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An Appraisal of Electric Energy Supply Security in Residential Estates of Ado-Ekiti,
1Okosun, S.E., 2Fasakin J.O., 2Basorun J.O., 2Olamiju I.O., and 2Aluko E.A.
1Department of Geography, Federal University Lokoja, Lokoja Nigeria.
2Department of Urban & Regional Planning, Federal University of Technology Akure, Nigeria
Corresponding Author Email; email@example.com
In recent times, increasing attention among the academics and political class is directed at issues
of energy security. Energy security has assumed a global phenomenon which stands at the center
of global efforts (of governments, non-governmental organizations, and individuals) and the
survival of humanity. The increasing attention has produced a new order of electricity supply in
Nigeria urban centres. Nevertheless there is a noticeable variation in access to clean, modern,
reliable, affordable and available electricity supply in the residential estates of Ado-Ekiti. This
study appraises the energy supply security theme and challenges (cost) of electricity supply in
Ado-Ekiti using three residential estates randomly selected, with a view to promoting energy
security. GIS and IKONOS Imagery were used to sample 20% (1879) of buildings in the three
estates, Egbewa, Falegan, and Federal Housing. The probabilistic approaches of the simple and
systematic random sampling techniques were used in selecting the units for questionnaire
administration in the selected estates. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) test
revealed a significant correlation between electricity sources and availability of household
energy supply and use of public electricity. Conversely The Spearman Correlation test revealed
that there was no correlation between electricity supplied to households, the quantity of
electricity consumption in kilowatts-hours (kWh) by households and electricity bills distributed
to households at the end of the month in monetary terms. Policy measures of the government
encouraging entrepreneurs and individuals to invest in cleaner household energy such as solar
PV were set forth, hence will fill the vacuum created due to rising debate on electricity bill.
Keywords: Ado-Ekiti, Electric Energy supply security, Residential estates.
Household energy is a cardinal requirement in the 21st century human habitat and global city
transformation. Residential household energy supply, is a form of domestic fuel resulting from
the existence of charged particle necessary to energize machinery for cooling, heating, cooking
and lighting appliances in the residential communities or estates. The United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP) in 2016 noted that access to affordable and reliable modern
energy services particularly for domestic (household activities) is fundamental to human
livelihood and sustenance. The International Energy Agency (IEA) in 2009 simply defines
energy security as the affordable access to reliable power supply. As argued by Ikeme (2008),
energy security does not only entail sufficient power supply reserve or potentials; but access to
affordable and reliable sources of power. The growth in human population has not only
dramatically increased mankind’s ability to harness energy from nature (World Energy Council,
2007) but equally gives rise to greater demand and debate for global energy supply security
(Uyigue, 2007; Etiosa, 2009; Africa Progress Panel, 2015). In this study, energy supply security
is seen as the ability of the electrical system to provide affordable, reliable, and available
electricity to end-users within a specified level of continuity and quality in a sustainable manner.
The study of keseke and Hosking (2011) highlighted that electricity energy supply is key to the
development of any nation; energy use is correlated with healthy economic growth. Nigeria is
endowed with enormous energy resources both renewable (solar, biomass, wind, hydropower)
and non-renewable (crude oil, natural gas, coal) that can be used to generate electric power
(Sambo, 2008; World Cities Report 2011/2010). Despite these potentials, the World Bank Report
in (2013) confirmed that Nigeria contributes 10 per cent of the world population with no access
to electricity. Poor access to electricity has been a major impediment to Nigeria’s economic
growth (World Bank, 2012), Ado-Ekiti inclusive. The creation of Ado-Ekiti as the divisional
headquarters of Ekiti Division in 1945 and with the creation of the old Ondo State in 1976, made
the town continue to expand; this expansion became more significant with the creation of Ekiti
State in 1996. The resultant expansion had caused a change in the demand and supply of
electricity in the residential neigbourhood because various forms of people, goods and services
have found their way into the town that placed more demand for energy. With the resultant
population growth, there are electricity sufficiency challenges in the town (Akintan, 2014;
Oginni Rominiyi, and Eiche, 2017). Conversely, the rapidly increasing population in the city
(NPC, 2006) needs more secure, stable, reliable and affordable electric power supply.
