Electronic Supplementary Material
Longitudinal effects of habitat quality, body condition, and parasites on colour patches
of a multiornamented lizard
Journal: Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology
Rodrigo Megía-Palma1,2,3*, Santiago Merino4, Rafael Barrientos5
1 Universidad de Alcalá (UAH), School of Pharmacy, Department of Biomedicine and
Biotechnology, E-28805, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain.
2 CIBIO – Research Center in Biodiversity and Genetic Resources, University of Porto, P-
4485-661, Vairão, Portugal.
3 BIOPOLIS Program in Genomics, Biodiversity and Land Planning, CIBIO, Campus de
Vairão, P-4485-661 Vairão, Portugal.
4 Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC), Department of Evolutionary Ecology, E-
28006, Madrid, Spain.
5 Road Ecology Lab, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, School of Biology, Department of
Biodiversity Ecology and Evolution, Road Ecology Lab, E-28040, Madrid, Spain.
*Author for correspondence: Rodrigo Megía-Palma; e-mail: rodrigo.megia@uah.es
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Annex I. Calculation of the spectral variables of the nuptial colouration.
For each colour patch we calculated luminance, chroma, and hue. Luminance was calculated
as the total reflectance between 300 and 700 nm (∑R300 – 700 nm), and provides a measure of how
dark (and pigmented; Megía-Palma et al., 2021) is the colour patch; chroma in the orange and
yellow patches as ∑R450 – 700 nm/∑R300 – 700 nm, and in the eyespot as ∑R300 – 400 nm/∑R300 – 700 nm,
which provides a measure of intensity of the colour and the UV regions, respectively
(Montgomerie 2006). The hue of the colour patches was calculated following Endler (1990)
as the arcsine of (∑R500 – 600 nm - ∑R300 – 400 nm/√((R600 – 700 nm - R400 – 500 nm)2 + (∑R500 – 600 nm - ∑R300 –
400 nm)2). This value of angular hue is partially and positively correlated with chroma values
(orange: rho = 0.13; yellow: rho = 0.24; blue: rho = 0.27). Therefore, Endler’s hue provides
an angular value where higher hue correlates with purer colour in a given colour patch.
References
Megía-Palma, R., Barrientos, R., Gallardo, M., Martínez, J., & Merino, S. (2021). Brighter is
darker: the Hamilton–Zuk hypothesis revisited in lizards. Biological Journal of the Linnean
Society. https://doi.org/10.1093/biolinnean/blab081.
Montgomerie, R. (2006). Analyzing colors. In: Hill GE, McGraw KJ, editors. Bird
Coloration, Vol. 1. Mechanism and Measurements. Cambridge: Harvard University
Press, 90–148.
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Annex II. Results
Table S1. Within-year change in spectral colour distance of lizards in the CHQ, TLQ, CLQ, and THQ groups. Model averaging of a two-way
within-subject linear mixed model showing the effects of the treatment on the maintenance of the SCD between colour patches in the nuptial
coloration during the breeding season of 2018.
SCD_all SCD_pigment
Importance Estimate Adj SE z value Pr(>|z|) Importance Estimate Adj SE z value Pr(>|z|)
(Intercept) 4499 1672 2.69 0.007 3600 2204 1.634 0.102
Date 0.37 188 152 1.24 0.217 0.46 200 134 1.50 0.135
Body length 0.24 -23 44 0.54 0.592 0.36 -44 38 1.17 0.241
Body condition 0.26 1674 4675 0.36 0.720 0.25 1004 4084 0.25 0.806
Mite intensity 0.35 -125 125 1.00 0.318 0.25 -48 106 0.45 0.654
Karyolysus intensity 0.25 -24 142 0.17 0.867 0.25 -48 124 0.39 0.699
Schellackia intensity 0.32 -119 150 0.79 0.427 0.27 -70 131 0.53 0.594
Mites:Karyolysus 0.02 -98 127 0.78 0.438 0.01 -67 108 0.62 0.533
Mites:Schellackia 0.02 -166 278 0.60 0.551 0.01 -27 236 0.12 0.909
Karyolysus:Schellackia 0.01 75 183 0.41 0.681 0.01 87 159 0.55 0.584
Body condition:Mites 0.01 -1099 4098 0.27 0.788 0.01 -794 3504 0.23 0.821
Body condition:Karyolysus 0.01 3801 5399 0.70 0.481 0.01 3866 4594 0.84 0.400
Body condition:Schellackia 0.01 -1940 4792 0.41 0.686 0.01 -2871 4043 0.71 0.478
Treatment 0.64 -230 150 1.54 0.124 0.65 -224 132 1.70 0.089
Plot 0.51 24 144 0.17 0.866 0.44 -8 126 0.06 0.951
Treatment:Plot 0.38 -360 141 2.55 0.011 0.3 -288 123 2.33 0.020
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Table S2. Between-years change in the extension of male nuptial colouration. Final ordinal multinomial mixed model achieved by multimodel
inference and model averaging showing the significant influence of date and body length. The pair of numbers in the first five rows represents
ordinal tests of paired comparison between colour category groups. Significant differences were only detected between groups 1 and 2.
