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Corporative Governance in an International Context

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Abstract

The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of corporative governance on international context in private business in Erbil. A random sampling technique was used, where all employees had equal chances of being selected for the sample. The study was carried out at private business in Erbil. The researchers distributed 170 questionnaires, only 156 questionnaires were received and from 156 questionnaires only 144 questionnaires were completed properly. Corporative governance can be an effective tool that many countries across the world can use to reduce such disparities evident in most firms. The findings revealed that the correlation between corporative governance factor as independent factor and International Context as dependent factor. The value of R for the Corporative governance = .386** which indicates that turnover is significantly but has weak correlation with International Context. Moreover, it was found that the value Beta for turnover = .386> 0.01, this indicates that turnover factor was positively and weak correlation with corporative governance.
International Journal of Rural Development, Environment and Health Research
(IJREH)
ISSN: 2456-8678
[Vol-6, Issue-3, May-Jun, 2022]
Issue DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijreh.6.3
Article DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijreh.6.3.1
Int. Ru. Dev. Env. He. Re. 2022 1
Vol-6, Issue-3; Online Available at: https://www.aipublications.com/ijreh/
Corporative Governance in an International Context
Swran Jawamir Jwmaa1, Idrees Sadeq Kanabi2, Saif Qudama Younus3, Zaid Saad Ismail4,
Hawta Tareq Faieq5, Baban Jabbar Othman6, Rozhgar Khorsheed Mahmood7, Bayar
Gardi8, Diyar Abdulmajeed Jamil9
1,2,3Department of Business Administration, College of Administration and Financial Sciences, Knowledge University, Kirkuk Road,
44001 Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
4,7,8,9Department of Accounting, College of Administration and Financial Sciences, Knowledge University, Kirkuk Road, 44001 Erbil,
Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
5Department of Accounting, College of Administration and Financial Sciences, Knowledge University, Kirkuk Road, 44001 Erbil,
Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
Department of Accounting, Gasha Technical Institute, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
6Department of Business Administration, College of Administration and Financial Sciences, Knowledge University, Kirkuk Road, 44001
Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
Received: 25 Apr 2022; Received in revised form: 14 May 2022; Accepted: 19 May 2022; Available online: 24 May 2022
©2022 The Author(s). Published by AI Publications. This is an open access article under the CC BY license
(https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
Abstract The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of corporative governance on
international context in private business in Erbil. A random sampling technique was used, where all
employees had equal chances of being selected for the sample. The study was carried out at private
business in Erbil. The researchers distributed 170 questionnaires, only 156 questionnaires were received
and from 156 questionnaires only 144 questionnaires were completed properly. Corporative governance
can be an effective tool that many countries across the world can use to reduce such disparities evident in
most firms. The findings revealed that the correlation between corporative governance factor as
independent factor and International Context as dependent factor. The value of R for the Corporative
governance = .386** which indicates that turnover is significantly but has weak correlation with
International Context. Moreover, it was found that the value Beta for turnover = .386> 0.01, this indicates
that turnover factor was positively and weak correlation with corporative governance.
Keywords Corporative Governance, International Context, Private Sector, Kurdistan.
I. INTRODUCTION
Board diversity is a mainstream corporate governance
issue that has been in existence for a very long time. This
is an issue that does not seem to be going away anytime
soon. Essentially, it is a natural consequence of various
questions being asked about companies or organizations
(Aguilera et al. 2021). Despite the historical emphasis that
are common in corporate governance on a need to have
balanced corporate governance, as well as, have the right
capabilities to be effective, there is some perceptions that
insinuate that boards usually made up of many similar
individuals. Boards need to be able to respond to this new
fact or reality by recognizing how diversity can easily
contribute to effectiveness of a board (Naciti et al. 2021).
