ArticlePDF Available

Abstract

Motives: The landscape is one of the key resources that not only reflects the society's behaviour, but also affects the quality of life and well-being of citizens. Great care of landscape protection is visible in Portugal-a country with rich natural and cultural values. As a signatory of the European Landscape Convention, the country is obliged, among others, to integrate spatial planning with landscape issues. Aim: The aim of this paper is to indicate Portugal's experience in implementing the European Landscape Convention in national legislation and public participation. Landscape protection is an important element of spatial planning at all levels there: national, regional and local. Results: The experience of Portugal may be an interesting example for Poland, where, although in particular voivodeships the implementation of a new instrument that is landscape audit is being carried out, there are no documents at the national level.
*karolina.trykacz@mail.umcs.pl, *sebastian.bernat@mail.umcs.pl
Acta Sci. Pol., Administratio Locorum 21(2) 2022, 267278.
https://czasopisma.uwm.edu.pl/index.php/aspal plISSN 1644-0749 eISSN 2450-0771 DOI: 10.31648/aspal.7240
ORIGINAL PAPER
Received: 12.11.2021 Accepted: 28.12.2021
© Copyright by Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Warmińsko-Mazurskiego w Olsztynie
PORTUGAL’S EXPERIENCE IN LANDSCAPE CONSERVATION
ANDPLANNING
Karolina Trykacz1*, Sebastian Bernat2*
1 ORCID: 0000-0002-6427-4460
2 ORCID: 0000-0001-7224-6534
1,2 Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin
 KraśnickaAvenue2D,20-718Lublin,Poland
ABSTRACT
Motives: The landscape is one of the key resources that not only reflects the society’s behaviour, but
also affects the quality of life and well-being of citizens. Great care of landscape protection is visible
inPortugal – a country with rich natural and cultural values. As a signatory of the European Landscape
Convention, the country is obliged, among others, to integrate spatial planning with landscape issues.
Aim: The aim of this paper is to indicate Portugals experience in implementing the European
Landscape Convention in national legislation and public participation. Landscape protection is an
important element of spatial planning at all levels there: national, regional and local.
Results: The experience of Portugal may be an interesting example for Poland, where, although
inparticular voivodeships the implementation of a new instrument that is landscape audit is being
carried out, there are no documents at the national level.
Keywords: landscape, landscape conservation, landscape planning, landscape policy, Poland, Portugal
INTRODUCTION
In 2005, Portugal ratified the European Landscape
Convention (ELC) (Decree No 4/2005, 2005) that
obliges the Signatory States to “integrate landscape
into their regional and urban planning policy”, among
other obligations (European Landscape Convention,
art. 5). ELC is the international treaty which is, for
the first time, strictly devoted to landscape (Szefler,
2021). In the light of the Convention, spatial planning,
which in a way coordinates the implementation
ofpublic policies, helps achieve a balance between the
satisfaction of societys needs and natural resources
(Oliveira, 2019). According to the ELC, the protection
of landscape encompasses measures to conserve and
maintain significant or characteristic features of the
landscape so as to harmonise changes resulting from
processes taking place in the environment as well as
in the socio-economic sphere. Landscape planning
is defined as a forward-looking and effective action
to enhance, restore or create landscapes (European
Landscape Convention). The objective of the present
article is to present the experiences of Portugal –
acountry boasting rich natural and cultural assets –
with regard to landscape protection and planning.
It was assumed that these experiences can provide
valuable guidelines for measures taken in this respect
in Poland. The article also seeks to show the changes
Trykacz, K., Bernat, S. (2022). Portugal’s experience in landscape conservation and planning. Acta Sci. Pol. Administratio
Locorum 21(2), 267–278.
268
*karolina.trykacz@mail.umcs.pl, *sebastian.bernat@mail.umcs.pl
that have occurred in recent years in Portuguese
legislation and in the involvement of this country and
its population in the implementation of the European
Landscape Convention.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
As part of the research, the legislation and
literature on landscape protection and planning in
Portugal were analysed. This subject matter has been
studied by authors such as Wojciechowski (2008),
Gonçalves and Curado (2017), David (2018) and
Oliveira (2019). However, those were not comparative
studies. The current report on ELC implementation
in Portugal (Council of Europe, 2021) as well as
websites and field studies, including the authors’
own observations, were also analysed. Portugal’s
experiences with regard to landscape protection and
planning were compared with Polands experiences.
Despite differences in the size of their territory,
population and settlement structure, there are some
similarities between these two countries. Both
Poland and Portugal used to be superpowers, they
broke free from undemocratic rule relatively recently,
and are now members of the European Union, lying
atthe EU border. Both countries are also significant
beneficiaries of EU funds and experience internal
disparities between the east and west. The above-
mentioned analysis was complemented with an
examination of the involvement of the country and
its inhabitants in the implementation of the European
Landscape Convention through participation in the
European Landscape Award and the establishment
of Landscape Observatories. The study ends with
conclusions and a presentation of good practices
inlandscape protection and planning.
Portugal is located in the western part of the
Iberian Peninsula, on the Atlantic Ocean. It covers
an area of about 92 thousand km2. The country
stretches about 560 km from north to south, and
about 180 km from west to east. Most of Portugal’s
territory are uplands and mountains. In its northern,
mountainous part, small agricultural farms and
vineyards can be found. Central Portugal, between
the Douro and the Tagus rivers, is quite diverse.
The coast is covered by pine forests and sand dunes,
the eastern part largely consists of small and medium-
sized farms and light industry, while Lisbon is the
main centre of services and industry. The landscape
in the south is undulating with some plains where
large-scale livestock grazing and agricultural activity
is conducted. Cork oak trees are abundant in the
Alentejo Upland. The southernmost part of Portugal,
a dry region with small farms, is a major tourist
destination. Steep, rocky coastlines are a distinctive
feature of the Algarve. Aside from the mainland,
Portugal also has two autonomous regions – the
Azores and Madeira (Solsten, 1993; Szot, 1996; Bajgier-
-Kowalska & Rettinger, 2011).