Following the analysis, this difference is mainly explained by the change in the body length of the lizards (i.e. ontogeny). In this analysis
treatment includes only TLQ and CLQ experimental groups.
Importanc
e Estimate Std Error z value Pr(>|z|)
1|2 - -3.31 1.45 2.29 0.022
2|3 - -1.75 1.15 1.52 0.128
3|4 - -0.81 1.07 0.76 0.448
4|5 - 0.11 1.01 0.11 0.912
5|6 - 0.79 0.95 0.83 0.405
Date 0.83 -1.21 0.51 2.37 0.018
Body length 1.00 2.57 0.81 3.17 0.002
Body condition 0.57 36.1 18.6 1.94 0.052
Mite intensity 0.10 -0.20 0.44 0.47 0.64
Karyolysus intensity 0.33 -2.00 1.32 1.51 0.131
Schellackia intensity 0.12 -1.37 3 0.46 0.648
Karyolysus:Schellackia 0.01 10.51 5.89 1.79 0.074
Body condition:Karyolysus 0.01 14.74 32.45 0.45 0.65
Body
condition:Schellackia 0.01 83.91 112.92 0.74 0.46
Treatment 0.47 1.10 0.65 1.7 0.089
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Table S3. Results of model averaging on within-subject GLMM that analyse the between-year change in parasitisation by Karyolysus,
Schellackia, and mites in TLQ and CLQ lizards recaptured in 2019.
Karyolysus Importance Estimate Std. Error Adj. SE
z-
value Pr(>|z|)
(Intercept) 2.48 0.23 0.24 10.231 < 0.001
Date_stand 0.15 0.02 0.22 0.23 0.107 0.915
Treatment 0.76 0.43 0.18 0.19 2.269 0.023
BCI_tail 0.25 7.46 7.43 7.74 0.964 0.335
Mites_stand 0.29 -0.22 0.17 0.18 1.218 0.223
Schellackia_stan
d 0.16 -0.10 0.21 0.22 0.451 0.652
Schellackia Importance Estimate Std. Error Adj. SE
z-
value Pr(>|z|)
(Intercept) -0.09 0.09 0.10 0.932 0.352
Date_stand 0.88 0.21 0.08 0.08 2.525 0.012
Treatment 0.15 0.00 0.10 0.10 0.013 0.990
BCI_tail 0.26 3.26 3.05 3.19 1.022 0.307
Mites_stand 0.25 0.09 0.09 0.10 0.933 0.351
Karyolysus_stand 0.17 0.03 0.08 0.09 0.394 0.694
Mites Importance Estimate Std. Error Adj. SE
z-
value Pr(>|z|)
(Intercept) 2.72 0.19 0.20 13.713 < 0.001
Date_stand 0.42 0.26 0.14 0.15 1.746 0.081
Treatment 0.15 0.00 0.20 0.21 0.008 0.993
BCI_tail 0.33 -8.00 5.46 5.70 1.404 0.160
Karyolysus_stand 0.3 -0.22 0.14 0.15 1.502 0.133
Schellackia_stan
d 0.23 0.14 0.14 0.15 0.968 0.333
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Table S4. Factor loadings of vegetation coverage extracted from a Principal Component Analysis based on the varimax normalized rotation of
factors. In bold are shown variables with high correlation (> 0.70) with each factor.
Variable cover PC1 PC2
Sand -0.83 -0.26
Litter 0.88 -0.26
Herb -0.13 0.87
Bush 0.77 0.14
Tree 0.60 -0.38
Ground
vegetation 0.60 0.71
Prp.Totl 0.46 0.26
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Table S5. Mean ± SE percentages of ground cover in the two sampling plots.