Domain of corporate governance
Board diversity is an element that covers different areas in
regard to corporate governance of diverse organizations
across different regions. The issue of diversity on boards
entails the groups that are found in firms, which in this
case may include issues of gender and individuals with
special needs at both private and public corporates
(Greuning & Brajovic-Bratanovic, 2022). The question of
what is being done to address the issues that affect
diversity in order to increase it also come into mind in this
context. In addition, the question of why there are few
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women, as well as other under-represented groups on both
the public and private sector boards come into play in this
particular context (Zaman et al. 2022).
Reports from previous researches indicate that there are
available evidence that examines both academic and non-
academic literature in this field, in the United Kingdom
and Internationally. Such reports review available evidence
that concern the factors that account for the absence of
diversity on boards across many government corporates.
Additionally, the reports map out the current practices that
are aimed at increasing the element of board diversity in
government corporates (Hamad et al. 2021). The review of
evidence in this case is focused in revealing the persistent
under representation of certain groups like women,
disabled people and ethnic minorities in both the public
and private sector. However, it is essential to acknowledge
that most evidence in the United Kingdom and abroad
mainly focus on gender rather than the underrepresented
groups. In this regard, there are three board categories that
provide explanation about the lack of diversity in boards
(Tibiletti et al. 2021). These categories include; individual
level, interpersonal level and the appointment process
(Gardi et al. 2021).
The category of individual level shows that there was no
evidence that was found in regard to the underrepresented
groups having lack of skills or qualifications to be on
boards. Additionally, there was a perceived lack of
opportunity for the underrepresented groups at the board
level, which were cited to cause such individuals to have
lower career expectations. Moreover, persistent, as well as
unconscious stereotyping of the underrepresented groups
was stated to lead to biased perceptions of both skills and
aspiration (Gerged, 2021). The category of interpersonal
level on the other hand showed that diverse candidates
usually lack capital and are commonly excluded from
influential social networks, hence the trait affects access to
boards. Furthermore, boardroom cultures were also stated
to be at times inhospitable to persons from the
underrepresented groups (Qader et al. 2021). Lastly, the
category of appointment process showed that this is a
process that remains open to a subjective bias as a result of
a lack of transparency in relation to openings and unclear
criterion of selection, especially in the private sector (Lund
& Pollman, 2021). Notably, the weak links that may exist
between consultancies and diverse candidates are
commonly a problem, particularly in the private sector
(Hamza et al. 2021).
There various notable gaps that exist in the evidence based
on board diversity in regard to international governance of
organizations. These gaps are evident in the public sector
boards, international comparisons, some underrepresented
groups, boardroom dynamics and the effectiveness of
several initiatives used to improve diversity (Hamad et al.
2021). In relations to the underrepresented groups, the
gaps of evidences in this case reflect issues of ethnicity,
sexual orientation equality and disability. Such gaps are
commonly regarded as one of the major problems in the
research of conclusive information in relation to the
various issues perceived to attributed to the board diversity
in government corporates on an international perspectives,
as illustrated by various research studies (De Villiers &
Dimes, 2021).
Roles of boards
Boards are critical elements in corporate governance that
provide the general running of organizations, with a direct
impact on the overall performance of companies across the
globe. The board is entitled to understand and effectively
meet its respective obligations to the stakeholders of the
company. It is the role of the board to lead the entire
company’s group within a framework of effective and
prudent controls, which are crucial in the risk assessment
and management of the organization. In addition, the board
approves the group’s objectives, as well as ensuring that
all sufficient resources are available for the company to
meet its objectives (Hamza et al. 2021). Essentially, the
board usually needs its directors to have sets of skills that
complement one another and together, as a solely unified
board that brings appropriate balance of experience,
innovation, challenge and independence to enhance
effective decision making (Lu & Wang, 2021).
