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Abstract

Purpose This study aims to explore the influence of different types of cleanliness information provided on the Airbnb platform (hosts’ sanitation labels, Airbnb cleaning protocol and previous guests’ reviews) on guests’ trust and behavioral intentions. Design/methodology/approach This study uses an online scenario-based experimental design. A two-step approach was applied to discover the proposed relationships by assessing the measurement model fit and validity of the constructs with confirmatory factor analysis and testing study hypotheses with structural equation modeling. Findings The results demonstrate that three types of cleanliness information (i.e. provided by Airbnb’s hosts, platform and customer reviews) had statistically significant effects on customers’ trust and behavioral intentions. Practical implications The research results provide practical recommendations for Airbnb hosts and peer-to-peer accommodation platforms on using several types of textual and visual cleanliness information to influence guests’ attitudes and behavioral intentions. Originality/value This study advances knowledge by introducing new factors affecting guests’ trust and behavioral intentions in peer-to-peer accommodation settings and differentiating the effects of different sources of cleanliness information and different types of guests’ trust.

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... The sharing economy, catering to corporeal travel, has experienced a major hit from the COVID turbulence (Chen et al., 2021;Godovykh et al., 2022). This is mainly because traveling during the COVID-19 era can be daunting, given the intensity of perceived health risk imposed by the coronavirus and other travel duress associated with the pandemic (Cooper and Alderman, 2020). ...
... In particular, its products spanned a wide variety of adventurous experiences ranging from strolling on the Emerald Isle (Ireland) to exploring geo-cultural myths in Egypt (Airbnb, 2020). With the expansion of the core business to virtual travel, this reinvented sharing avenue might present a temporary antidote for Airbnb and its hosts, at least partially, to ease the financial burden during turbulent times (CBS Los Angeles, 2021; Godovykh et al., 2022). ...
Purpose This research paper aims to explore Airbnb’s online experience initiative, which has sparked a new wave of virtual tourism to improvise a large assortment of experiential activities through cyberspace. It works to answer questions pertinent to the type of virtual experiences tourists seek and how these experiences could fulfill tourist needs, thereby rendering favorable socio-mental outcomes through experiences encountered. Design/methodology/approach Drawing on travel experience and transformative tourism theoretical tenets, this qualitative inquiry used data collected from social media posts from virtual tourists. Findings Results reveal four major themes of online experiences – hedonism, attention restoration, social relatedness and self-exaltation – that encompass 12 experiential categories. They further underscore four types of transformative mechanisms pinpointing hedonic well-being, environmental-mastery well-being, social well-being and eudaimonic well-being. Research limitations/implications Research findings demonstrate how Airbnb exercised marketing agility during severe environmental plight; while expediting strategic initiatives that offer tourists and residents alike a means to reengage in leisure and travel activities at home. They also salvage the peer-to-peer community by turning accommodation hosts into online experience ambassadors. Originality/value The contribution of this inquiry lies in assessing virtual experiences and reconnecting how different cyber experiences can meet an array of tourist needs. This study further highlights the transformative virtual experience paradigm to lay the necessary theoretical foundation for future research on virtual transformative tourism. This research goes beyond the common understanding of transformative tourism that relies merely on corporeal encounters. From a practical point of view, this study brings light to a novel concept – sharing experience economy – that incorporates the nuances between sharing economy and experience economy.
... Today, the internet has enabled individuals to reach a broad audience more effectively to trade their goods and services [30]. The rental of vacation accommodations has attracted by far the most interest in the peer-to-peer internet trading area, with a host selling the use of a room or home to a guest for a set amount of time [31,32]. The peer-to-peer economy has developed as a serious challenger to the traditional hospitality business over the last decade, reshaping social and economic life. ...
... Paid online peer-to-peer accommodation is a space appropriate for overnight stays sold by a non-commercial provider (the host) to an end user (the guest) for shortterm use via the direct interaction between the host and guest [32]. A host is a person or group who rents out the real property on the P2P accommodation platform, whereas a P2P accommodation guest stays overnight at the listed property [31]. ...