In mainland Portugal, there are 48 protected areas,
32 of which are of national significance, namely: one
national park (Parque Nacional da Peneda-Gerês),
13 natural parks (Photo 1), nine nature reserves
(Photo2), 2 protected landscape areas and seven
natural phenomena. At the regional and local level,
there are two nature reserves, 13 protected landscape
areas and one natural park. Furthermore, there is
one privately owned protected area (Área Protegida
Privada Faia Brava). Protected areas also exist in
the autonomous regions of the Azores and Madeira
(ICNF).
Portugal is also known for its vineyard landscapes
(Pina, 2018) as well as fortress landscapes (Kuśnierz-
-Krupa, 2013). It should be stressed that 17 sites/
areas in Portuguese territory have been inscribed
in the UNESCO World Heritage List. They include
the protected natural landscape area of Laurisilva
ofMadeira (1999) and 16 cultural site and landscapes:
Central Zone of the Town of Angra do Heroismo in
the Azores (1983), Convent of Christ in Tomar (1983),
Monastery of Batalha (1983) (Photo 3), Monastery
ofthe Hieronymites and Tower of Belém in Lisbon
(1983) (Photo 4), Historic Centre of Évora (1986),
Monastery of Alcobaça (1989) (Photo 5), Cultural
Landscape of Sintra (1995) (Photos 6), Historic
Centre of Oporto (1996) (Photo 7), Luiz I Bridge
and Monastery of Serra do Pilar (1996), Prehistoric
Rock Art Sites in the Côa Valley and Siega Verde
269
*karolina.trykacz@mail.umcs.pl, *sebastian.bernat@mail.umcs.pl
Trykacz, K., Bernat, S. (2022). Portugal’s experience in landscape conservation and planning. Acta Sci. Pol. Administratio
Locorum 21(2), 267–278.
Photo 3. Monastery of Batalha Photo 4. Monastery of the Hieronymites and Tower of Belém
in Lisbon
Photo 1. Alvão Natural Park Photo 2. Berlengas Natural Reserve
Photo 5. Monastery of Alcobaça Photo 6. Cultural Landscape of Sintra (The Palace of Monserrate)
All photos (No. 1–8) by K. Trykacz.
Trykacz, K., Bernat, S. (2022). Portugal’s experience in landscape conservation and planning. Acta Sci. Pol. Administratio
Locorum 21(2), 267–278.
270
*karolina.trykacz@mail.umcs.pl, *sebastian.bernat@mail.umcs.pl
(1998, 2010), Alto Douro Wine Region (2001), Historic
Centre of Guimarães (2001), Landscape of the Pico
Island Vineyard Culture (2004), Garrison Border
Town of Elvas and its Fortifications (2012), University
ofCoimbra – Alta and Sofia (2013) (Photo 8), Royal
Building of Mafra – Palace, Basilica, Convent, Cerco
Garden and Hunting Park (Tapada) (2019), Sanctuary
of Bom Jesus do Monte in Braga (2019) (UNESCO).
It should also be mentioned that the UNESCO
Intangible Heritage List comprises eight phenomena
from Portugal, including Fado urban popular song
(2011) and Cante Alentejano polyphonic singing
(2014), closely linked with Portuguese landscape,
forming its acoustic dimension, and constituting
an important part of Portuguese identity. Lisbon is
of particular value, inviting you to take a musical
journey (Golemo, 2016). Aside from the cultural
soundscapes, 20 sites featuring natural soundscapes
were inventoried in Portugal in 2010–2012 (Sequeira,
2015; Torres & Oliveira, 2018).
RESULTS
Strong attention to landscape protection is evident
in Portugal. As Wojciechowski (2008) observes,
landscape is a key component of Portuguese national
heritage whose status is enshrined in the Constitution.
According to Art. 66 of the Constitution of the
Portuguese Republic (CRP), the obligations of the State
include regulating the territorial development in a way
that enhances the value of the landscape. The state
is also obliged to protect landscapes of special value
not only nature but also historical or artistic values
(Constitution, 1976). However, as Oliveira observes,
constitutional provisions have not been entirely
reflected in practice. Rapid changes in the landscape
have often occurred due to depopulation, urban
expansion, development of transport infrastructure
or tourism. The rules pertaining to landscape have
been present primarily in two pieces of legislation:
on environmental protection (Lei n.º 11/87) and on
spatial planning (Lei nº 48/98) (Oliveira, 2019).
Landscape units occurring in mainland Portugal
were identified and described as early as 2004.
That study, prepared at the University of Évora,
was commissioned by the Directorate General for
Spatial Planning and Urban Development (Port.
Direcção-Geral do Ordenamento do Território
e Desenvolvimento Urbano). A similar study was
prepared for the Azores in 2005. The identification
of landscapes takes into account the lithology,
morphology, hydrography, soils, land use, ownership
structure, settlements and other variables such as
climate and proximity to the ocean. The scale adopted
in the studies is 1:250 000. In order to identify the
present dynamics and trends in landscape changes
in each landscape unit, various kinds of data broken
down by municipality and parish were collected
(demographics, infrastructure, recently afforested
areas, burnt-out areas, areas encompassed by
Ph ot o 7. Historic Centre of Oporto, Luiz I Bridge and Monas-
tery of Serra do Pilar
Photo 8. University of Coimbra – Alta and Sofia
1
1All photos (No. 1–8) by K. Trykacz.