The role of the chairman in the board is manly to lead the
unified board and to facilitate its members into ensuring
that responsibility that enhance principles and processes of
the entire board are effectively maintained. The agendas of
all meetings on board members are usually agreed in
consultation with the company’s chief executive and
secretary, although any director in the organization may
request for an item to be added into the agenda. Notably, in
most companies, the chairman is given an authority to act
and speak for the entire board between its meetings, an act
that should engage the chief executive of the company.
Reports from previous studies reveal that the board and the
committee chairmen are appropriate individuals in the
decisions and actions that are made between meetings of
an organization’s board (Jan et al. 2021). In this case, these
individuals should meet the non-executive directors
without the presence of directors in order to consider the
performance of the company’s executive directors and
ultimately provide feedback.
The non-executive directors are individuals who can be
appointed into the board to contribute their external
expertise, as well as experience in areas of importance to
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groups like the general finance, corporate finance,
corporate strategy, general management, supply chain
management, customer care and environmental and
scientific matters. These persons are also crucial in boards
as they also provider rigor and challenge in the
deliberations of the board and equally encourage them to
make independent assessments of the competencies of the
group in the organization (Ali et al. 2021). Non-execute
directors can meet the chairman several times in a year in
the event there are opportunities for them to appraise the
performance of the chairman, an aspect that makes them
extremely important in the board (Zattoni & Pugliese,
2021).
The boards also have chief executive as an important entity
that aid in achieving the strategic goals of the company.
The chief executive is empowered to take all necessary
decisions and actions that further the strategy of the
company, whereby their judgment is reasonable in regard
to their position in the company. More importantly, the
non-executive directors led by the chairman are required to
appraise the performance of the chief executive every year.
In addition, the executive directors are also another group
that is held responsible for implementing the strategic
forward of the company (Nuskiya et al. 2021). The group
is commonly committed to the implementation of strategy
in a responsible way that will take account of the
company’s commitment for long term responsible
stewardship of the organization’s business, the customers,
environment and communities that live within the
company’s physical location (Younas et al. 2021).
Empirical literature
As a governance tool in corporations, board diversity is
often regarded as a debatable topic in academic research.
Based on a corporate governance perspective, the various
ways in which board diversity contributes to an excellent
corporate governance, as well as increased firm value,
finds that consequently emerge are not altogether clear
(Faeq et al. 2021). From the evidence that is drawn from
empirical research, the results that emerge are usually
mixed and inconclusive. Although academics may be
presumed to be the cause for the disconnection from the
practical elements of everyday life in most corporations,
the business practitioners seem not to be wiser (Akoi &
Yesiltas, 2020). Recent studies show that, despite showing
universal assent to the diversity value abstract, corporate
directors, as well as officers have commonly experienced
difficulties in providing specific examples of instances in
which diversity adds value to their respective boards.
Furthermore, studies that seek the relation between board
diversity and corporate performance have severally
identified various major benefits, as well as costs of
diversity. In relation to the benefits expected, the positive
business of the element of diversity of boards includes
numerous aspects. Firstly, board diversity is projected to
improve access to information, yield more effective
problem solving and increase creativity. Secondly, it can
enhance better understanding of the customers,
marketplace and suppliers. In addition, board diversity can
also yield improved relations with employees in a
corporation by signaling that the given organization or
company values diversity and equally offers mentoring, as
well as advancement of opportunities for all employee
groups (Jebran & Chen, 2021). Lastly, board diversity also
ensures improved public image specifically by providing
conformity of the societal expectations (Witt et al. 2021).
In regard to cost perspective of board diversity, the
potential downsides are as follows. Firstly, it is projected
yield a decreased cohesion in organizations boards,
subsequently resulting in distrust among individuals in the
company, lack of cooperation, as well as a breakdown in
communication. Secondly, the implementation of board
diversity in corporates is a lengthy and costly decision
making process. In addition, quality of decision making
can also decrease due to insufficient business of directors
that are chosen on the suggested diversity criteria (Akoi et
al. 2021). Ultimately, board diversity can easily enhance
conflicts of interest among directors whose major aim is to
promote ideologies and agendas in an organization (Faeq,
2022).