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Agritourism is not a new phenomenon; moreover, it has increased significantly over the past decade and is expected to continue growing in the future. Despite this growth, there is no shared understanding of agritourism, which is problematic because it creates confusion and diminishes its appeal among consumers, thereby impeding communication and collaboration between stakeholders. Agritourism activities can be carried out on a microscale in rural areas by families and agricultural practitioners or on a large scale by hotels, restaurants, and catering firms. Despite many developing countries’ agricultural potential, agritourism has not been inserted into development plans in these countries. Only agritourism in small accommodation enterprises is carried out on a microscale by rural families. This study seeks to test the relationship between the positive impacts of peer-to-peer (P2P) accommodation and agritourism performance, with the mediating effects of support for P2P accommodations and organizational citizenship behavior towards P2P accommodations. The data were derived from 300 Airbnb consumers and hosts of agritourism accommodations in the eastern province of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The results of “Structural Equation Modeling” (SEM) via the “Partial least squares” (PLS) showed a positive direct relationship between peer-to-peer accommodation and agritourism performance with a significant mediating role of Organizational Citizenship Behavior and a positive moderating role of information on Agritourism destinations. Several theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... Preventive measures such as providing hygiene protocols and contactless check-in services can be considered as CSR through contributing to the health and safety of its stakeholders and the collective society. This is particularly true in a post-pandemic world hospitality and tourism studies have shown the importance of safety communication for travelers (Godovykh et al., 2022;Saunders et al., 2019;Wang and Lopez, 2020), this study highlights the role of message strategies in shaping consumers' responses toward different safety information of Airbnb accommodations. Managerially, this study provides recommendations for Airbnb hosts on preventive measures as well as what and how to convey safety messages to their guests in the post-pandemic period. ...
... In addition to the trust mechanism found in hotels and restaurants (Kim and Liu, 2022), this study highlights two further mechanisms in the post-pandemic period: perceived risk and perceived motives. These results corroborate those from Godovykh et al. (2022), who ...
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Purpose Applying the value creation of corporate social responsibility (CSR), this study aims to investigate the direct effect of preventive measures in the postpandemic world on Airbnb consumers’ attitudes toward the host, which may further impact their behavioral intentions. It also examined the mediating role of perceived risk and perceived motives, as well as the moderating role of message strategies and risk tolerance in this process. Design/methodology/approach A 2 (preventive measures: basic versus enhanced) × 2 (message strategies: promotional social cause message [PSC] versus partake-in-our-cause message [PIOC]) between-subjects factorial design was conducted with a sample of 476 US Airbnb consumers through an online survey. PROCESS macro was used for hypothesis testing. Findings Results demonstrated that enhanced preventive measures had more positive impact on Airbnb consumers’ attitudes toward the host, which was positively related to positive word of mouth and booking intention. Perceived risk and perceived motives mediated the relationship between preventive measures and attitude toward Airbnb hosts. Positive relationships between attitude toward the host and behavioral intentions were strengthened when PIOC was used than PSC. The negative relationship between preventive measures and perceived risk was enhanced when PIOC was used than PSC. Risk tolerance did not interact with messages strategy to impact the relationship between preventive measures and perceived risk. Originality/value The study uncovered the mechanisms by which consumers form their responses toward different safety information of Airbnb accommodations postpandemic and the role of message strategies in the process. It provided implications for the Airbnb platform and hosts in the postpandemic period.
... The sharing economy was in full bloom prepandemic: industry research projected that sales revenue from the sharing economy would rise from $15bn in 2013 to $335bn in 2025 (HSBC, 2020). However, the pandemic affected sharing economy platforms unevenly (Braje et al., 2022;Godovykh et al., 2022;Kim et al., 2022;Qiu et al., 2022). It stalled the rapid growth of certain sectors: for instance, Uber endured an 80% decline in business, forcing the company to layoff 6,700 employees and close 45 offices (Toyama, 2020). ...