Cover type Close to the road (%)
Far from the road
(%)
Sand 34.34 ± 1.48 17.13 ± 1.08
Ground level vegetation 20.15 ± 1.27 43.47 ± 1.40
Gramineus plants 5.99 ± 0.56 18.46 ± 1.07
Bushes 20.74 ± 1.66 34.14 ± 1.64
Trees 34.84 ± 2.11 35.56 ± 1.97
Leaf litter 56.19 ± 1.60 57.00 ± 1.57
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Table S6. Model averaging performed on a LMM analysing the between-years change in body condition. In this analysis treatment includes only
TLQ and CLQ experimental groups.
Importance Estimate Adjusted SE z value Pr(>|z|)
(Intercept) 0.000 0.005 0.014 0.989
Date 0.18 -0.002 0.005 0.340 0.734
Treatment 0.17 -0.002 0.005 0.439 0.660
Body length 0.16 -0.001 0.005 0.217 0.828
Mites 0.59 -0.009 0.005 1.812 0.070
Karyolysus 0.17 0.000 0.005 0.013 0.989
Schellackia 0.29 0.006 0.010 0.571 0.568
Mites:Schellackia 0.03 -0.004 0.025 0.139 0.889
Karyolysus:Mites 0.01 0.005 0.010 0.538 0.591
Karyolysus:Schellacki
a< 0.01 0.008 0.023 0.360 0.719
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Table S7 (1/3). Within-year change in spectral variables of the orange patch of P. algirus (n = 40).
Luminance Chroma Hue
Imp Estimate Adj SE z value Pr(>|z|) Imp Estimate
Adj
SE z value Pr(>|z|) Imp Estimate
Adj
SE z value Pr(>|z|)
(Intercept) 2968.04 769.75 3.86
<
0.001 -56.16 27.70 2.03 0.043 -55.52 27.81 2.00 0.046
Date 0.79 162.81 70.85 2.30 0.022 1.00 -4.52 1.16 3.90 < 0.001 1.00 -4.51 1.16 3.88 < 0.001
Body length 0.23 -12.45 19.55 0.64 0.524 0.64 0.61 0.32 1.91 0.057 0.63 0.61 0.32 1.92 0.055
Body condition 0.77
-
3437.10 2189.05 1.57 0.116 0.27 0.18 0.28 0.63 0.526 0.46 0.84 1.03 0.82 0.413
Mites 0.64 28.88 63.21 0.46 0.648 0.30 0.00 0.00 0.61 0.543 0.38 -0.01 0.01 0.44 0.657
Karyolysus 0.35 28.42 65.49 0.43 0.664 0.25 0.00 0.01 0.29 0.773 0.58 -0.02 0.03 0.97 0.333
Schellackia 0.83 112.45 91.93 1.22 0.221 0.34 -0.01 0.01 0.94 0.347 0.54 -0.04 0.03 1.32 0.186
Mites:Karyolysus 0.04 -28.85 57.90 0.50 0.618 0.03 0.00 0.00 1.15 0.251 0.08 -0.01 0.01 1.20 0.229
Mites:Schellackia 0.35 -269.43 140.57 1.92 0.055 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.95 0.342 0.04 -0.02 0.04 0.44 0.662
Karyolysus:Schellackia 0.12 -121.45 91.45 1.33 0.184 0.02 -0.01 0.01 0.69 0.492 0.11 0.05 0.05 1.05 0.293
Body condition:Mites 0.27 3328.93 1956.27 1.70 0.089 0.01 -0.02 0.13 0.19 0.849 0.14 -0.77 0.40 1.90 0.057
Body condition:Karyolysus 0.05 870.13 2316.54 0.38 0.707 0.01 -0.02 0.23 0.08 0.936 0.14 1.28 0.84 1.54 0.124
Body
condition:Schellackia 0.25 3015.87 2512.90 1.20 0.230 0.02 -0.06 0.22 0.26 0.798 0.13 1.83 1.44 1.27 0.203
Treatment 0.20 -1.93 69.39 0.03 0.978 0.28 0.01 0.02 0.46 0.646 0.30 0.06 0.06 0.98 0.330
Plot 0.25 49.02 68.32 0.72 0.473 0.81 -0.02 0.01 2.19 0.028 0.22 0.00 0.03 0.07 0.948
Treatment:plot 0.01 45.16 67.67 0.67 0.505 0.05 0.00 0.01 0.34 0.733
0.0
1 0.02 0.04 0.62 0.537
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Continuation Table S7 (2/3). Within-year change in spectral variables of the yellow patch of P. algirus (n = 40).