271
*karolina.trykacz@mail.umcs.pl, *sebastian.bernat@mail.umcs.pl
Trykacz, K., Bernat, S. (2022). Portugal’s experience in landscape conservation and planning. Acta Sci. Pol. Administratio
Locorum 21(2), 267–278.
agri-environment measures, etc.). For each unit
distinguished, its potential, problems, planning
instruments and guidelines for their management were
identified, among other aspects (Correia etal., 2001;
Direção-Geral do Território: PNAP). Furthermore,
landscape subunits were distinguished for some
units; these subunits are part of a given unit, but
have some unique characteristics for at least one
variable, e.g. morphology, height, land use, etc. While
evidently different landscapes occur in some of the
subunits, classifying them as separate units is not
justified due to their small size. Besides, some “single
components” were identified: although they cover
a relatively small area, they stand out as entities in
a landscape unit due to their distinctiveness, inner
quality (or a disqualifying dissonance) and/or their
influence on the unit. These include, for example,
prominent elevations, viewpoints, buildings or groups
of buildings (of high significance for landscape or
those that are not integrated into their surroundings),
areas of particular degradation, or large infrastructure
facilities (Correia et al., 2001).
Following the ratification of the ELC in 2005,
documents were prepared by Portugal’s central
administration that provided guidance on landscape
integration at the individual levels of spatial planning
(David, 2018). After all, space is shaped by spatial
policy instruments, especially at the local level
(Tataruch et al., 2019), As Gonçalves and Curado
(2017) point out, Portugal was probably the first
Signatory to present actions (at the municipal level)
serving to implement the ELC. The above-mentioned
constitutional objectives related to landscape
protection are reflected, for example, in legislation on
spatial planning. The 30 May 2014 Law on the general
principles of spatial development and urban planning
is of huge significance in this respect (Law no. 31/2014,
2014). It indicates spatial planning instruments at the
national, regional, inter-municipal and municipal level
described in the new regime of planning instruments
(Decree-Law No 80/2015, 2015).
At the national level, the key spatial planning
document is the National Spatial Planning Policy
Programme (Port. Programa Nacional da Política de
Ordenamento do Território – PNPOT). It contains
the basic guidelines for public policies. The PNPOT
was amended in 2019 (Law no. 99/2019, 2019), but
already its previous version adopted in 2007 (Law
no. 58/2007, 2007) provided guidance on landscape
protection and planning. According to PNPOT
from 2007, landscape as a cultural and social asset
is the fundamental dimension characterising not
only the territory itself but also its planning. It is
adynamic component with economic potential arising
from tourism and leisure. There is a great diversity
oflandscapes in Portuguese territory (see Fig. 1) even
though they are quite degraded in some places, as
mentioned in the PNPOT 2007.
The strategic objectives indicated in the PNPOT
included the preservation of natural, landscape and
cultural heritage resources. The detailed objectives
(1.10) included “the protection and improvement
of landscape and cultural heritage” that would be
implemented through four priority measures, among
which the key objectives are as follows: (a) implemen-
tation of the ELC, preparation and implementation
of the National Programme for the Restoration and
Enhancement of Landscape (Port. Programa Nacional
de Recuperação e Valorização das Paisagens) and
preparation of the National Policy for Architecture
and Landscape (Port. Política Nacional de Arquitetura
e Paisagem – PNAP) linked to spatial planning policy
and (b) provisions of the act on cultural heritage (Port.
Lei de Bases do Património Cultural) and promotion
of links with spatial planning instruments (Law no.
58/2007, 2007). What is more, as Oliveira (2019) notes,
49 priority measures applied, directly or indirectly,
to landscape.
Regional programmes are prepared (Port.
programas regionais) at the regional level (NUTS 2),
within the remit of the Commissions for Coordination
and Regional Development (CCDR) in Portugal
(Decree-Law No 80/2015). Although the existing
Regional Spatial Development Plans (Port. Plano
Regional de Ordenamento do Território – PROT)
were prepared based on the previous legislation, they
were approved after the ELC came into effect (Table1).
Regional programmes comprise the identification
Trykacz, K., Bernat, S. (2022). Portugal’s experience in landscape conservation and planning. Acta Sci. Pol. Administratio
Locorum 21(2), 267–278.
272
*karolina.trykacz@mail.umcs.pl, *sebastian.bernat@mail.umcs.pl
of landscape units among other items (Decree-Law
No 80/2015). A revision of a PROT according to the
applicable legislation will strengthen the landscape-
related matters, which will also enable their subsequent
implementation at the local level (Oliveira, 2019).
Furthermore, in recent years, landscape studies have
become part of the municipal plans required by the
CCDR (David, 2018).
Table 1. Regional Spatial Development Plans in Portugal
CCDR PROT Date
ofenactment
Norte PROT da Região do Norte 2009
Centro PROT do Centro 2011
Lisboa e Vale
do Tejo
PROT da Área Metropolitana
de Lisboa
2002
PROT do Oeste e Vale do Tejo 2009
Alentejo PROT do Alentejo 2010
Algarve PROT do Algarve 2007
Source: own preparation based on CCDR Alentejo; CCDR
Algarve; CCDR Centro; CCDR Lisboa e Vale do Tejo;
CCDR Norte.
A key PNPOT 2007 objective with regard to land-
scape protection and planning was achieved in 2015
when the PNAP was adopted. A special Monitoring
Commission for Architecture and Landscape (Port.
Comissão de Acompanhamento da Arquitetura eda
Paisagem) was established to monitor the PNAP.
Its powers included monitoring the implementation
of measures and actions included in the PNAP. Fur-
thermore, the commission isresponsible for reporting
on the progress and assessing the implementation
ofthe PNAP as well as issuing recommendations
and expert opinions concerning architecture and
landscape (PNAP).
The PNAP identifies the major challenges related
to architecture and landscape, including those related
to strong urbanisation, cultural heritage or nature
conservation. It also indicates the principles, based
on which the PNAP should be implemented, such
as the right to high quality landscape, sustainable
development or public participation. The following
key objectives were stipulated in this document:
– improving the quality of life of the Portuguese
people;
sustainable development (including urban areas);
protecting and promoting Portugal’s cultural
heritage;
– promotion and dissemination of territorial civic
culture;
improving the competitiveness of the national
economy and promoting Portugal and Portuguese
culture in Europe and worldwide (PNAP).