Purpose We aimed to identify platform-centric versus multi-party service failure on sharing economy platforms via topic modeling analysis of consumers’ negative online reviews. We also sought to understand consumers’ reactions to these experiences by detecting negative discrete emotions. We then contrasted consumers’ responses to platform-centric and multi-party service failure through the theoretical lens of failure controllability. Design/methodology/approach We used a large-scale dataset containing more than 81,000 negative app reviews on eight representative hospitality and tourism sharing economy platforms. Topic modeling coupled with emotion detection algorithms revealed 11 themes reflecting diverse forms of platform-centric versus multi-party service failure and their associations with negative discrete emotions based on regression analysis. Findings The 11 themes reflecting diverse forms of platform-centric versus multi-party service failure were as follows: app glitch, customer service, locating & pooling, account issues, transaction, offer redemption, interface challenges, intermediary inaction, service lateness & cancellation, incorrect order, and fee structure. Our analysis suggests that platform-centric service failure is more likely than multi-party service failure to elicit negative discrete emotions. Implications and Originality/value Our research enriches the understanding of platform-related service failure beyond dyadic service interaction. In particular, we bring to light two forms of platform-related service failure that warrant scholarly attention: platform-centric versus multi-party service failure. By uncovering the distinct negative emotional associations of platform-centric versus multi-party service failure, our research adds novel empirical evidence to the service failure literature and the relevant attribution theory. Findings offer long-term implications for the sustainable development of sharing economies and platform businesses in contemporary hospitality.
... These findings reinforce Chi et al.'s (2021) observation that information quality (in terms of both completeness and relevance) is a critical factor in determining consumer intentions to switch between hotel reservation and sharing accommodation platforms. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, and consistent with Godovykh et al. (2022), our findings show that hygiene was clearly top-of-mind for consumers (a Tier 1 attribute) and ...
Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of key decision-making attributes on consumers’ choice of accommodation among and between hotels and Airbnb. Design/methodology/approach The study used a choice-based conjoint approach using 21 key decision-making factors that impact consumers’ choice of accommodation across five segments ranging from economy to luxury. Latent class estimation was used to identify segments of respondents who tend to have similar preferences for accommodation. Findings The results showed the presence of a consistent pattern of decision-making across the five accommodation segments, culminating in a hierarchy of importance in accommodation choice. The 21 key decision-making attributes comprised three tiers in order of decreasing importance: quality and service, amenities, and accessibility and safety. Further, latent class analysis indicated the presence of a hotel group and an Airbnb group of customers, which allowed us to identify how both types of providers might maximize the value of their offers to encourage customer switch. Research limitations/implications The accommodation landscape is extremely dynamic (particularly as the COVID-19 pandemic unfolds) and complex. The present study cannot capture all of its intricacies but provides an invaluable foundation for future research on the topic of consumer choice in an evolving and competitive accommodation market. Originality/value Extant research on accommodation choice has focused on hotels or Airbnb only. Moreover, research that has considered both types of accommodation simultaneously is limited in its conceptual and methodological scope. The present study synthesizes the fragmented literature on consumers’ accommodation choices and offers a holistic and coherent schematic – the hierarchy of importance in accommodation choice – that can be used by future researchers and practitioners alike.