Luminance Chroma Hue
Imp Estimate Adj SE
z
value
Pr(>|
z|) Imp
Estimat
e
Adj
SE
z
value Pr(>|z|) Imp
Estimat
e
Adj
SE
z
value Pr(>|z|)
(Intercept) 7867.47
2895.2
1 2.72 0.007 0.20 0.11 1.81 0.071 -0.74 0.38 1.92 0.055
Date 0.95 372.68 126.60 2.94 0.003 0.26 0.00 0.01 0.78 0.435 0.39 -0.03 0.02 1.39 0.164
Body length 0.58 -62.35 34.74 1.80 0.073 1.00 0.01 0.00 5.26
<
0.001 1.00 0.02 0.01 3.76
<
0.001
Body condition 0.25
-
1315.92
3917.7
5 0.34 0.737 0.63 0.28 0.15 1.79 0.073 0.50 0.62 0.54 1.15 0.250
Mites 0.25 7.43 110.22 0.07 0.946 0.26 0.00 0.00 0.25 0.804 0.85 -0.02 0.01 1.91 0.056
Karyolysus 0.24 2.35 120.58 0.02 0.984 0.30 0.00 0.00 0.71 0.481 0.58 0.02 0.02 1.00 0.317
Schellackia 0.25 29.36 129.78 0.23 0.821 0.28 0.00 0.01 0.12 0.902 0.83 0.04 0.02 2.02 0.044
Mites:Karyolysus 0.01 -106.46 110.36 0.97 0.335 0.02 0.00 0.00 1.02 0.307 0.38 0.03 0.01 2.12 0.034
Mites:Schellackia 0.03 -334.18 240.16 1.39 0.164 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.81 0.417 0.16 -0.02 0.03 0.67 0.503
Karyolysus:Schellackia 0.01 24.73 160.43 0.15 0.877 0.03 0.01 0.01 1.18 0.238 0.13 -0.02 0.02 0.93 0.351
Body condition:Mites 0.01 2514.38
3531.1
8 0.71 0.476 0.03 -0.01 0.12 0.11 0.915 0.13 -0.48 0.42 1.13 0.258
Body
condition:Karyolysus 0.02 4311.72
4465.3
8 0.97 0.334 0.04 -0.04 0.16 0.26 0.798 0.05 0.19 0.55 0.35 0.729
Body
condition:Schellackia 0.01 373.21
4135.6
2 0.09 0.928 0.05 -0.17 0.15 1.14 0.257 0.07 -0.03 0.60 0.05 0.958
Treatment 0.66 -230.71 123.69 1.87 0.062 0.34 0.00 0.01 0.15 0.877 0.22 0.00 0.02 0.18 0.860
Plot 0.38 58.48 121.06 0.48 0.629 0.34 0.00 0.01 0.08 0.940 0.83 -0.04 0.02 2.41 0.016
Treatment:plot 0.20 -231.43 118.47 1.95 0.051 0.17 0.01 0.01 2.42 0.016 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.38 0.708
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Continuation Table S7 (3/3). Within-year change in spectral variables of the UV-based patch of P. algirus (n = 40).