The implementation of the PNAP depends on
several actors. According to its assumptions, it is the
responsibility of the government (sectoral policies),
regional and local authorities (adaptation to national
guidelines), society (public participation process,
avoiding the degradation of space), entrepreneurs
(primarily in the agricultural, forestry, real
property and construction industry), academic
sector (expanding and transferring knowledge) and
specialists (sustainable development). What is crucial
for the implementation of the PNAP is an action plan
identifying the financial framework for this policy
(PNAP).
The five key objectives of the PNAP mentioned
above have been expanded into 23 detailed
objectives. It is difficult to list all of them here, but
they are concerned with, for example, the inclusion
oflandscape in spatial and urban planning as well as
sectoral policies; revitalisation; conservation practices;
environmentally friendly urban development;
mitigation of the effects of intensive urbanisation
and tourism; rural landscape (protection of natural
heritage and systems of agricultural production);
raising civic awareness; public participation. These
objectives are to be implemented with the aid
ofstrategic measures (e.g. establishment of a network
of PNAP partners), legislative measures (improvement
of legislation, development of instruments enabling
the active participation of the public), informational
and educational measures (organisation of events,
training, competitions, inclusion of landscape topics
at various levels of non-specialist education) (Plano
de Ação da PNAP, 2020).
273
*karolina.trykacz@mail.umcs.pl, *sebastian.bernat@mail.umcs.pl
Trykacz, K., Bernat, S. (2022). Portugal’s experience in landscape conservation and planning. Acta Sci. Pol. Administratio
Locorum 21(2), 267–278.
The action plan for each detailed objective indi-
cates actions along with their timetable and entities
responsible for carrying them out. These actions
included the establishment of landscape guidelines
in the context of sectoral policies as well as spatial
development plans and programmes (2018, central
and regional administration) or strengthening land-
scape problems in regional spatial development plans
(2018–2020, regional administration) (Plano de Ação
da PNAP, 2020).
As it has been mentioned already, in 2019 the first
amendment to the National Spatial Planning Policy
Programme was adopted. This amendment enabled the
implementation of PNAP provisions and transposition
of these provisions to the regional and local levels.
Already at the diagnostic level, the Programme makes
it possible to notice the changes that occurred in the
1995–2015 period and, consequently, the trends and
problems affecting Portugal’s landscape (Oliveira,
2019). The Programme also draws attention to
enhancing Portugal’s potential through landscape.
The operational objectives encompass, for example,
the incorporation of issues related to the protection
and improvement of landscape quality, assessment and
monitoring landscape transformations at the national
and regional level. The enhancement of landscape as
a distinguishing characteristic (hallmark) of both
urban and rural spaces as well as landscape protection
is also mentioned in the objectives (Law no. 99/2019,
2019). As Oliveira (2019) indicates, the inclusion of
topics directly or indirectly related to landscape in the
PNPOT makes it possible to implement them later in
documents drawn up at the regional and local level
and to increase efficacy in this respect.
In 2020, a legal system concerning landscape
transformation was also established (Port. regime
jurídico da reconversão da paisagem) by means of two
fundamental instruments: Programmes of Landscape
Organisation and Management (Port. Programas de
Reordenamento e Gestão da Paisagem – PRGP) and
Integrated Landscape Management Areas (Port. Áreas
Integradas de Gestão da Paisagem – AIGP). They
are concerned with areas with a high fire hazards.
The PRGP is a sectoral programme whose main
objective is risk prevention and adaptation to climate
change, and its principles are binding to all public
entities. The AIGPs, on the other hand, created under
the PRGP, are aimed at managing fire-prone areas so
as to make them more resilient to extreme events,
atpromoting revitalisation and adapting these areas
to climate change. The initiative to establish an AIGP
may come from various entities that may submit an
appropriate proposal to the Directorate General
for Territory (Port. Direção-Geral do Território)
(Decree-Law No 28-A/2020). 47 AIGPs have been
established pursuant to the decree (Order No 7109-
A/2021) (Fig.1).
Among the landscape measures, it is also worth
mentioning the work of the Azores region where the
Regional Directorate of Environmental Protection
(Port. Direção Regional do Ambiente dos Açores)
prepared the Regional Landscape Strategy (Port.
Estratégia Regional de Paisagem) and implemented the
Information System to Assist Landscape Management
in the Azores (Port. Sistema de Informação de Apoio
à Gestão da Paisagem dos Açores) (Oliveira, 2019).
However, the key role in the implementation
ofthe ELC is played by the local level (Oliveira, 2019).
Spatial planning at this level is within the remit of the
municipalities (Port. municípios). The basic document
encompassing the entire area of a municipality is the
general spatial development plan (Port. plano diretor
municipal – PDM). Furthermore, a municipality
can draw up urbanisation plans (Port. plano de
urbanização – PU) and detailed plans (Port. plano
de pormenor – PP). The latter may assume one of the
three special forms:
– a plan of intervention in rural areas (Port. plano
de intervenção no espaço rural), that establishes
the mechanisms for the protection of natural and
cultural landscape;
– a detailed plan of city revitalisation (Port. plano
de pormenor de reabilitação urbana), prepared for
areas of revitalisation or areas of historic centres;
detailed protection plan (Port. plano de pormenor
de salvaguarda), that encompasses areas of excep-
tional historical and cultural value (Decree-Law
No80/2015).
Trykacz, K., Bernat, S. (2022). Portugal’s experience in landscape conservation and planning. Acta Sci. Pol. Administratio
Locorum 21(2), 267–278.
274
*karolina.trykacz@mail.umcs.pl, *sebastian.bernat@mail.umcs.pl
Fig. 1. Integrated Landscape Management Areas (Port. Áreas Integradas de Gestão da Paisagem – AIGP)
Source: Direção-Geral do Território.