Purpose The COVID-19 pandemic has caused the food delivery sector to boom as people continue to rely on services provided by online catering platforms (OCPs). However, because of the nature of sharing economy employment, gig workers’ contributions went largely ignored until intervention from institutional governance. This study aims to explore the impacts of labor market transformation after the Chinese Government issued guidance to promote gig workers’ welfare as a focal case. Design/methodology/approach Focus groups and the Delphi technique were used to explore associated impacts on OCPs and gig workers based on governance theory. Findings Results show that institutional governance negatively affected OCPs’ operating cost structure but sustained gig workers’ welfare. The dual effects of market mechanism and institutional governance in the sharing economy are needed to be balanced for labor market transformation. Research limitations/implications Long-term equilibrium can be fulfilled, given the growing food-related demand for the market mechanism. Social reciprocity is expected to be realized through institutional governance for gig workers’ welfare. Originality/value This study suggests that moving from market governance to stakeholder governance, as mediated by state governance, could transform gig workers’ labor structure in the gig economy. This study presents an integrated governance theory to enhance the epistemology of institutional governance.
Article
Purpose The paper intends to review academic research on peer to peer (P2P) accommodation sharing, notably Airbnb, for 2010–2022 and to identify the knowledge gaps for future research directions. Design/methodology/approach Numerous databases were searched using keywords. Based on the central theme of the research papers, the papers were divided into eight segments—consumer behavior, host behavior, host–guest relationship (HGR), trust in Airbnb, dominant theories in Airbnb, Airbnb regulation, Airbnb and hotels and macro impacts of Airbnb. In-depth content analysis resulted in the final 101 papers for inclusion. Findings The review advances comprehension of the Airbnb phenomenon by enriching the literature with new and most recent studies. Most existing Airbnb research has been conducted in Europe, USA/Canada, followed by Asian countries like China, Singapore, S. Korea and India. Future studies should include South America, Africa and other developing nations. More cross-cultural studies are required to understand consumer and host behavior in different cultural settings. Numerous proposals to fulfill the research gaps identified by the paper are discussed. Practical implications The study will give better insights into the spiraling P2P accommodation economy. The study will be useful to researchers, scholars, Airbnb, the hotel industry, vacation rental players and destination marketing organizations by relating the study findings to practical competition analysis. The study provides deeper insights into the decision-making process of both guests and hosts by examining the relevant motivators and constraints. It will also assist the Airbnb platform in identifying its strength over the traditional hotel industry and other vacation rentals. The findings will also assist policymakers in better controlling the Airbnb phenomena by providing a comprehensive view of the micro and macro environment. Originality/value The paper includes the most recent studies from Asian countries like India, Singapore, China, Korea and Taiwan, not covered by earlier reviews. Prior studies mainly focused on European and American countries. Also, the paper tried to cover the macro impacts of Airbnb in-depth and the effects of COVID-19.
Purpose Trust has emerged as a crucial research topic in the sharing economy. However, scholarship on trust in sharing accommodation remains limited. By using stakeholder theory, this study aims to provide a systematic framework for integrating trust among multiple stakeholders and identify potential knowledge gaps and future research directions for trust in sharing accommodation. Design/methodology/approach The authors select papers using a combination of multiple keywords from EBSCOhost and Web of Science. The analysis includes 172 journal papers published between 2011 and 2021. The authors conduct a systematic review through thematic content analysis, and each paper is analyzed using manual coding. Findings The analysis shows that key stakeholders for trust building in sharing accommodation include consumers, hosts, platforms, residents and governments, with most studies focusing on the consumer perspective. The study integrates various trust antecedents and outcomes from the above multistakeholder. Second, this study summarizes the most commonly used theories, and more diversified theories could be applied to future research. Third, this study finds that most studies use quantitative methods, and researchers should introduce more integrated methodologies such as machine learning on a large scale. Furthermore, the current research disciplinary paradigm should be extended to multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches to promote innovation in trust research. Finally, the COVID-19 pandemic has brought both challenges and opportunities to industry as well as researchers, and more institutional rather than commercial perspectives need to be addressed. Research limitations/implications The study contributes to the trust and the sharing economy literature by providing a systematic framework for integrating trust from multistakeholder perspectives. The study also points out several future research directions by combining micro and macro multistakeholder perspectives, identifying more diversified theories and methodologies and specifying multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches. Originality/value The study advances knowledge by providing a systematic framework for integrating trust among multiple stakeholders and proposing future research directions for trust in sharing accommodation.