From a perspective of corporate governance, some of the
major promising arguments that support diversity are
commonly those that link diversity with the improved
ability by directors to discharge their main duties. In this
case, the first duty that comes into the argument is the duty
of skill, care and diligence. Moreover, the improved access
to information, viewpoints of diversity and the greater
scope for debates could easily increase the quality of the
judgment of business, as well as the outcomes of board
deliberations (Faeq et al. 2021). For instance, a good
example is the duty of directors to take into account
specific interest of stakeholders, while at the same time
promoting the success of the organization as a whole. In
such a scenario, board diversity may be helpful to directors
in weighing more accurately any relevant considerations
by aiding in correction of some of their biases and
prejudices (Karim et al. 2021). Moreover, the diverse traits
associated a certain gender or ethnicity create behavioral
and cognitive diversity in the boardroom, which in turn
could lead to more balanced assessment of relevant
considerations for each decision.
Board diversity as a governance tool may also assist the
non-executive directors in discharging their respective
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oversight duty, subsequently requiring them to scrutinize
the performance of executive directors, as well as risk
management and system of financial controls of a
company. Diversified boards are capable of increasing the
independence of non-executives directors by drastically
reducing probability of group-think. In this regard, group-
think is a feature that involves homogenous groups and
manifested in extreme loss of individual creativity, as well
as independent thinking due to loyalty to norms of groups
and desire for harmony (Ali et al. 2021). Consequently,
diverse boards undermine the aspect of homogeneity that
is required by group-think and equally reduce the chances
of uncritical rubber stamping of decisions by management.
Ultimately, the various avenue of research could
eventually bring crucial insights into the diversity value as
a tool in corporate governance (Rohyati & Suripto, 2021).
In most advanced societies of modern world, it is
acceptable to doubt the real value of diversity in boards. In
the context of the corporate governance, an attempt to seek
more concrete causal relationship between good corporate
governance and board diversity does not call into the
question about the intrinsic diversity with firms (Akoi &
Andrea, 2020). In contrast, this exercise will work a long
way in providing contextual evidence in support of
diversity as a critical and overarching value (Ahmed &
Faeq, 2020).
Board diversity differs internationally
Board diversity is an aspect that greatly differs in many
corporates across the world internationally. The issue of
board diversity is addressed different from different
regions of the world. For instance, the legislative
mechanisms that have been put in place to encourage
board diversity in the European union differs from the
mechanism that have been put in place in North America
and other regions of the globe. The diversity of boards
mainly involves the number of women or underrepresented
individuals in the corporate world (Zhou et al. 2021). Such
diversity is mainly determined by the corporate
governance tools that have been put in place to encourage
more representation of individuals on basis of gender and
other aspect of underrepresented individuals in
organizations (Faraj et al. 2021).
Despite various attempts by researchers to promote
diversity in workplaces in the United Kingdom, there has
been a characterization of slow progress in the
advancement of women, as well as underrepresented
groups onto both the public and private boards. In this
case, many governments, as well as that of the UK, have
set up legal frameworks that aim at increasing the diversity
of boards in all public sectors. For instance, the European
parliament in November 2013 approved the EU legislative
proposal that was aimed at improving the gender balance
in all company boards (Ali et al. 2021). The proposed
directive set a 40 percent minimal threshold of the
underrepresented sex in the non-executive board member
position in certain companies and a flexi-quota for
executive directors, which are to be met by the year 2020.
In the event the proposal becomes law, region’s companies
that were publicly listed with less than 40 percent of
women in their non-executive board members will
mandatorily be required to adopt a mode of selection
procedure for board members, in order to give priority to
qualified candidates who are women (Ismael et al. 2022).
In addition, small and medium sized enterprises, although
not bound by the requirement, will be encouraged to
improve on their gender balance at al management levels,
as well as boards (Rohyati & Suripto, 2021).