275
*karolina.trykacz@mail.umcs.pl, *sebastian.bernat@mail.umcs.pl
Trykacz, K., Bernat, S. (2022). Portugal’s experience in landscape conservation and planning. Acta Sci. Pol. Administratio
Locorum 21(2), 267–278.
It is worth stressing that in 2011, a methodological
handbook was prepared for municipalities to help
them implement the ELC after revising the PDM
(d’Abreu et al., 2011), which – as Gonçalves and
Curado (2017) observe – is unique and noteworthy on
a European scale. At present, numerous municipalities
perform a revision of general plans, taking into
account the identification of local landscape units
along with their characteristics (David, 2018).
The visible concern for participation in landscape
management and monitoring its changes is manifested,
for example, in the landscape observatories established
in Portugal (Oliveira, 2019). A noteworthy example
is the Tagus river landscape observatory whose
objectives include knowledge sharing. As part of this
observatory, a repository of knowledge on the Tagus
river landscape and a photographic observatory has
been created (Oliveira & Olmo, 2015). This observatory
is part of a network of landscape observatories, each
having a different scope of interest, mainly related
to the scientific community, local associations and
municipal and regional structures, with the goal of
supporting development and monitoring landscape.
Many of them also conduct activities aimed at raising
the landscape awareness of citizens (Direção-Geral
do Território).
It is also worth noting the involvement of the pub-
lic in submitting landscape projects in the competition
for the National Landscape Award whose winner
represents Portugal in the European Landscape Award
competition. Three editions of this national competi-
tion have been organised thus far: in 2012, 2018 and
2020. A total of 60 proposals have been submitted
(8 in the first, 27 in the second and 25 in the third edi-
tion), including proposals tomake geopark landscapes
available to the public, proposals to create landscape
strategies, landscape observatories and laboratories,
areas of protected landscape, etc. (Direção-Geral do
Território: PNAP). Efforts undertaken in the Azores
are worthy of attention too. The winners were selected
from the submitted proposals, and the following pro-
jects represented Portugal in the European Landscape
Award competition: Herdade da Contenda, a tale
ofresilience for nature (Session 7, 2020-2021), Land-
scape of the Pico Island vineyard culture (Session6,
2018-2019), Furnas Landscape Laboratory (Session3,
2012-2013). The latter two come from the Azores.
The projects were recognised for, among other things,
their innovative landscape policy related to spatial
planning, the protection of traditional landscapes
and the revitalisation of cultural heritage resources
with a strong involvement of local residents.
CONCLUSIONS
The present study has found that Portugal is
acountry where landscape protection and planning
are a significant part of the State’s activity. Thepro-
tection of landscape as an important component of
heritage is closely linked with spatial planning at the
national, regional and local levels. The identification
of landscapes conducted at the turn of the 21st cen-
tury for the entire country was a starting point for
further actions that were intensified following the
ratification of the European Landscape Convention
(ELC). The adoption of the national landscape policy,
integrated into spatial planning, has undoubtedly
been one of such actions. However, the key role in
the implementation of the ELC is played by the local
level. It is worth highlighting the methodological
handbook prepared for municipalities to help them
implement the ELC and the obligation to perform
landscape studies as part of municipal plans. What is
also noteworthy is the well-developed public partici-
pation in landscape management, for example in the
form of the involvement of the public in the submis-
sion of projects/activities in the National Landscape
Award competition. The Autonomous Region of the
Azores is extremely active in landscape planning and
protection, with a Regional Landscape Strategy, an
Information System to Assist Landscape Management
in the Azores, and numerous projects submitted for
the landscape award.
Portugals experiences presented here can serve as
an example for Poland even though it is not possible
to transfer everything to a different environment.
Poland is currently working on a landscape audit
to identify and assess landscapes for the whole
Trykacz, K., Bernat, S. (2022). Portugal’s experience in landscape conservation and planning. Acta Sci. Pol. Administratio
Locorum 21(2), 267–278.
276
*karolina.trykacz@mail.umcs.pl, *sebastian.bernat@mail.umcs.pl
country by region (voivodeships). Unfortunately,
there is no binding landscape policy at the national,
regional ormunicipal level. Landscape studies are
prepared on an optional basis. The Act on amending
certain acts in conjunction with the enhancement
of landscape protection tools, introduced in 2015
(Actof April 24, 2015) has modified several legislative
acts and introduced instruments to implement the
ELC, as intended by the lawmakers. The landscape
audit mentioned above is one of these instruments.
Furthermore, work is underway to overhaul the
spatial planning system. Without the completion of
these measures, landscape protection and planning
at the local level is hampered. It is also necessary
to continuously work towards increasing the public
awareness of the value of landscape. These efforts can
result in greater involvement of local communities
in landscape protection and, subsequently, a greater
interest in submitting exceptional projects for the
landscape award. The present article largely refers
to the national level. In the near future, the authors
plan to expand their analysis to include the local level
along with case studies.
Author contributions: authors have given
approval to the final version of the article. Authors
contributed to this work as follows: K.T., S.B. developed
the concept and designed the study, K.T., S.B. collected
the data, K.T., S.B. analysed and interpreted the data,
K.T., S.B. prepared draft of article.
Funding: This research received no external
funding.
Supplementary information: The authors wish
to thank anonymous reviewers for their valuable
comments and suggestions for improving the quality
of this paper.
Note: the results of this study were presented at
“Ochrona krajobrazu – krajobrazy priorytetowe”
conference in Biała Podlaska.
REFERENCES
Bajgier-Kowalska, M., & Rettinger, R. (2011). Uwarunko-
wania międzynarodowej konkurencyjności regionu
turystycznego Algarve w Portugalii [Determinants
of international competitiveness of the Algarve
tourist region in Portugal]. Państwo i Społeczeństwo,
1, 207–222.
CCDR Alentejo. Retrieved from: https://www.ccdr-a.gov.
pt/ (09.02.2021).
CCDR Algarve. Retrieved from: https://www.ccdr-alg.
pt/ (09.02.2021).