Purpose In accommodation-sharing, hosts must provide satisfactory stay experiences for guests, who will then express intentions to revisit (behavioral loyalty) and/or recommend the experiences to others (attitudinal loyalty) in their reviews. Through the lens of expectation-confirmation theory, this study aims to investigate the service dimensions customers focus on in their reviews and their relationships with customer-loyalty manifestations in accommodation-sharing. Design/methodology/approach This study uses topic modeling to discover distinctive dimensions from Airbnb reviews from a micro perspective and map them onto overarching themes from a macro perspective, and further examine the relationships among topics using cluster analysis. Findings This study reveals “information” as an important theme rarely mentioned in the literature. Besides, “homeliness” is a unique dimension associated with behavioral and attitudinal loyalty toward accommodation-sharing. Practical implications The findings help accommodation-sharing platforms and hosts identify customer concerns and the drivers of customer loyalty in accommodation-sharing. Originality/value In the existing literature, customer perceptions and loyalty are largely determined through surveys, and the findings are not univocal due to the inconsistencies of measurement items used, the potential response bias and limited sample sizes. This study capitalizes on the wealth of user-generated content and extracts service dimensions and customer loyalty directly from textual reviews, overcoming previous research limitations.
Purpose Building upon uncertainty reduction theory, this work aims to explore how four uncertainty reduction factors (i.e. online property review, online textual description, online visual description and online instant messenger) mitigate property quality uncertainty and property fit uncertainty, which further influence Airbnb use intention. Design/methodology/approach This work tests the proposed research model using a structural equation modeling approach with 335 Airbnb users. Findings The findings reveal that the online property review, online textual description, online visual description and online instant messenger can efficiently mitigate property quality uncertainty and property fit uncertainty, which ultimately influence Airbnb use intention. Research limitations/implications This study provides useful insights on mitigating property uncertainty in the peer-to-peer (P2P) accommodation platforms. Researchers are encouraged to investigate the boundary conditions that influence the effectiveness of uncertainty reduction strategies in alleviating property uncertainty. Practical implications P2P accommodation service providers are suggested to take actionable uncertainty reduction strategies to mitigate property uncertainty in online P2P accommodation platforms. Originality/value First, this study advances research on P2P accommodation by identifying two key types of property uncertainty, namely, property quality uncertainty and property fit uncertainty. Second, this study extends research on P2P accommodation by proposing contextualized passive, active and interactive uncertainty reduction strategies in mitigating property uncertainty. Third, this study extends uncertainty reduction theory to the P2P accommodation context. Fourth, this study enriches uncertainty reduction theory by verifying the mediating effects of property quality uncertainty and property fit uncertainty.
Purpose This study aims to understand Chinese consumers’ perceived barriers to using peer-to-peer (P2P) accommodation before and after the outbreak of COVID-19 and the negotiation strategies they applied in overcoming the barriers and enabling consumption. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative research design with 28 semi-structured interviews was used. Data were analysed by content analysis. Findings Five psychological barriers and four functional barriers were found to inhibit consumers from using P2P accommodation both before and after the COVID-19 outbreak. In overcoming the perceived barriers, consumers applied both behavioural negotiation strategies, including seeking information, behavioural adaptation, selective choice and seeking social support, and cognitive negotiation strategies, including cognitive adaptation and trusting agents. COVID-19 was found to serve as both a barrier and a facilitator for using P2P accommodation. A barriers–negotiation framework was developed in the context. Research limitations/implications Theoretically, this study advances consumer resistance and perceived barriers literature by integrating negotiation and developing a barriers–negotiation framework of P2P accommodation usage. This study also offers insights for practitioners in the P2P accommodation industry. Originality/value This study showcases the role of negotiation in understanding barriers to using P2P accommodation, paving the way to extend relevant knowledge to advance consumer resistance research, which is an emerging topic in the broader management domain.
