from late ) “2003Gauld, S. and others ( Carter, E. 133 ; -Halaf Domuztepe in South Central Turkey”, Paléorient29/2, p.117
and S. Campbell, (2008) The Domuztepe project 2006”, Kazı Sonu ları . 124Toplantısı 29/3, p.

128
13. Campbell, S. and Fletcher, A. (2013) ‘’Scale and integration in northern
Mesopotamia in the early 6th millennium cal. BCE’’, In : Interpreting the Late
Neolithic of Upper Mesopotamia, Nieuwenhuyse, O.P. and others (Eds.), Isd,
p.46
14. Tobler, A. J. (1950). : Excavations at Tepe Gawra, I, (Museum Monographs 4),
Philadelphia., p.157
15. Campbell, 2010, p.128
16. Breniquet, C., (1986) ‘’Nouvelle hypoth se sur la disparition de la culture de
Halaf ‘’, in: Huot J.-L. (ed.), Prehistoire de la Mesopotamie. La Mesopotamie
prehistorique et l’exploration recente du Djebel Hamrin, Paris, p.237
17. Benitti, C., (2020) "The Halaf tradition in Upper Mesopotamia: some questions
about socio-economic background and identity", in: Marco Iamoni (Edited by),
"From the Prehistory of Upper Mesopotamia to the Bronze and Iron Age Societies
of the Levant. Volume 1. Trieste, EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, p.50
 
  Tell Sabi Abyad  





Tell Sabi ) ‘’2011Van der Plicht and others (
Abyad, Syria: Radiocarbon Chronology, Cultural Change, and the 8.2 ka Event”,
. 4353/2, p 229 Radiocarbon
20. Mallowan, M., (1969), “Rediscovered Skulls from Arpachiyah”, Iraq, Vol. 31/1,
p.52
 Tell Hassuna


Lloyd, S., and Safar, F., (1944), “Tell Hassuna: Excavations by
the Iraq Government Directorate General of Antiquities in 1943 and 1944”.
289-255Journal Near Eastern Studies, pp.
 Tell Brak

 
David Oates

Archaeology in Mesopotamia Digging ) ‘’2005Oates, D. ( . 391 ,pp. 113 Proceedings of the British AcademyDeeper at Tell Brak’’,
23. Mallowan M. (1947) ‘’Excavations at Brak and Chagar Bazar’’, Iraq 9, p.249
24. Campbell, 1992, p.184             

 


129
27. Oates, J., (1969) “Choga Mami 1967–68: a Preliminary Report”, Iraq, 31, pp.123-
128

 
29. Campbell, 1992, p.184
             

 
32. Labat, R. (1995) Manuel d'épigraphie akkadienne : signes, syllabaire,
idéogrammes, Geuthner, p.193
33.Ibid, p.237 