CCDR Centro. Retrieved from: https://www.ccdrc.pt/
(09.02.2021).
CCDR Lisboa e Vale do Tejo. Retrieved from: http://www.
ccdr-lvt.pt/ (09.02.2021).
CCDR Norte. Retrieved from: https://www.ccdr-n.pt/
(09.02.2021).
Comissão de Acompanhamento da Arquitetura
ePaisagem. Plano de Ação da PNAP 2020 [Action
plan for PNAP 2020]. Retrieved from: https://pnap.
dgterritorio.gov.pt/sites/default/files/PLANO_DE_
ACAO_PNAP_2020.pdf (09.02.2021).
Comissão de Acompanhamento da Arquitetura e Paisa-
gem. (2015). PNAP. Política Nacional de Arquitetu-
ra e Paisagem [National Policy on Architecture and
Landscape]. Retrieved from: https://pnap.dgterritorio.
gov.pt/sites/default/files/livro_pnap.pdf (09.02.2021)
Constituição da República Portuguesa [Constitution
of the Portuguese Republic], Diário da República
n.º86/1976, Série I de 1976-04-10, 2005 amendment
(Portugal).
Correia, T.P., d’Abreu, A.C., & Oliveira, R. (2001).
Identificação de Unidades de Paisagem: metodologia
aplicada a Portugal Continental [Identification and
characterisation of landscape in continental Portugal].
Finisterra, 36(72), 195–206. https://doi.org/10.18055/
FINIS1634.
Council of Europe. (2021). Landscape Convention.
Portugal. National Report on the Implementation
of the Convention. Retrieved from: https://rm.coe.
int/portugal-portugal-cep-cdcpp-2021-9-portugal-
portugal-/1680a25018 (22.09.2021).
d’Abreu, A.C., Afonso, M., Botelho, M.J., & Oliveira, R.
(2011). A paisagem na revisão dos PDM. Orientações
para a implementação da Convenção Europeia da
Paisagem no âmbito municipal [The landscape in the
revision of the PDM. Guidelines for the implementation
of the European Landscape Convention at municipal
level]. Lisboa: Direcção-Geral do Ordenamento do
Território e Desenvolvimento Urbano.
d’Abreu, A.C., Correia, T.P., Oliveira, R. (2004). Contribu-
tos para a identificacão e caracterizacão da paisagem
em Portugal continental [A Contribution to Identy-
277
*karolina.trykacz@mail.umcs.pl, *sebastian.bernat@mail.umcs.pl
Trykacz, K., Bernat, S. (2022). Portugal’s experience in landscape conservation and planning. Acta Sci. Pol. Administratio
Locorum 21(2), 267–278.
fying and Characterising Landscapes in Continetntal
Portugal]. Lisboa: Direcção Geral do Ordenamento do
Território e Desenvolvimento Urbano.
David, N. (2018). A paisagem nos Planos Diretores Mu-
nicipais – uma proposta metodológica para a identi-
ficação e caracterização de unidades de paisagem no
município de Oeiras [The landscape in the Municipal
Directors Plans – a methodological approach to the
identification and characterization of landscape units
in the municipality of Oeiras]. GOTRevista de Geo-
grafia e Ordenamento do Território [GOT – Journal of
Geography and Spatial Planning], 13, 125–146. https://
doi.org/10.17127/got/2018.13.006.
Decreto n.o 4/2005 de 14 de Fevereiro. Aprova a
Convenção Europeia da Paisagem [Decree No
4/2005 of February 14, 2005. Approves the European
Landscape Convention], Diário da República n.º
31/2005, Série I-A de 2005-02-14 (Portugal).
Decreto-Lei n.o 28-A/2020 de 26 de junho. Estabelece o
regime jurídico da reconversão da paisagem [Decree-
Law No 28-A/2020 of June 26, 2020. Establishes the
legal system of landscape reconversion], Diário da
República n.º 123/2020, 1º Suplemento, Série I de
2020-06-26 (Portugal).
Decreto-Lei n.o 80/2015 de 14 de maio. Aprova a revisão
do Regime Jurídico dos Instrumentos de Gestão
Territorial [Decree-Law No 80/2015 of May 14,
2015. Approves the revision of the Legal Regime of
Territorial Management Instruments], Diário da
República n.º 93/2015, Série I de 2015-05-14 (Portugal).
Despacho n.o 7109-A/2021. Constituição de 47 Áreas
Integradas de Gestão da Paisagem (AIGP) [Order
No 7109-A/2021. Establishment of 47 Integrated
Landscape Management Areas (AIGP)], Diário da
República n.º 137/2021, 1º Suplemento, Série II de
2021-07-16 (Portugal).
Direção-Geral do Território: PNAP. Retrieved from:
https://pnap.dgterritorio.gov.pt/ (28.08.2021).
Direção-Geral do Território. Retrieved from: https://
www.dgterritorio.gov.pt/ (27.09.2021).
European Landscape Convention, Florence 2000.
Retrieved from: https://rm.coe.int/1680080621
(02.09.2021).
Golemo, K. (2016). Zwiedzanie dźwiękami. Muzyczne
podróże po Lizbonie [Visiting through the tunes.
Lisbon music tours]. Folia Turistica, 39, 171–198.
Gonçalves, C., & Curado, M.J. (2017). As políticas da
Paisagem depois da Convenção Europeia da Paisagem
[Landscape Policies After The European Landscape
Convention]. In Estudos de Paisagem. Volume I
[Landscape Studies. Volume I] (pp. 191–215). Lisboa:
Instituto de História Contemporânea da Faculdade
de Ciências Socias e Humanas da Universidade Nova
de Lisboa.
Instituto da Conservação da Natureza e das Florestas
(ICNF). Retrieved from: http://www2.icnf.pt/portal
(07.09.2021).
Kuśnierz-Krupa, D. (2013). Zabytkowe fortyfikacje
w krajobrazie miejskim Portugalii (wybrane
przykłady) [Historic fortifications in the urban
landscape of Portugal (selected examples)].