Corporate board diversity, which is mostly represented in
the form of gender diversity, has been extremely dynamic
area of corporate governance internationally over the past
decade. In the European region, Norway is ranked as the
frontrunner in implementing reforms that promote gender
diversity, whereby a 40 percent quota of women on boards
being imposed on numerous public listed companies since
the year 2003. Several other European nations, such as
France, Spain, Netherlands and Belgium, have also passed
laws that impose quotas of women representation on
boards (Cordova et al. 2021). The United Kingdom on the
other hand has preferred a soft approach on law. In this
case, the UK Corporate Governance Code has been put in
place and recommends that board members should be
appointed on merit and against objective criteria, which is
in due regard to the board diversity benefits, including
gender. In addition, in 2010, the United Kingdom
government also commissioned Lord Davies to extensively
investigate the barriers that prevented women from
reaching the roles that enabled them to participate in
decision-making processes in corporations (Akoi et al.
2021). The report by Davies after the investigation showed
that a soft law approach was recommendable for voluntary
and disclosure based strategy that was aimed at creating a
culture of board diversity within corporations (Faeq et al.
2021).
Some earlier researches assert that the disparities
evident in boardrooms are merely attributed to the type of
corporate governance tools that have been adapted in
different regions to address the issue of board diversity. It
is evident that women and underrepresented people in
many organizations are less considered to be part of board
discussions that critical in strategic planning of companies
in achieving their overall goals. The performance of firms
is usually dependent of the discussions that take place in
boardrooms, hence people who take part in such
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discussions have only been chosen in basis of stereotypical
perceptions rather than merit. In such scenarios, the
women and other unrepresented groups like people with
certain disabilities have only been left out (Kamal, 2021).
Most boards in firms across different parts of the world
have commonly been found to be male dominated, hence
issues of gender come into play for such demographics.
II. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Design of the Study
The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of
corporative governance on international context in private
business in Erbil. The questionnaire was divided into two
sections, the first section consisted of demographic
questions; starting with respondent ‘s age and respondents
‘gender. The second part of questionnaire consisted of 39
questions, 18 questions for international context and 11
questions for corporative governance.
Sampling Size and Target Population
A random sampling technique was used, where all
employees had equal chances of being selected for the
sample. The study was carried out at private business in
Erbil. The researchers distributed 170 questionnaires, only
156 questionnaires were received and from 156
questionnaires only 144 questionnaires were completed
properly.
Instruments
The questionnaire is structured in the form of multiple-
choice questions. The participants were asked to rate how
strongly they agree on each item on a five points Likert
order scale.
III. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
Table 1-Demographic analysis
Items
Scales
Frequency
Age
20-25
41
26-30
30
31-35
26
36-40
20
40-45
16
45 and above
11
Gender
Male
93
Female
51
Table (1), shows demographic analysis for respondents
participated in this study. 41 participants were from age
20-25 years old, 30 respondents were from age 26-30 years
old, 26 respondents were from age 31-35 years old, 20
respondents were from age 36-40 years old, 16
respondents were from age 40-45 years old and only 11
respondents were from age 45 years old and above. In
terms of participants ‘gender; 93 participants were male
and 51 participants were female.
Table 2- Factor analysis
Factor
Items
Factor loading
International
Context
Question 1
.512
Question 2
.613
Question 3
.704
Question 4
.811
Question 5
.757
Question 6
.614
Question 7
.534
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Question 8
.789
Corporative
Governance
Question 1
.656
Question 2
.898
Question 3
.749
Question 4
.715
Question 5
.864
Question 6
.766
Factor analysis determines essential variables that
clarify the outline of associations within a set of perceived
variables. Factor analysis is frequently used in reducing
data to classify a small number of variables that clarify
most of the variance perceived in greater number of visible
variables. Table (2) indicates that the international context
factor has 8 items and corporative governance factor has 6
items.