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COVID-19 has significantly influenced tourism, including tourists’ and residents’ attitudes toward tourism. At the same time, attitudes and consumer confidence are important for economic recovery in the tourism sector. This study explores the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on people’s attitudes toward tourism by analyzing time-series data on the number of COVID-19 positive cases, vaccinations, news sentiment, a total number of daily mentions of tourism, and the share of voice for positive and negative sentiment toward tourism. The applied data analysis techniques include descriptive analysis, visual representation of data, data decomposition into trend and cycle components, unit root tests, Granger causality test, and multiple time series regression. The results demonstrate that the COVID-19 statistics and media coverage have significant effects on interest in tourism in general, as well as the positive and negative sentiment toward tourism. The results contribute to knowledge and practice by describing the effects of the disease statistics on attitudes toward tourism, introducing social media sentiment analysis as an opportunity to measure positive and negative sentiment toward tourism, and providing recommendations for government authorities, destination management organizations, and tourism providers.
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The purpose of this paper is to clarify the concept of perceived risks, identify the main antecedents and outcomes of health risk perceptions and propose a conceptual model of health risk perceptions in tourism. Design/methodology/approach This paper provides a review of the literature on customer risk perceptions, along with their antecedents and outcomes, and proposes a conceptual model of health risk perceptions in tourism. Findings Key findings reveal that the main factors of health risk perceptions can be broadly classified into cognitive, affective, individual and contextual components. The proposed conceptual model of health risk perceptions provides a theoretically integrated overview of relationships between all groups of factors, tourists’ risk perceptions and travel intentions. Originality/value The paper contributes to theory by offering a new approach to health risk perceptions in tourism, which remain underexplored in previous studies. The literature review adds to the body of knowledge by introducing four main groups of factors affecting tourists’ health risk perceptions, while the conceptual model proposes relationships between these factors, tourists’ risk perceptions and travel intentions.
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Current research investigating the accommodation experience in the sharing economy in China is limited, especially from a cross-cultural perspective. To fill this gap, this study examined the accommodation experience of Airbnb guests using text-mining techniques and compared the accommodation experience perception between two culturally different groups: domestic Chinese and foreign English-speaking Airbnb guests. The results showed that the two groups shared eight common dimensions, including “Convenience/Location”, “Amenities”, “Feel at home”, “Check-in/out”, “Experience”, “Availability/Transportation”, “Host”, and “Style/Decoration”. However, there are differences in the relative importance of each dimension of accommodation experience between the domestic and foreign Airbnb guests. For example, the foreign guests more often mentioned homeliness, location/convenience, and availability/transportation, while the domestic guests showed greater interest in check-in procedures and style/decoration. Additionally, the two groups have several unique dimensions. The dimensions unique to foreign guests are “Recommendation” and “Booking flexibility”, while the dimensions unique to domestic guests are “Revisit” and “Cleanliness”. This study provides both theoretical and practical implications for peer-to-peer accommodation hosts and platforms. For example, Airbnb hosts can improve the satisfaction of Airbnb guests by improving several common extracted topics (e.g., amenities quality and host response) and the fact that foreign guests care more about homeliness, while domestic guests pay more attention to the check-in process and house design and decoration.
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Activities within the sharing economy (SE) are in a precarious situation due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Even though the SE is considered a disruptive phenomenon, especially in the accommodation and transport sectors, the Covid-19 has raised concerns about its survivability. Thousands of people have lost their jobs, the value of SE firms has dropped, and many service providers have no other option but to stop working. Understanding the effect of the Covid-19 pandemic on the SE sector is therefore essential. The objective of this study is therefore to examine the effect of the Covid-19 on sharing economy activities. We have used various publications-such as news articles, TV news items, YouTube videos, and blog posts-as data sources for this study purpose. Through content analysis, the study shows how the SE phenomenon is coping with the changing environment caused by the Covid-19. We analyzed the SE sector mainly from the perspective of four stakeholders: SE firms, service providers, service receivers (customers), and regulatory bodies. We explored the SE phenomenon based mainly on the following themes: anxiety, cancelation, job loss, income reduction, hygiene and safety, overcoming strategy , and outcomes. Based on the findings, we point out implications and avenues for future research.