This research therefore is designed to analyse the electricity supply challenges (cost) in three
residential estates of Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria with a view to promoting energy security quest. To
achieve the main aim of the study, the following are the objectives: (1) to analyse the socio-
economic characteristics of households living in the three residential estates (2) to investigate
amount of electricity supplied to the households (3) to examine the duration of electricity supply
(4) to assess the monthly electricity bills per household (5) to examine the relationship between
amount of electricity supply, duration of electricity and monthly electricity bills.
Situation Perspective to Electricity Demand and Supply in Nigeria
Electricity is key to the development of any nation. Limited access to reliable, affordable and
available electric energy utilization in developing countries like Nigeria has remained an
unresolved scourge in the nation especially the residential sector (Azodo, 2014). A considerable
number of literature search buttressed that electricity is one of the most important basic
necessities for living (Sambo, 2009; UNDP, 2015; IEA 2016). Its use in the residential estates
has a number of varying factors contributing to the quantity of electricity used by each
household, such as income, price of electricity, uncertainty about product quality due to a lack of
standardization and population variables (Azekhumen 2016). Other factors such as household
size, age and climatic condition of an area also contribute to the household’s electricity
consumption (Joskow, 2008; Chuku, & Effiong, 2011). The UN-Energy (2014) submitted that
electricity demand and supply mismatch is now a widespread challenging issue; nations of the
world strive for efficient and effective power sector that will meet the ever increasing electricity
demand (UN-Energy, 2014). In contrast to international concerns, Nigeria, a country blessed
with a lot of energy resources (wind, biomass, crude oil, natural gas, solar and coal) has not
made notable progress in the provision of accessible electric power supply sources for cooking,
heating and lighting domestic household utilities (OECD/IEA, 2011; IEA, 2017). Need to
develop an electric power supply strategy – which is crucial in achieving the SDGs (IEA, 2016)
in Nigeria is therefore paramount.
Prior to the enactment of the Electricity Power Sector Reform Act (EPSRA, 2005), the Federal
Government of Nigeria (FGN) was responsible for policy formulation; regulatory, operational,
and investment in the Nigerian power sector (Nigeria Sustainable Energy Programme, 2015). In
2015, Country Report on Nigeria Energy System, highlighted that solar photovoltaic, wind and
other sources of renewable energy hold mixed thrilling prospects and challenges.
Orazulike, (2013) echoed that due to incessant power electricity failure, about 70% of the
industries in Nigeria are dead, 10% are dying and 20% are trying to survive. Despite endemic
blackouts, customers (users of public electricity) are billed for services not rendered; this has
partially resulted from widespread vandalism or power theft in Nigeria, coupled with the
problem of reluctance of households towards payment of electricity bill. This prompted the
privatization of the Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) formally known as National
Electric Power Authority (NEPA) with the expectation for increased stability in the Nigeria.
Electricity transmission and distribution remain the exclusive responsibility of the Federal
Government of Nigeria (FGN) under the absolute control of PHCN. The state government on its
part (for instance Ekiti State), only intervenes on the provision of power distribution
infrastructure due to PHCN’s lackluster performance in connecting towns and communities to
the national grid or maintaining existing power supply networks to meet growing increasing
There are currently 14 generating stations in Nigeria (3 hydro and 11 thermal stations). Out of
the approximated 8,039 MW of installed capacity in Nigeria, not more than 4,500 MW is
supplied (Sambo, 2009). The Nigeria electricity is characterized by unstable power supply and
price fluctuations (Orazulike, 2013). In Ado-Ekiti, one of the most prevalent residential
household problems is the incessant electricity power failure (Ado-Ekiti Medium Term Fiscal
Framework, 2016). The cost of electricity in Ado-Ekiti, through metering, and estimation
method, as well as household tax on electricity tariffs are highly controversial. The current
charges on electricity use in the residential buildings are mostly not based on metered reading
but fixed estimated monthly billings (N5,000 – N9,000 per building). This approach presents
significant challenges in electric supply affordability among residential communities/estates in
Ado-Ekiti (Leadership Nigeria Newspapers, 2018). Consequently, residents of Ado-Ekiti are
vulnerable to various electric power supply security threats, forcing them to choose other
alternative electric power supply strategies so as to ensure domestic electric supply security.
