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The effectiveness of a suggested program based on the explicit systematic phonics instruction on developing word recognition skill among EFL third grade primary pupils

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Struggling readers are more likely to learn essential reading skills and strategies if the direct or explicit model of instruction is part of the teacher's repertoire of teaching methods. Directly/explicitly teaching reading means imparting new information to students through meaningful teacher–student interactions and teacher guidance of student learning. In this approach, the teacher clearly leads the teaching–learning process. At the heart of the direct instruction method are explicit explanations, modeling or demonstrating, and guided practice. Direct/explicit instruction needs to be an integral part of learning the major content strands of the reading process—phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension.
Article
Principles of Evolutionary Phonology are applied to a selection of sound changes and stable sound patterns in varieties of English. These are divided into two types: natural phonetically motivated internal changes and all others, which are classified as unnatural. While natural phonetically motivated sound change may be inhibited by external forces, certain phonotactic patterns show notable stability in English and are only eliminated under particular types of contact with languages lacking the same patterns. Within the evolutionary model, this stability is expected since natural sound changes involving wholesale elimination of these patterns are not known.
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The authors define phonics as a system for encoding speech sounds into written symbols and for teaching learners to use the relationship between letters and sounds to recognize words. The origin of the term explicit, systematic phonics is traced historically through studies and reviews of phonics instruction and policy documents.Results from a teacher survey highlighted the multifaceted nature of systematic and explicit instruction and led the authors to propose the following definition: Explicit, systematic phonics instruction is instruction matched to students' developmental levels. It incorporates a scope and sequence for content delivery and a variety of word-study activities. Such instruction promotes student engagement and accountability through direct teaching.
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