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Abstract

Background: The purpose of this study was to address a dearth in the literature on non-response bias in parent-based interventions (PBIs) by investigating parenting constructs that might be associated with whether a parent volunteers to participate in a no-incentive college drinking PBI. Method: Incoming first-year students (N = 386) completed an online questionnaire that included items assessing plausible predictors of participation in a PBI (students' drinking, perceptions of parents' harm-reduction and zero-tolerance alcohol communication, whether parents allowed alcohol, and changes in parents' alcohol rules). Four months later, all parents of first-year students at the study university were invited to join the PBI, which was described as a resource guide to teach them how to help their student navigate the college transition and prepare them for life at their university. Results: Parents who signed up for the intervention used greater harm-reduction communication than those who did not sign up, were more likely to have allowed alcohol use, and signing up was significantly associated with student reports that fathers became less strict toward drinking after high school. Students' drinking and zero-tolerance communication did not significantly differ between the groups. Conclusion: Results indicate that non-response bias can be an issue when utilizing a real-world, non-RCT recruitment approach to invite parents into a PBI (i.e., non-incentivized, inviting all parents). Findings suggest that more comprehensive recruitment strategies may be required to increase parent diversity in PBIs.

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... the baseline questionnaire, students were asked to provide their parents information to invite them into the study (N=2,867). Since mothers are more likely to volunteer to participate in this type of research Morgan et al., 2022;Varvil-Weld et al., 2013) and findings suggest associations between mother-child communication and child alcohol use and other risk behavior are stronger than those with father-child communication (Abar et al., 2009;Cleveland et al., 2014;Turrisi et al., 1994), we invited all participants' mothers and we randomly invited 30% fathers of students whose mothers agreed to be in the study. There was also a small percent of students who did not report having a mother (<3%). ...
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This study explored secondary effects of a multisite randomized alcohol prevention trial on tobacco, marijuana, and other illicit drug use among a sample of incoming college students who participated in high school athletics. Students (n = 1,275) completed a series of Web-administered measures at baseline during the summer before starting college and 10 months later. Students were randomized to one of four conditions: a parent-delivered intervention, a brief motivation enhancement intervention (Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students [BASICS]), a condition combining the parent intervention and BASICS, and assessment-only control. A series of analyses of variance evaluating drug use outcomes at the 10-month follow-up assessment revealed significant reductions in marijuana use among students who received the combined intervention compared to the BASICS-only and control groups. No other significant differences between treatment conditions were found for tobacco or other illicit drug use. Our findings suggest the potential utility of targeting both alcohol and marijuana use when developing peer- and parent-based interventions for students transitioning to college. Clinical implications and future research directions are considered.
Article
The current study examined whether permitting young women to drink alcohol at home during senior year of high school reduces the risk of heavy drinking in college. Participants were 449 college-bound female high school seniors, recruited at the end of their senior year. Participants were classified into one of three permissibility categories according to their baseline reports of whether their parents allowed them to drink at home: (a) not permitted to drink at all; (b) allowed to drink with family meals; (c) allowed to drink at home with friends. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare the drinking behaviors of the three groups at the time of high school graduation and again after the first semester of college. Students who were allowed to drink at home during high school whether at meals or with friends, reported more frequent heavy episodic drinking (HED) in the first semester of college than those who reported not being allowed to drink at all. Those who were permitted to drink at home with friends reported the heaviest drinking at both time points. Path analysis revealed that the relationship between alcohol permissiveness and college HED was mediated via perceptions of parental alcohol approval.
Article
The current study tested age of onset as a moderator of intervention efficacy on drinking and consequence outcomes among a high-risk population of college students (i.e., former high school athletes). Students were randomized to one of four conditions: assessment only control, combined parent-based intervention (PBI) and brief motivational intervention (BMI), PBI alone, and BMI alone. Participants (n = 1,275) completed web-administered measures at baseline (summer before starting college) and 10-month follow-up. Overall, the combined intervention demonstrated the strongest and most consistent reductions across all outcomes, particularly with the youngest initiators. Participants who initiated drinking at the youngest ages had significantly lower peak drinking, typical weekly drinking, and reported consequences at follow-up when they received the combined intervention when compared to the control group. The BMI and PBI groups, when examined independently, demonstrated significant effects across outcomes but were inconsistent across the different age groups. Results suggest the combination of a PBI and a peer-delivered BMI is an appropriate and efficacious way to reduce drinking and related consequences among individuals who initiated drinking earlier in adolescence and are at an increased risk of experiencing alcohol problems.
Article
Suboptimal childhood vaccination uptake results in disease outbreaks, and in developed countries is largely attributable to parental choice. To inform evidence-based interventions, we conducted a systematic review of factors underlying parental vaccination decisions. Thirty-one studies were reviewed. Outcomes and methods are disparate, which limits synthesis; however parents are consistently shown to act in line with their attitudes to combination childhood vaccinations. Vaccine-declining parents believe that vaccines are unsafe and ineffective and that the diseases they are given to prevent are mild and uncommon; they mistrust their health professionals, Government and officially-endorsed vaccine research but trust media and non-official information sources and resent perceived pressure to risk their own child's safety for public health benefit. Interventions should focus on detailed decision mechanisms including disease-related anticipated regret and perception of anecdotal information as statistically representative. Self-reported vaccine uptake, retrospective attitude assessment and unrepresentative samples limit the reliability of reviewed data - methodological improvements are required in this area.