THE STUDY AREA
The research covers selected residential neigbourhoods of Ado-Ekiti town. The residential
estates selected randomly are Egbewa, Falegan, and Federal Housing Estates. The study focused
purposely on these areas in order to examine the electricity energy supply in the residential
estates with a view to promoting its energy security for necessary planning and policy
intervention. Ado-Ekiti town, the case study area is a traditional Nigeria city like other traditional
Yoruba towns in the country. The city is in south-western Nigeria and is the largest city and
capital of Ekiti State. The city has a population of 308,621 persons as at 2006 population census
(NPC, 2009), as at 2017, the estimated population figure was 438,749 persons using a growth
rate of 3.25%. Geographically, Ado-Ekiti occupies the area lying approximately between
Latitude 7o30’16” North of the equator and longitude 5o 15’27” East of the Greenwich Meridian.
It is about 400 meters above the sea level in the south-eastern part of Ireje stream and 500m
above sea level in the northeast, and has a land area of 265km2 (Ogunleye, 2013). The town is
situated in the tropical rainforest zone in Nigeria Ado-Ekiti (Ogunleye, 2013). When Ado-Ekiti
because the capital city of Ekiti State, the town witness immense population growth from
immigration and increased commercial activities, all that attracted more investors (banks,
industries, and educational institutions) and people into the city. As such, different categories of
people and households are found within the city, including the poor, and the non-poor
households that are connected and/or wish to be connected to the electrical energy grid. As the
city continues to grow in population, household electricity energy demand and supply in the
town became a major challenge in the area of affordability (cost), reliability and availability.
These issues is expected to be a major challenge in the future as the city continue to grow in
building development, together with the expected rapid economics and industrial growth.
DATA COLLECTION METHOD
The three residential neigbourhoods chosen constitute the sample frame for questionnaire
administration for the study. This comprises of Egbewa, Falegan and Federal housing estates.
The three neigbourhoods were chosen for ease of data collection, because they represents three
different classes of density zones in Ado-Ekiti, which are, the low, middle and high density zones
respectively. Grid method was employed to divide each estate into equal squares. GIS and
IKONOS Imagery were used to determine the number of buildings from where households were
selected through random sampling method.
Respondents/households population was a mix of various population segments, such as workers
(civil servants - public, private), traders, students, apprentices, and other professionals. The
questionnaires focused majorly on information obtained from the (NPC), Ministry of Housing,
Housing Corporations, Goggle Earth Imagery and ground truthing operations. Empirical analysis
shows that Egbewa, Falegan, and Federal housing estates had a total of 315, 1,079, and 482
buildings respectively. Twenty percent of the total number of building on each of the estates was
sampled, giving a total sample size of 375. This forms the sample size for the study. Simple and
systematic random sampling techniques were used to select buildings in the study area. The
justification for the 20 percent was appropriate bearing in mind the geographical features,
development pattern, homogenous, social and economic characteristics of the residents and
housing types amongst others factors. The percentage captured all interest groups in the study
area. Table 1 shows sampling in the selected residential estates of Ado-Ekiti.
Table 1: Sampling in residential estates of Ado-Ekiti
Name of Estate
Total No. of Building
20% of Buildings
Figure 1: Selected buildings in Egbewa Quarters, Ajilosun Road, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State.
Figure 2: Selected buildings in Falegan Estate, Falegan Road, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State.