Luminance Chroma Hue
Imp Estimate Adj SE
z
value
Pr(>|
z|) Imp
Estimat
e
Adj
SE
z
value Pr(>|z|) Imp
Estimat
e
Adj
SE
z
value
Pr(>|
z|)
(Intercept) 1065.08 922.98 1.15 0.249 0.33 0.07 5.10
<
0.001 2.49 0.80 3.11 0.002
Date 0.21 -8.93 50.20 0.18 0.859 0.20 0.00 0.01 0.06 0.955
0.2
0 0.02 0.09 0.24 0.813
Body length 0.41 19.08 13.79 1.38 0.167 0.23 0.00 0.00 0.52 0.601
0.2
0 0.00 0.02 0.10 0.922
Body condition 0.30 465.90
1464.5
2 0.32 0.750 0.52 0.26 0.18 1.42 0.156
0.4
2 1.88 2.66 0.71 0.480
Mites 0.79 -81.94 38.71 2.12 0.034 0.33 0.00 0.01 0.50 0.614
0.4
8 -0.09 0.08 1.21 0.227
Karyolysus 0.29 14.00 44.53 0.32 0.753 0.41 0.01 0.01 0.92 0.357
0.4
8 0.04 0.08 0.45 0.655
Schellackia 0.55 -40.22 51.30 0.78 0.433 0.43 -0.01 0.01 1.06 0.291
0.5
6 -0.13 0.09 1.50 0.134
Mites:Karyolysus 0.06 -28.17 38.05 0.74 0.459 0.06 -0.01 0.01 1.30 0.192
0.0
4 -0.08 0.07 1.05 0.294
Mites:Schellackia 0.27 -146.74 81.55 1.80 0.072 0.05 -0.02 0.01 1.30 0.192
0.0
7 -0.17 0.18 0.94 0.345
Karyolysus:Schellackia 0.03 -18.66 59.40 0.31 0.753 0.03 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.989
0.0
3 -0.01 0.11 0.05 0.963
Body condition:Mites 0.05 -515.58
1339.1
8 0.39 0.700 0.06 -0.19 0.16 1.18 0.238
0.1
4 -4.55 2.45 1.86 0.063
Body
condition:Karyolysus 0.02
-
1300.48
1590.0
7 0.82 0.413 0.08 0.29 0.20 1.40 0.163
0.0
3 2.59 3.01 0.86 0.390
Body
condition:Schellackia 0.04 1035.08
1833.0
9 0.57 0.572 0.07 0.18 0.20 0.93 0.350
0.0
7 2.60 2.83 0.92 0.357
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Treatment 0.25 -3.30 48.78 0.07 0.946 0.59 -0.01 0.01 1.23 0.221
0.8
2 -0.19 0.08 2.20 0.028
Plot 0.28 30.49 46.69 0.65 0.514 0.63 -0.01 0.01 1.33 0.185
0.6
3 -0.11 0.08 1.37 0.171
Treatment:plot 0.05 -79.55 46.75 1.70 0.089 0.42 -0.01 0.01 2.55 0.011
0.4
2 -0.17 0.08 2.15 0.032
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Table S8. Sample size per group, prevalence, and mean ± SE intensity for each of the parasites studied in relation to the infection status by blood
parasites.
Uninfected (n = 18) Schellackia (S) (n = 6) Karyolysus (K) (n = 64) Co-infection (S+K) (n = 32)
Prevalence (%) 15.00 5.00 53.30 26.70
Mites 20.06 ± 4.45 16.00 ± 6.89 17.44 ± 1.75 22.03 ± 2.37
Schellackia 0.00 44.00 ± 24.93 0.00 8.65 ± 2.19
Karyolysus 0.00 0.00 13.95 ± 2.66 14.96 ± 2.07
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Table S9 (1/3). Initial relationships between the spectral variables of the orange patch of males P. algirus and the morphology and parasitic
intensities as inferred by model averaging (N = 120).
Luminance Chroma Hue
Imp Estimate Adj SE z value Pr(>|z|) Imp Estimate Adj SE z value Pr(>|z|) Imp Estimate Adj SE z value Pr(>|z|)
(Intercept) 8.73 0.35 25.00 < 0.001 0.43 0.05 8.00 < 0.001 0.11 0.07 1.68 0.094
Date 1.00 < 0.001 < 0.001 3.31 0.001 0.29 0.00 0.00 0.75 0.452 0.44 0.00 0.00 1.31 0.191
Body length 0.99 -0.01 < 0.001 2.96 0.003 1.00 0.01 0.001 6.62 < 0.001 1.00 0.004 0.001 3.90 < 0.001
Body condition 0.70 -0.72 0.58 1.23 0.218 0.96 0.24 0.10 2.30 0.022 0.98 0.31 0.12 2.55 0.011
Mites 0.75 0.00 0.00 0.35 0.725 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.86 0.391 0.53 0.00 0.00 1.06 0.290
Karyolysus 0.47 0.05 0.06 0.72 0.471 0.87 -0.02 0.01 1.82 0.069 0.60 0.00 0.01 0.74 0.459
Schellackia 0.88 0.12 0.10 1.17 0.242 0.70 -0.02 0.01 1.02 0.310 0.80 -0.01 0.01 1.08 0.280
Mites:Karyolysus 0.21 0.00 0.00 1.60 0.109 0.79 0.00 0.00 2.42 0.015 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.920
Mites:Schellackia 0.45 0.00 0.00 1.83 0.067 0.38 0.00 0.00 1.60 0.111 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.31 0.755
Karyolysus:Schellackia 0.09 -0.01 0.05 0.29 0.774 0.13 0.00 0.01 0.29 0.775 0.11 0.00 0.01 0.41 0.683
Body condition:mites 0.12 -0.01 0.03 0.40 0.692 0.21 0.00 0.01 0.10 0.920 0.11 0.00 0.01 0.26 0.792
Body
condition:Karyolysus 0.07 0.22 1.13 0.19 0.849 0.70 0.40 0.18 2.23 0.026 0.38 0.38 0.21 1.78 0.076
Body:Schellackia 0.28 1.17 0.89 1.32 0.188 0.18 0.09 0.14 0.65 0.515 0.22 -0.13 0.17 0.76 0.447
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76
77
Continuation Table S9 (2/3). Initial relationships between the spectral variables of the yellow patch of males P. algirus and the morphology
and parasitic intensities as inferred by model averaging (N = 120).