Table 3-Reliability Statistics
Factor
Cronbach's Alpha
N of Items
International Context
.812
7
Corporative governance
.799
6
International Context and
Corporative Governance
.805
13
Table (3) shows the reliability analysis for both
factors (international context and corporative governance).
According to the reliability tests, the researchers found out
Cronbach's Alpha for international context items =.812
which are greater than .6 this means that 7 items for
international context factor were reliable for this study and
the Cronbach‘s Alpha for corporative governance items
=.799 which are greater than .6 this means that 6 items for
corporative governance factor were reliable for this study
and the out Cronbach's Alpha for turnover and corporative
governance items =.805 which are greater than .6 this
means that 13 items for turnover and corporative
governance factors were reliable for this study.
Table 4-Correlations analysis
International Context
Corporative governance
Pearson
Correlation
1
.386**
International Context
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
144
144
Pearson
Correlation
.386**
1
Corporative governance
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
144
144
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Table (4) shows the correlation between
corporative governance factor as independent factor and
International Context as dependent factor. The value of R
for the Corporative governance = .386** which indicates
that turnover is significantly but has weak correlation with
International Context.
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Table 5-Model Summary
Model
R
R
Square
Adjusted R
Square
Std. Error of
the Estimate
1
.38
6a
.
149
.143
1.57898
a. Predictors: (Constant), International Context
As seen in the table (5), the value of R square = .149 which indicates that 15% of variables have been explained.
Table 6-ANOVA
Model
Sum of Squares
df
Mean Square
F
Sig.
Regression
61.967
1
61.967
24.855
.000b
1
Residual
354.033
142
2.493
Total
416.000
143
Dependent Variable: International Context
b. Predictors: (Constant), Corporative governance
Table (6) shows the value of F for an independent factor and a dependent factor is 24.855 >1 which indicates there
is a significant association between three independent factors and dependent factor.
Table 7-Coefficients
Model
Unstandardized Coefficients
Standardized Coefficients
t
Sig.
B
Std. Error
Beta
1
(Constant)
5.942
2.022
2.939
.004
Corporative
governance
2.512
.504
.386
4.985
.000
a. Dependent Variable: International Context
Table (7) shows the coefficients analysis for this
study. As seen in the above table the value Beta for
turnover = .386> 0.01, this indicates that turnover factor
was positively and weak correlation with corporative
governance.
IV. CONCLUSION
In summation, board diversity in corporate world has
mainly been found to present male dominance in many
firms on a global perspective. The disparities are attributes
to societal stereotypes that many communities deem the
female and underrepresented individuals as less effective
in decision making of companies. Corporative governance
can be an effective tool that many countries across the
world can use to reduce such disparities evident in most
firms. Notably, board diversity and corporate performance
have severally identified various major benefits, as well as
costs of diversity in companies across the world. In regard
to the benefits expected, the positive business of the
element of diversity of boards has been found to exhibit
many benefits to firms. Since board diversity mainly
entails the incorporation of women and other
underrepresented persons in boards, it is critical for
governments to enact legislative directives that would
encourage its realization in the corporate world.
V. RECOMMENDATION
Board diversity is an issue that needs to be critically
analyzed in order to determine its root cause as it is evident
in most firms across the world. It is recommendable for
government to enact effective corporate government
mechanism that aim at reducing the diversity of boards as
evident in this study. Government or independent bodies
can be used to research on the barriers that women and
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other underrepresented groups face in obtaining formal
board membership in companies. This is a strategic plan
that has worked for some countries in developed world,
where legislative directives are being put in place to
encourage more participation of women and
underrepresented individuals in boardrooms. In addition,
there is a need to identify the most crucial factors that will
encourage companies to consider having more
underrepresented persons such as women and people with
disabilities as board members in all firms. Such factors
should be encouraged in order to attract more
appointments of such groups into boards by considering
merit and gender balance in all firms across the globe.
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