Figure 3: Selected buildings in Federal Housing Estate, Afao/Oke-Ila Road, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State.
In each resident; a knock-on-the-door approach was used to initiate contact with participants on
information relating to the study. Participants were chosen based on age, using the probability
sampling with replacement (PSR) approach in obtaining representative sample. The choice of
household heads/representative was restricted to the minimum age of 18. Structured
questionnaire was employed to collect data from the study population.
Data were collected at specific periods and places (in residences and offices).
institutional questionnaires were administered
during office hours, while questionnaires
residents of housing estates
were administered during weekends (saturday and
when majority of the respondents were at home.
on participants’ convenience,
availability and willingness to be
interviewed. The questionnaires administration lasted for six weeks. Further relevant
information for the study was collected from
in-situ observations, photographs, informal
interviews and discussions with the respondents
Data collected were analyzed using percentages frequency distribution tables, figures and
binary logistic regression model based on the contingent valuation method. The frequency
distribution was used to analyze challenges of electricity supply and the socio-economic
characteristics of the respondents. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient(α) using the Test-retest method
was used to determine the reliability of the research questions.
As depicted from Table 2, the age distribution of households in the estates (Egbewa and Falegan)
indicates that the majority of the respondents were between the age of 42-49 years, representing
47.6%, and 53.7%, respectively, while majority of the respondents in the Federal housing estate
were between the age of 34-41 years and 50 years and above representing 25% of respondents
respectively. This shows that respondents are matured in responding to the researcher’s questions
and their opinion can be considered relevant to the research work. Age-related growth is
positively associated with household energy expenditure on grid-electricity. Further findings
reveal that age’s between 34-41 are the main end user of household electricity consumers in the
On Educational status, respondents are well educated and could understand the purpose of the
study. The finding reveals that 47.6%, 41.6% and 53.1% of the respondents in Falegan and
Federal Housing Estate respectively has a minimum of tertiary education (ND/NCE/HND/BSc),
and none was without any form of formal education. In the study area, level of education reflects
the nature of employment, as majorities of the respondents were public servant.
Table 2 revealed that people working in public organization in the estates (Egbewa 42.8%,
Falegan 50.0% and Federal 42.7%) had the highest percentage because of their proximity to
public institutions and agencies. Those Retired (9.7%) came least on the employment status in
the study area. Finding from the study revealed that employment status enhances household
energy sources for lighting (Miah et al, 2011).
The occupational characteristics revealed an imbalance in types and representations across the
estates. Majority of the people in the area were civil servants (Egbawa 41.2%, Falegan 29.17%
and Federal housing estates 36.4%). Occupational status of the people reflected the type of
buildings, as well as number of electrical appliances they can afford.
Majority of the respondents in Egbewe (47.6%) and Falegan (45.3%) estate earned between
₦80,001-₦100,000 annually, while most respondents (32.2%) in Federal housing estate earn
above ₦100,000. The occupation of the people correlates with income and expenditure, and the
financial constraints of most of the urban poor households do not encouraged their investment in
new modern energy technologies that are accessible and available, thereby creating affordability
problems. Unaffordable clean energy may create additional financial burden in adopting them,
because many low-income households already live on limited income and have access to ‘no-
cost’ energy sources. Thus, they see additional cost on clean electric power supply as a diversion
of their income to electric energy they cannot control in terms of cost. This study is in agreement
with Ouedraogo (2006) who reported that income is a major driver of the uptake of modern
The distribution of the household according to type of housing in Table 3 shows that 4.7% of the
sampled households in Egbewa reside in 1-bedroom flat, 6.3% in 2-bedroom flat, 15.8% in 3
bedrooms flat; while 6.3% and 19.0% reside in 4 bedrooms flat and Duplex respectively. In
Falegun estate, 0.9% leave in 1-bedroom flat, 23.6% in 2 bedrooms flat, 46.8% in 3 bedrooms
flat, 6.9% and 8.3% reside in 4 bedroom flat and duplex respectively. In Federal housing estate
5.2%, reside in 1-bedroom flat, 31.2% in 2-bedroom flat, 46.8% in 3 bedroom flat, 4.1% and
12.4% reside in 4 bedroom flat and duplex respectively. Three (3) bedroom flat constituted the
main type of housing design in the three estates. This is because majority of the respondents
were married. Marital status of the respondents was a reflection of their housing type, which
increases electricity demand.