Luminance Chroma Hue
Imp
Estimat
e Adj SE z value Pr(>|z|) Imp
Estimat
e Adj SE z value Pr(>|z|) Imp Estimate
Adj
SE z value Pr(>|z|)
(Intercept) 9.81 0.37 26.30
<
0.001 0.21 0.07 3.15 0.002 -0.04 0.09 0.44 0.660
Date 0.81 0.00 0.00 2.19 0.029 0.26 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.621 0.23 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.981
Body length 1.00 -0.02 0.01 3.58 0.000 1.00 0.01 0.001 8.47
<
0.001 1.00 0.00 0.00 3.15 0.002
Body condition 0.46 -0.57 0.64 0.89 0.376 0.91 0.20 0.14 1.49 0.137 0.70 0.24 0.15 1.58 0.114
Mites 0.32 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.969 0.78 0.00 0.00 0.99 0.320 0.62 0.00 0.00 0.81 0.418
Karyolysus 0.36 -0.01 0.03 0.23 0.816 0.44 -0.01 0.01 0.69 0.491 0.64 -0.03 0.02 1.35 0.176
Schellackia 0.36 0.01 0.04 0.34 0.731 0.43 -0.01 0.01 0.56 0.573 0.35 0.00 0.01 0.10 0.919
Mites:Karyolysus 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.15 0.882 0.19 0.00 0.00 1.53 0.125 0.46 0.00 0.00 2.48 0.013
Mites:Schellackia 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.23 0.818 0.11 0.00 0.00 0.93 0.353 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.32 0.753
Karyolysus:Schellackia 0.08 0.08 0.06 1.49 0.135 0.03 0.00 0.01 0.21 0.835 0.05 0.00 0.01 0.24 0.812
Body condition:mites 0.05 -0.03 0.04 0.90 0.369 0.29 0.01 0.01 1.24 0.213 0.10 0.00 0.01 0.34 0.738
Body
condition:Karyolysus 0.03 0.10 1.22 0.09 0.932 0.09 -0.03 0.23 0.13 0.900 0.22 0.40 0.29 1.38 0.169
Body:Schellackia 0.07 1.11 0.98 1.13 0.261 0.08 0.03 0.18 0.15 0.882 0.07 0.16 0.23 0.70 0.482
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79
80
81
Continuation Table S9 (3/3). Initial relationships between the spectral variables of the UV-based patch of males P. algirus and the morphology
and parasitic intensities as inferred by model averaging (N = 120).