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Accommodation has been viewed as the largest and most important sector in the tourism industry. This paper provides a systematic review of 371 papers identified in SCOPUS and WOS databases between 2000 and 2019 on P2P accommodation in the sharing economy. Research on P2P accommodation is experiencing high growth, with Airbnb a major focus for tourism scholars. The provision of authentic experiences, environmental concerns, and socialization are important themes in P2P accommodation research, with trust and negative attitudes of established businesses and government regarded as the main barriers of P2P development. Common strategies to respond P2P accommodation platforms are also identified
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This study investigated the main effects of perceived risks, brand credibility and past experience on intention to stay at Airbnb places and the interaction effects of past experience with perceived risks and brand credibility on intention to stay. A survey research method was utilized in South Korea. Our study is the first study to have applied and supported Jacoby and Kaplan’s six constructs in explaining consumers’ risk perceptions in the Airbnb context. One of the primary findings of this study was that past experience played a significant moderating role in the Airbnb context. Social risk and psychological risk had negative effects and performance risk had a positive effect on Airbnb users’ intention to stay. With regard to non-users, psychological risk had a negative effect on intention to stay. These findings indicate that Airbnb users consider more specific risks based on their prior experiences of Airbnb use. This study also revealed that brand credibility had the strongest influence on both Airbnb users’ and non-users’ intention to stay. Consistent with previous research, this finding indicates that brand credibility is a critical variable in consumer decision-making for the intangible and heterogeneous products like accommodation. Based on these findings, theoretical and managerial implications were provided, and limitations and future research were discussed.
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Purpose-This article discusses the effects of COVID-19 on hotel marketing and management practices and outlines a three-pronged research agenda to stimulate knowledge development in the hotel sector. Design/methodology/approach-This paper is based on an overview of the relevant literature on hotel marketing and management as well as the hotel guest behavior. The authors also investigated hospitality service trends to propose a research agenda. Findings-This paper presents a research agenda from three dimensions-artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics, hygiene and cleanliness, and health and healthcare. First, different types of AI (mechanical, thinking, and feeling) might open up distinct research streams at the intersection of health crises and hotel management, in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, this paper recommends that researchers move beyond typical perspectives on the antecedents and outcomes of hotel hygiene and cleanliness to delve into guests' perceptions of the cleanliness of specific hotel surfaces. Furthermore, a more in-depth analysis is warranted about the evolving relationship between hotels and the healthcare sector. Practical implications-The recommended research areas are intended to advance the knowledge base to help hotels recover from the COVID-19 pandemic. The suggested research streams are expected to provide actionable insights to promote the development and sustainability of the hotel sector. Originality/value-This article appears to be a frontier study, critically examining possible effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on hotel marketing and management practices and how hoteliers may respond to such challenges to recover after this pandemic.
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Purpose This paper aims to provide a snapshot of key learnings about paid online peer-to-peer accommodation trading, as it relates to tourism and hospitality, and to identify future research questions. Design/methodology/approach The paper paints a picture and discusses research conducted in the past, which relates to paid online peer-to-peer accommodation, in brief. It also lists a number of specific research questions which should be investigated in future. Findings Some of the key topics, such as the business model of facilitators of peer-to-peer trading and the necessary regularly responses, have been extensively studied. The focus should now turn on how peer-to-peer trading of travel-related services can best be leveraged to the benefit of economies, communities and people. Originality/value The main value of this perspective paper lies in offering a succinct overview of research into paid online peer-to-peer accommodation and pointing to key questions for future research.