From Table 2, it is also clear that household heads are predominantly homeowners, with 74.6%
of them being a private house owner in Egbewa estate, and 70.6% in Falegan estate owing a
home. Thus it is expected that they would be willing to use alternative modern and improved
electricity supply since most of the respondents do not expend money in the payment of house
Table 2: Socio-economic characteristics of households in the residential estates
Egbewa Estate (63)
Falegan Estate(216) Federal Estate (96) Total (375)
Freq. Percent (%)
Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%)
50 and above
7 & Above
Type of housing
3 bedroom flat
4 bedroom flat
Source: Field survey (2018)
From Table 3 the Cronbach’s Alpha values ranges from 0.800 to 0.853. This inclination shows
that the reliability estimates of the instrument are high as they tend towards 1.0, and for a test to
be reliable Cronbach’s Alpha coeffient must be at least 0.7 (May, 2001). This approach helped
to gain diverse views of participants and developing a good understanding in the research, thus
aid the measurement scale for the study (see table 3).
Table 3: Variables employed in the model of reliability and availability
Definition of variables
1 (female), 0 (male)
1 (tertiary), 0 (otherwise)
1 (employed), 0 (otherwise)
1 (civil servant), 0 (otherwise)
1 (₦80,001-₦100,000), 0
Type of house
1 (3 bedroom), 0 (otherwise)
1 (4 and above), 0 (less than 4)
1 (owner), 0 (rented)
Reliability of public electricity
1 (Not reliable), 0 (otherwise)
Affordability of public electricity
1 (Not Affordable), 0 (otherwise)
Connection to the national grid
1(Yes), 0 (otherwise)
Source(s) of household energy
1 (public electricity), 2
(generator), 3 (solar PV). 4
(lumus), 5 (gas)
Duration of electricity supply per
1 (less than 3 hours), 0
Time of electricity supply
1 (night), 0 (otherwise)
Quality of electricity supply
1 (low quality), 0 (otherwise)
Preferred Metering service
1 (prepaid), 0 (otherwise)
Opinion on cost of electricity bills
1 (unreasonable), 0 (otherwise)
Availability of alternative sources
1 (available), 0 (otherwise)
Cost on self-generated electricity
1 (₦6001-₦9000), 0 (otherwise)
Source: Field Survey, 2018
The field work results as depicted in Table 4, shows that duration of electricity supply in the
three area of study varied widely. Egbewa, Falegan and Federal housing estates enjoy a
maximum of 3-8 hours of electricity supply a day on an average (15.8%, 18.9%, and 53.2%
respectively) and a minimum of less than 3 hours. Relatively, Federal Housing Estate enjoys
more supply than Egbewa and Falegan Estates. No household could enjoy electricity supply
above 14hrs/day. The Business Head Distribution of BEDC, Ado-Ekiti revealed that duration of
electricity supply per resident in Ado-Ekiti is 6 hours/day. Information on the frequency of
electricity supply shows the severity of poor electricity power supply in Ado-Ekiti, for which this
study seek to find out the economic cost. This is because the electricity power supply in Ado-
Ekiti is very much erratic, thus needing immediate attention. The findings of this study is in
conformity with Oginni, et al, (2017) that availability of electricity supply would encourage
entrepreneurs to invest in the nation economy rather than neighboring countries.