Article
This study examined the impact of parental modeled behavior and permissibility of alcohol use in late high school on the alcohol use and experienced negative drinking consequences of college students. Two-hundred ninety college freshmen at a large university were assessed for perceptions of their parents' permissibility of alcohol use, parents' alcohol-related behavior, and own experienced negative consequences associated with alcohol use. Results indicate that parental permissibility of alcohol use is a consistent predictor of teen drinking behaviors, which was strongly associated with experienced negative consequences. Parental modeled use of alcohol was also found to be a risk factor, with significant differences being seen across the gender of the parents and teens. Discussion focuses on risk factors and avenues for prevention research.
Article
To determine demographic, functional, and health-related factors that may have influenced the selection of older adults for a randomized trial of balance enhancement. Comparison of participants with nonparticipants at various stages of the recruiting process. Northeastern suburban community. Registered voters aged 75 and older (n = 7191). Demographic, health-related, functional, balance, gait, and falling characteristics. The overall participation rate in the randomized trial was 1.5%. Compared with nonparticipants, participants were significantly more likely to be male, married, living with others, living in a house, highly educated, healthy, and physically active. Recruiting older subjects by mail to studies of rigorous interventions can produce significant selection biases that may limit the population to which results can be generalized.
Article
The research evaluated the efficacy of an intervention to reduce the onset and extent of binge drinking during the 1st year of college. The approach was on influencing the students before they start college, through their parents, during the critical time between high school graduation and the beginning of college. Specifically, parents were educated about binge drinking and how to convey information to their teens, and then encouraged to talk with their teens just before their teens embarked on their college education. Teens whose parents implemented the intervention materials were compared with a control sample during their 1st semester on drinking outcomes, perceptions about drinking activities, perceived parental and peer approval of drinking, and drinking-related consequences. As anticipated, teens in the treatment condition were significantly different (p < .05) on nearly all outcomes in the predicted directions (e.g., lower drinking tendencies, drinking consequences). The benefits of a parent-based intervention to prevent college drinking are discussed.
Article
The authors compared parents' perceptions of their college student children's health and health risk behaviors with the college students' own reports. One hundred sixty-four parent-college student child dyads completed questionnaires regarding the students' health, illness status, and health risk behaviors. Parents tended to be overoptimistic about their children's health and health risk behaviors, underestimating the frequency of their children's alcohol, smoking, marijuana, and sex-related behaviors, and overestimating the students' self-reports of general health. Such misperceptions may inhibit parent-student conversations about health and risky health behavior, ultimately putting the student at greater health risk.
Article
(1) To explore the social and cultural influences, and health beliefs associated with low uptake of MMR (measles, mumps and rubella vaccine). (2) To describe and explore the prevalence of health beliefs associated with non-compliance with MMR, with a view to improving the personal relevance and impact of information for parents, in the context of persisting low uptake following public controversy. We undertook a survey of mothers' experiences of and attitudes to the MMR, developed through ethnographic study, which was linked to maternal and child information on the Child Health Database in Brighton, England. Mothers interpret MMR risk through concepts of child health embedded in family health history, with a majority both of compliers and non-compliers holding that each child's immune system is unique. Cultural 'risk factors' for non-compliance relate strongly to the use of complementary healthcare, such as homeopathy, with evidence that rejection of vitamin K is associated with MMR non-compliance. Forty per cent, both of compliers and non-compliers, did not consider the possible benefits to other children of MMR. These findings have paradoxical and challenging consequences for the promotion of immunization in the policy context of increasing emphasis on healthy choices. They demonstrate the need for immunization information that acknowledges and addresses lay concepts of immunity.
Article
To investigate parents' views regarding potential new vaccines. We examined attitudes towards severity of specific infections, acceptability of potential vaccines and preferences for the number of injections they would want their child to receive on any one occasion. Cross sectional survey. Parents of children aged 18-24 months in three Primary Care Trusts in England were asked to complete a questionnaire. Of the 859 parents who responded (38%), over 90% believed that the vaccines currently on offer prevent disease always or almost always. Of those who rated meningitis as serious or very serious, 84% would accept a vaccine against meningococcal group B infection and 69% against pneumococcal infection. Only 34% of those who said their child would make a full recovery from chicken pox would accept a vaccine. Over half the respondents preferred new vaccines to be given separately. Fifty seven percent of parents would not want their child to have more than two injections per clinic visit. Parents' views on the severity of illness influence their acceptance of a new vaccine. Their preference for as few injections as possible at a single clinic visit needs to be reconciled with their concerns over the use of combination vaccines.