Architektura Krajobrazu [Landscape Architecture], 4,
56–63.
Lei n.o 31/2014 de 30 de maio. Lei de bases gerais da
política pública de solos, de ordenamento do território
e de urbanismo [Law no. 31/2014 of May 30, 2014.
Establishing the general basis for public policies on
soils, land use and urbanism], Diário da República n.º
104/2014, Série I de 2014-05-30 (Portugal).
Lei n.o 58/2007 de 4 de setembro. Aprova o Programa
Nacional da Política de Ordenamento do Território
[Law no. 58/2007 of September 4, 2007. Approves the
National Spatial Planning Policy Programme], Diário
da República n.º 170/2007, Série I de 2007-09-04
(Portugal).
Lei n.o 99/2019 de 5 de setembro. Primeira revisão do
Programa Nacional da Política do Ordenamento do
Território (revoga a Lei n.º 58/2007, de 4 de setembro)
[Law no. 99/2019 of September 5, 2019. First revision
of the National Spatial Planning Policy Programme],
Diário da República n.º 170/2019, Série I de 2019-09-
05 (Portugal).
Oliveira, R. (2019). A Paisagem no âmbito municipal.
Orientações metodológicas para a implementação da
Convenção Europeia da Paisagem, da Política Nacio-
nal de Arquitetura e Paisagem e do Programa Nacio-
nal da Política de Ordenamento do Território [Lands-
cape at municipal level. Methodological guidelines
for the implementation of the European Landscape
Convention, the National Policy on Architecture and
Landscape and the National Spatial Planning Policy
Programme]. Direção-Geral do Território.
Oliveira, R., & Olmo, R.M. (2015, October). The Landscape
Observatory of Tagus River: Relevance of transfrontier
cooperation between Spain and Portugal. Presented
at the Sixteenth Council of Europe Meeting of the
Workshops for the Implementation of the European
Landscape Convention. Landscape and transfrontier
Trykacz, K., Bernat, S. (2022). Portugal’s experience in landscape conservation and planning. Acta Sci. Pol. Administratio
Locorum 21(2), 267–278.
278
*karolina.trykacz@mail.umcs.pl, *sebastian.bernat@mail.umcs.pl
cooperation. The landscape knows no boundary,
Andorra la Vella, Andorra.
Pina, H.M. (2018). The Douro landscape heritage
(NEPortugal): modernity and tradition in times of
change. Miscellanea Geographica, 22, 81–89. https://
doi.org/10.2478/mgrsd-2018-0018.
Sequeira, I. (2015). The sounds of portuguese landscape.
Retrieved from: https://www.wilder.pt/english/the-
sounds-of-portuguese-landscape/ (22.09.2021).
Solsten, E. (Ed.). (1993). Portugal: a country study, Area
handbook series. Retrieved from: https://www.loc.gov/
item/93030722/ (09.07.2021).
Szefler, S. (2021). The method of determining research
units for the needs of valorisation of rural landscape
at the level of plant cover on the example of the
Puchaczów commune. Acta Scientarum Polonorum.
Administratio Locorum, 20(1), 35–46. https://doi.
org/10.31648/aspal.5803.
Szot, Z. (1996). Portugalia [Portugal]. In Encyklopedia
Geograficzna Świata [Geographical Encyclopaedia
ofthe World] (pp. 376–381). Kraków: OPRESS.
Tataruch, A., Zysk, E., & Do Thi Tuyet, M. (2019). Changes
in the landscape of rural areas located close to city –
case study of Olsztyn. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum.
Administratio Locorum, 18(4), 397–410. https://doi.
org/10.31648/aspal.4653.
Torres, M.F., & Oliveira, J. (2018, November). O Património
Imaterial português classificado pela UNESCO e o seu
reflexo no turismo [The Portuguese Intangible Heritage
classified by UNESCO and its reflection on tourism].
Presented at the XIV Conferencia “Antopologia 2018”,
Instituto Cubano de Antropologia.
UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/
(13.08 .2021).
Ustawa z dnia 24 kwietnia 2015 r. o zmianie niektórych
ustaw w związku ze wzmocnieniem narzędzi ochrony
krajobrazu [Act of April 24, 2015 amending certain
laws in connection with the strengthening of land-
scape protection tools], Journal of Laws 2015, item
77 (Poland).
Wojciechowski, K.H. (2008). Prokrajobrazowe instru-
menty planistyczne we Francji, Belgii, Hiszpanii i Por-
tugalii [Landscape-friendly planning instruments in
France, Belgium, Spain and Portugal]. Czasopismo
Techniczne. Architektura, 105, 171–179.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
As a consequence of its long history of more than 250 years, the Douro Demarcated Region (NE Portugal) boasts a distinct cultural landscape typified by terraces filled with the regional variety of grapevine – it is a region where famous wines are produced, in particular Port wine. Nevertheless, especially after the 1980s, the need to cover labour shortages and increase productivity led to a gradual change in the landscape, and today the traditional terraces are mixed with new types of vineyards, such as the “vinha ao alto” (vertical vines) and “vinha em patamares” (vines on terraces). Against this backdrop, and with a view to preserving the landscape in a sustainable and multifunctional way, UNESCO awarded the region the “Evolving Living Landscape, World Heritage” award. In this article we combine extensive documentary research with productive field work in order to question the relationship between the need to preserve an exceptional, cultural landscape and the need for regional sustainability in this World Heritage site.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Em Portugal, a Constituição da República Portuguesa estabelece o ordenamento do território como função pública e consagra-o como uma tarefa fundamental do Estado, onde deve ser assegurado um equilibrado desenvolvimento socioeconómico e onde devem ser assegurados os meios para que haja uma valorização da paisagem. Desde a assinatura da Convenção Europeia da Paisagem, em 2000, a paisagem tem sido gradualmente incorporada na agenda política europeia e nacional, tendo atualmente entrado em vigor em 38 estados-signatários. Um dos objetivos desta Convenção é a integração da paisagem em todas as políticas relevantes, devendo para tal cada estado-membro estabelecer políticas de paisagem. Através de uma análise comparativa entre três casos de estudo (Portugal, Espanha – Região Autónoma da Catalunha - e Inglaterra), pretende-se avaliar a evolução legislativa em termos de políticas de paisagem e quais as vantagens que advêm de as mesmas serem incorporadas sistema de gestão territorial. Os resultados a alcançar ambicionam comprovar por um lado que a Convenção Europeia da Paisagem contribuiu para uma convergência europeia na construção de politicas de paisagem e por outro lado, visa compreender como é que estas podem ser integradas na gestão do território e da paisagem, contribuindo e influenciando a sua construção.