Table 4: Hours/duration of electricity supply in Egbewa, Falegan and Federal housing estate
Hours of electricity
supply per day
Egbewa Estate (63)
Falegan Estate(216) Federal Estate (96) Total
Freq. Percent (%)
Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%)
Less than 3 hours
Source: Field survey (2018)
From the result in Table 5, despite the poor supply, electricity bill appears to be high in Egbewa
estates, as larger a percentage (31.2%) of the households spend between ₦6001 to ₦9000 on
electricity bill per month. The cross-tabulation further shows that majority of the respondents in
Egbawa live in a 3-bedroom flat, and they spend above ₦9000 per month on electricity bill,
while respondents that lived in a 1-bedroom bungalow spend between below ₦3000 and ₦3001 -
₦6000. Meaning, the larger the housing occupancy, the more expenses incurred on the electricity
Table 5: Electricity bill per month and type of Housing Occupancy (Egbawa)
Electricity bill per
Type of housing occupancy Total
KEY: Bdrm Bgl = Bedroom Bungalow. Source: Field survey (2018)
The result derived from Table 6 shows that a larger percentage, approximately 38.8% of the
respondents in Falegan Estate, spends between ₦6001 to ₦9000 on electricity bill per month.
This can be considered unreasonable as the majority of the respondents in the 3-bedroom
bungalow (frequency of 60) are low income earner, while respondents that lived in a 1-bedroom
spend below ₦3000. Meaning, the larger the type of housing occupancy, the more the expenses
incurred on electricity billing. Further findings reveals that the major electronic appliances and
used were incandescent light bulbs, compact florescent lights/tubes, LCD/LED TV set,
stereo/radio systems, refrigerators, washing machines, electric cookers while the use of air-
conditioner were few.
Table 6: Electricity bill per month and type of housing occupancy (Falegan Estate)
Electricity bill per
Type of housing occupancy Total
KEY: Bdrm Bgl = Bedroom Bungalow. Source: Field survey (2018)
The result of the analysis of electricity bill in Federal housing estate is presented in Table 7.
About 46.8% of the household spend above ₦9000 on electricity bill per month. Findings
revealed that, the housing occupancy type is the determinant of the electricity bill and not
electricity usage/consumption. The electricity bill is believed not to be reasonable. This is
because the power supply is erratic and may not even be available over a period of time, like
days or even weeks, and respondents are made to pay monthly bills even in the absence of power
supply. This corroborates the findings of Azekhumen (2016) which discovered that Nigerians are
billed to pay for services not rendered. If electricity is improved and affordable, households will
be willing to pay for supply. Further findings revealed that few persons are willing to pay a little
above their current bills, while others are not.
Table 7: Electricity bill per month and type of housing occupancy (Federal Housing Estate)
Electricity bill per
housing occupancy Total
KEY: Bdrm Bgl = Bedroom Bungalow. Source: Field survey (2018)
As seen in Figure 4, 50.5% of the respondents claimed that their electricity bill is very
unreasonable (Falagen and Egbewa estates), and they are of the opinion that they do not pay their
electricity bill due to its cost. The complaints of households in this category is that marketers in
charge of meter reading do not read meters; and that, even where they read the meters, the
readings do not reflect the exact electricity consumptions. Consequently, efficiency and stability
is essential before majority (population) of the final consumer of electricity will be paying their
Figure 4: Opinion on the cost of electricity bills in the study area.
Source: Field survey (2018)
Findings from the field survey as depicted with Table 8, shows that one of the greatest challenges to
the regularity of power supply in the residential neigbourhoods is technical problem. This is
evident in the information gathered as respondents in Egbewa (41.2%), Falegan (42.5%) and
Federal housing estate (28.1%) attest to this. To a great extent, current economic situation,
political, obsolete equipment and private generator sellers are major obstacles to regular
electricity power supply (public). The salvaging role of private generators as an alternative
source of power supply does not seem to significantly address the problem of electric power
insufficiency in Nigeria as it poses its own challenges.