Luminance Chroma Hue
Imp Estimate
Adj
SE z value Pr(>|z|) Imp Estimate Adj SE z value Pr(>|z|) Imp Estimate Adj SE z value Pr(>|z|)
(Intercept) 6.95 0.49 14.28 < 0.001 0.24 0.10 2.38 0.017 1.863 1.237 1.506 0.132
Date 0.30 0.00 0.00 0.72 0.469 0.98 -0.001 0.0003 2.93 0.003 1.00 -0.014 0.004 3.524 < 0.001
Body length 0.64 0.01 0.01 1.76 0.078 0.67 0.00 0.00 1.83 0.067 0.55 0.026 0.016 1.581 0.114
Body condition 0.48 0.80 0.85 0.93 0.352 0.48 -0.15 0.14 1.07 0.285 0.31 0.196 2.002 0.098 0.922
Mites 0.73 0.00 0.00 1.53 0.126 0.31 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.965 0.31 0.000 0.005 0.015 0.988
Karyolysus 0.78 0.03 0.04 0.69 0.490 0.45 0.00 0.01 0.68 0.495 0.33 -0.037 0.080 0.468 0.640
Schellackia 0.53 -0.04 0.05 0.69 0.489 0.38 0.00 0.01 0.23 0.820 0.31 -0.053 0.150 0.356 0.722
Mites:Karyolysus 0.16 0.00 0.00 0.65 0.515 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.52 0.604 0.02 0.001 0.009 0.088 0.930
Mites:Schellackia 0.08 0.00 0.00 0.15 0.881 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.15 0.877 0.03 0.009 0.009 1.006 0.315
Karyolysus:Schellackia 0.14 -0.07 0.06 1.05 0.296 0.06 -0.01 0.01 0.87 0.384 0.02 -0.054 0.172 0.314 0.753
Body condition:mites 0.17 -0.06 0.04 1.40 0.161 0.03 0.00 0.01 0.16 0.875 0.03 -0.120 0.117 1.029 0.304
Body
condition:Karyolysus 0.08 0.40 1.37 0.29 0.771 0.06 0.17 0.28 0.62 0.535 0.03 3.278 3.748 0.875 0.382
Body:Schellackia 0.05 0.19 1.11 0.17 0.865 0.06 -0.16 0.22 0.74 0.457 0.02 -1.114 3.013 0.370 0.712
82
83
84
Table S10 (1/3). Between-years change in the spectral variables of the orange patch of males P. algirus inferred by model averaging (n = 17). In
these analyses, treatment includes only TLQ and CLQ experimental groups.
Luminance Chroma Hue
Imp Estimate Adj SE z value Pr(>|z|) Imp Estimate Adj SE z value Pr(>|z|) Imp Estimate Adj SE z value Pr(>|z|)
(Intercept) 11.33 0.68 16.76 < 0.001 0.34 0.12 2.90 0.004 -0.86 0.43 2.00 0.046
Date 0.72 0.07 0.03 2.34 0.020 0.46 -0.01 0.01 1.70 0.089 0.17 0.01 0.02 0.44 0.657
Body length 1.00 -0.05 0.01 5.26 < 0.001 1.00 0.01 0.00 3.93 < 0.001 1.00 0.03 0.01 4.73 < 0.001
Body condition 0.32 -1.43 1.17 1.22 0.223 0.16 0.00 0.19 0.02 0.984 0.28 0.73 0.71 1.03 0.301
Mites 0.16 0.00 0.04 0.10 0.920 0.20 0.00 0.01 0.28 0.781 0.19 0.01 0.02 0.37 0.715
Karyolysus 0.18 -0.02 0.03 0.56 0.576 0.42 0.01 0.01 1.47 0.142 0.17 -0.01 0.02 0.32 0.750
Schellackia 0.34 0.05 0.07 0.69 0.491 0.31 0.02 0.03 0.91 0.364 0.22 0.05 0.11 0.51 0.613
Mites:Karyolysus 0.01 -0.03 0.06 0.53 0.596 0.01 -0.01 0.01 0.74 0.459 0.01 -0.03 0.04 0.75 0.454
Mites:Schellackia 0.01 -0.05 0.16 0.30 0.763 0.03 -0.06 0.03 2.29 0.022 0.01 -0.13 0.10 1.33 0.184
Karyolysus:Schellackia 0.01 -0.07 0.14 0.49 0.625 0.11 0.06 0.02 2.82 0.005 0.01 0.00 0.09 0.04 0.968
Treatment 0.16 0.01 0.04 0.15 0.882 0.28 0.01 0.01 1.14 0.257 0.21 0.01 0.03 0.46 0.648
85
86
87
Continuation Table S10 (2/3). Between-years change in the spectral variables of the yellow patch of males P. algirus inferred by model
averaging (n = 17). In these analyses, treatment includes only TLQ and CLQ experimental groups.