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the concepts and methodology used in the study "Identification and characterisation of landscape in continental Portugal" undertaken by the Department of Landscape and Biophysical Planning of the University of Evora for the General Directorate for Spatial Planning and Urban Development (DGOT-DU) at the Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning, between 1999 and 2001. On the one hand, the methodological approach developed is based on the methodologies used recently for the same purpose in different European countries and the way landscape has been considered in various European documents in the last years. On the other land, it is also based on the team¿s concern to approach the landscape as an holistic entity, and to examine its various components: ecological, cultural, socio-economic and sensorial. The set aim has been to define landscape units and to characterize these units in relation to the present landscape and the recorded trends, related problems and possibilities. Thus, the cartography relative to selected variables has been combined and related to satellite images and field surveys. The results of cross-referencing all this information has than been combined with expert examination of landscape coherence and character within each unit. The assessment was completed after careful bibliographic research and consultation with regional experts. The result is a flexible approach that combines objective analysis with a more subjective assessment, which the team considered fundamental for a true understanding of landscape.
Article
One of the methods of landscape valorization is assessment based on the analysis of vegetation. It makes it possible to recognize changes taking place in the natural environment. The first stages of valorization include the designation of relevant research units. The aim of the article is to present a model method of extracting research units for valorization of a rural landscape. The area for which the author presents the research model is the Puchaczów commune, located in the Lublin province. The method of determining units used in the research combines two types of research fields: natural and geometric. In order to designate research units in the commune, the author used the analysis of land cover and topography. The comparison of the results of the above-mentioned studies allowed to recognize 16 homogeneous types of landscapes. The next stage of research was the generalization the shape and surface of units of landscape types by lay on them a grid of squares. An important issue was the selection of the appropriate size of research fields. The article tested the possibility of using squares with sides equal to 500 m and 1 km. The results indicated that too high a degree of generalization of units would lead to a reduction in landscape types on the map, which would distort future valorisation results. © 2021 Publisher of the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. All rights reserved.
Article
In France, almost all the legal regulations that associate the landscape with spatial planning are contained in the Urban Planning Code (Code de l`urbanisme). The basic document is the Local Physical Plan (Plans locaux d`urbanisme, PLU) which defi nes the functions and forms of development, as well as protected zones. The Plan is the basis for issuance of Building Permits. The Plan must comply with a higher level document, the so-called SCOT (Schema de Coherence Territoriale). Its main idea is the landscape treated as a backbone of all spatial aspects. For a municipality to handle its tasks, special training sessions are organised. The instrument of inspection of how new elements affect the landscape is a special enclosure to the Building Permit which includes the views of the designed structure on the background of its broad surroundings. Such requirements are stricter in mountain and coastal areas. In Belgium, the regulations are diverse for specifi c regions that are responsible for the creation of spatial policy. The landscape is treated as an element of cultural identity, quality of life and aspect of economic development. For that reason, when planning, it is necessary to make an inventory of landscape resources, with landscape quality analysis carried from specifi c points and viewing routes. The purpose is not only to protect the existing values, but also to create new ones, especially on degraded lands that are subjected to re-composition processes. New regulations were implemented in Spain in 2006. They are diverse for particular provinces, and they are called “the law of land management and landscape protection”. Landscape is treated there as common heritage and an element of the quality of life, as well as a criterion that decides of the possibility of urban expansion. A separate chapter is devoted to that issue in the regulations concerning landscape policy and landscape management instruments. The basis for action are the land information system and mandatory pre-planning landscape studies. In some regions, e.g. Catalonia, landscape catalogues and landscape guidelines are applied. The said law also introduces the methods of landscape observatory and landscape maps. To implement such tasks, special funds are raised in the respective provinces. In Portugal, landscape is included among essential elements of national heritage. Besides the national parks and nature reserves, the legal status for “protected landscapes” is ensured. The law specifi es nine levels of landscape protection, with diverse restrictions, from the areas where the landscape should be expanded by new structures to the areas where any form of land use must be limited to the minimum.
Uwarunkowania międzynarodowej konkurencyjności regionu turystycznego Algarve w Portugalii [Determinants of international competitiveness of the Algarve tourist region in Portugal
  • M Bajgier-Kowalska
  • R Rettinger
Bajgier-Kowalska, M., & Rettinger, R. (2011). Uwarunkowania międzynarodowej konkurencyjności regionu turystycznego Algarve w Portugalii [Determinants of international competitiveness of the Algarve tourist region in Portugal].
Plano de Ação da PNAP 2020
  • Comissão De Acompanhamento Da Arquitetura E Paisagem
Comissão de Acompanhamento da Arquitetura e Paisagem. Plano de Ação da PNAP 2020 [Action plan for PNAP 2020]. Retrieved from: https://pnap. dgterritorio.gov.pt/sites/default/files/PLANO_DE_ ACAO_PNAP_2020.pdf (09.02.2021).
Diário da República n.º 86/1976, Série I de 1976-04-10
  • Constituição Da
  • República Portuguesa
Constituição da República Portuguesa [Constitution of the Portuguese Republic], Diário da República n.º 86/1976, Série I de 1976-04-10, 2005 amendment (Portugal).