Table 8: Challenges to regular electricity power supply in the study area
Federal Housing Estate
Location of house
Private generator sellers
Source: Field survey (2018)
0 10 20 30 40
Cost of Electricity
Pearson product moment correlation (PPMC) was used to test hypothesis 1 (Table 9), which
states that there is significant relationship between electricity sources and availability of
household energy supply. The results show that there existed a medium correlation between the
combination of electricity sources and availability of household energy supply in the study area
with correlation coefficient of P = 0.000 and 0.006 (two tailed) < 0.01 respectively. Which show
there exist a relationship (electricity sources and availability of household energy supply.) in the
research sample, thus be given due attention. This implies that availability of household energy
supply depends on the available electricity sources.
Table 9: Relationship between electricity sources and availability of household energy supply
No of Valid
** P ≤ 0.01 level (2-tailed). Source: Field survey (2018).
In Table 10, the R2 value of 0.402 shows that, only 40.2% of the variation in Y (Availability of
electricity) are accounted for by X (Use of public electricity) while 59.8% are due to other
factors. For instance, factors such as Connection to public light source (CON), Initial cost of
electricity connection (COST), Hours/Duration of electricity supply (HRS), Quality of electricity
supply (QUALI), Distance covered before accessing electricity payment centers (DIST),
Awareness of electricity tariff increase (Aware), Agreement with periodic increase in electricity
tariff (TARIFF), Metering service used (METER), Amount spent on public electricity monthly
(AMOUNT), and Electricity bill payment reflection of consumption (BILL) are responsible for
the availability of public electricity supply in the study area. However, use of public electricity
explains 40.2% of the variation in availability of electricity. The correlation r = 0.634. The
calculated T 47.126 is greater than the critical of 4.46 hence, H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted.
Due to greater proportion (59.8%) that is not accounted for by X as a result of variation in Y, the
erratic nature, poor quality and unreliability of electricity supply led to the continuous increase in
the use of self-generation gasoline-powered generating sets. The overall cost of unavailable
public electricity supply has caused residents to spend on self-generated electricity (generator) 5-
10 times as much as what they spend on grid-electricity (World Bank, 2013). The cost of
providing alternative self-generated electricity is high and at the detriment of other household
needs together with the adverse effects on human health and the environment. The inadequacy,
unreliability and unavailability of public electricity supply/services provision to meet the desire
of household energy services needs is a major factor affecting the non-payment of electricity
consumed by some of the households. The effect of over-billing of customers owing to the non-
provision of meters is a major contentious issue. Metering all customers will overcome the
problems associated with the frustration of contentious estimated bills. The findings of this study
support the statement by NERC (2013) that metering accounts for 80 per cent of consumer
Table 10: Regression results of availability and use of public electricity in the study area
Dependent variable: Availability of electricity
* P ≤ 0.05 level (2-tailed)
** P ≤ 0.01 level (2-tailed)
Source: Field survey, 2018
5.2 Recommendation and Conclusion
It is evident from the empirical work carried out in this study that, households in Ado-
Ekiti do not receive adequate electricity supply and are adversely affected by poor electricity
supply. To alleviate these challenges, generator was observed to be the predominant alternative
source of power supply in the town. The issue of generator usage in households due to public
electricity deficit is a challenge to resident’s income, which demands active participation of both
the government and her citizens to address. This could be through prompt payment of electricity
bills, avoidance of vandalism on the part of the citizens, ensuring adequate power generation and
adopting healthy maintenance culture of existing facilities on the part of the government.
Therefore, this is a need for government to enact laws or policies what will efficiently improve
the supply of power by encouraging entrepreneurs and individuals in the maintenance and
utilization of energy resources to boost the electricity supply as well as solar energy in the
country, this will bridge the gap between demand and supply of electricity in Nigeria. However,
research that will encourage innovation, and provide clean, reliable and available electric power
supply (energy security) is recommended. It is advisable to review the present energy cost which
according to households is too high. Affordability of electricity supply is thus recommended.
The study concludes that household income, metering type (prepaid/estimated billing),
availability of alternative, occupation, and reliability of current supply is a major effect to
households’ energy security attainment and Willingness To Pay (WTP) for electricity bill.
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