UV-based eyespot Luminance Chroma Hue
Imp Estimate Adj SE z value Pr(>|z|) Imp Estimate Adj SE z value Pr(>|z|) Imp Estimate Adj SE z value Pr(>|z|)
(Intercept) -1177 2562 0.46 0.646 0.37 0.13 2.78 0.005 3.34 1.99 1.68 0.094
Date 0.59 -175 91 1.92 0.055 0.18 0.00 0.01 0.34 0.737 0.23 -0.11 0.14 0.85 0.395
Body length 0.69 60 28 2.17 0.03 0.26 0.00 0.00 0.94 0.346 0.27 -0.04 0.04 1.10 0.270
Body condition 0.18 -1851 3909 0.47 0.636 0.22 -0.20 0.34 0.60 0.551 0.39 -6.14 5.92 1.04 0.299
Mites 0.21 59 113 0.52 0.604 0.2 0.00 0.01 0.47 0.636 0.21 0.08 0.14 0.55 0.584
Karyolysus 0.17 -9 103 0.09 0.932 0.2 0.00 0.01 0.37 0.715 0.25 0.09 0.14 0.63 0.532
Schellackia 0.21 100 271 0.37 0.711 0.19 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.967 0.24 0.23 0.52 0.45 0.655
Mites:Karyolysus 0.01 -51 181 0.28 0.778 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.26 0.797 0.01 -0.03 0.26 0.13 0.898
Mites:Schellackia 0.01 -449 441 1.02 0.309 0.01 -0.02 0.05 0.35 0.724 0.01 -0.34 0.66 0.51 0.609
Karyolysus:Schellackia 0.01 592 409 1.45 0.147 0.01 0.03 0.04 0.62 0.538 0.01 0.32 0.59 0.54 0.591
Treatment 0.18 26 105 0.25 0.804 0.18 0.00 0.01 0.03 0.977 0.28 -0.13 0.13 1.00 0.317
88
89
90
91
Continuation Table S10 (3/3). Between-years change in the spectral variables of the UV-based patch of males P. algirus inferred by model
averaging (n = 17). In these analyses, treatment includes only TLQ and CLQ experimental groups.
Luminance Chroma Hue
Imp Estimate Adj SE z value Pr(>|z|) Imp Estimate Adj SE z value Pr(>|z|) Imp Estimate Adj SE z value Pr(>|z|)
(Intercept) 12685 4126 3.08 0.002 0.26 0.29 0.93 0.355 -1.47 1.86 0.79 0.429
Date 0.10 12 172 0.07 0.942 0.33 0.01 0.01 1.33 0.183 0.53 -0.12 0.07 1.82 0.069
Body length 0.88 -126 43 2.92 0.003 0.88 0.01 0.00 2.70 0.007 0.72 0.04 0.02 2.25 0.025
Body condition 1.00 -26312 12578 2.09 0.036 0.16 -0.15 0.37 0.39 0.697 0.17 0.74 2.30 0.32 0.746
Mites 0.57 -429 268 1.60 0.110 0.25 -0.01 0.01 0.86 0.391 0.27 0.07 0.07 0.93 0.355
Karyolysus 0.79 263 200 1.31 0.189 0.22 -0.01 0.01 0.65 0.514 0.19 -0.03 0.07 0.50 0.619
Schellackia 1.00 2028 1003 2.02 0.043 0.18 0.00 0.02 0.18 0.859 0.18 0.01 0.12 0.05 0.962
Mites:Karyolysus 0.25 -603 269 2.24 0.025 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.64 0.520 0.01 -0.04 0.13 0.27 0.787
Mites:Schellackia 0.07 -534 1246 0.43 0.668 0.01 0.00 0.05 0.05 0.957 0.01 0.00 0.33 0.00 0.997
Karyolysus:Schellackia 0.68 1974 660 2.99 0.003 0.01 0.00 0.05 0.06 0.950 0.01 -0.08 0.30 0.28 0.778
Treatment 0.16 -150 161 0.93 0.353 0.91 0.03 0.01 2.76 0.006 0.30 -0.07 0.07 1.10 0.270
92
93
94
Annex III. Supplementary Figures
Figure S1. Percentages of prevalence and mean ± SE intensities of infection by mites (total
number) and the two genera of hematic parasites studied (in a total of 10,000 blood cells)
represented in relation to the hematic infections of the lizards (see also Table S7, in Annex II
of Supplementary Material).
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
Figure S2. Analyses based on the nuptial colouration extension of the initial sample of 120 males. (a) The spectral chroma of the orange and
yellow patches increases with the extension of the nuptial colouration, while the permanent UV-based (blue) patch shows no trend across groups.
(b) Based on the ordinal multinomial model SCD was lower (more elaborated nuptial coloration) in the males in the groups 4 to 6.
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