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As peer-to-peer (P2P) accommodation service often involves multistage interactions between hosts and guests in online and offline settings, trust between the parties involved is of the utmost importance. In particular, the possibility of interacting offline in P2P service delivery highlights the significance of interpersonal trust between hosts and guests. Accordingly, this study examines the formation of trusting beliefs in hosts, comprising prospective guests’ perception of the ability, benevolence, and integrity of the hosts. This study estimated the effects of two antecedents—propensity to trust and trust in P2P platform—on trusting beliefs, as well as the consequence of trusting beliefs, that is, behavioral intention to book from the host. Important implications for trust formation in a P2P accommodation marketplace are provided.
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The purpose of this article is to analyze the market value impact of actions taken in response to disruptive innovation; specifically, actions that incumbent lodging firms implement to adopt the innovation of peer-to-peer trading-based accommodation rental. As incumbent firms need to device strategies to accommodate the disruption stemming from a new entrant with a disruptive business model, we analyze the differentiated efforts of four incumbent lodging firms to compete with the peer-to-peer lodging firm Airbnb. This study is the first to quantify the effects of innovation on incumbent tourism firms challenged by a disruptive entrant. It finds that adoption speeds, that is first vs. late adoption, make a difference as the former are awarded a significant increase in market value.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review the extant literature on Airbnb – one of the most significant recent innovations in the tourism sector – to assess the research progress that has been accomplished to date. Design/methodology/approach Numerous journal databases were searched, and 132 peer-reviewed journal articles from various disciplines were reviewed. Key attributes of each paper were recorded, and a content analysis was undertaken. Findings A survey of the literature found that the majority of Airbnb research has been published quite recently, often in hospitality/tourism journals, and the research has been conducted primarily by researchers in the USA/Canada and Europe. Based on the content analysis, the papers were divided into six thematic categories – Airbnb guests, Airbnb hosts, Airbnb supply and its impacts on destinations, Airbnb regulation, Airbnb’s impacts on the tourism sector and the Airbnb company. Consistent findings have begun to emerge on several important topics, including guests’ motivations and the geographical dispersion of listings. However, many research gaps remain, so numerous suggestions for future research are provided. Practical implications By reviewing a large body of literature on a fairly novel and timely topic, this research provides a concise summary of Airbnb knowledge that will assist industry practitioners as they adapt to the recent rapid emergence of Airbnb. Originality/value This is the first paper to review the extant literature specifically about Airbnb.
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Despite its global popularity, the Web-based Peer-to-Peer (P2P) accommodation platform (e.g. Airbnb, Xiaozhu.com) commonly suffers insufficient customer trust due to its lean human/social elements. This study examines a soft strategy of trust establishment that addresses the impersonal nature of Web-mediation by improving social presence, and assesses its applicability and functional mechanism in the context of P2P sharing economy. Specifically, this study models and tests a social presence-utilitarian/hedonic engagement-trust-purchase intention framework. Data was collected from 571 Chinese P2P accommodation customers, and analyzed using structural equation model. The result confirms that social presence does enhance P2P customer trust and purchase intention via both utilitarian and hedonic engagement. Implications and limitations are also discussed
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With the rapid development of information technology in hotel booking context, it is no doubt that many hotels consequently enhance the needs of integrating information technologies into their overall business operations. In this study, we developed a research model which consists of perceived value, trust toward a third party online booking site, and trust toward hotels, and tested it by using partial least square techniques. Survey data were collected from 307 individuals who have prior experiences on making a reservation using third-party online booking sites. Based upon our findings, we found that the perceived value, which was affected by both price and quality, was positively related to individuals' intention to book. We also found that both trust toward third-party online booking sites and trust toward hotels, which was influenced by online review, have positive impacts on individuals' intention to book. The implications of these findings for both research and practice are discussed.
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Airbnb has grown very rapidly over the past several years, with millions of tourists having used the service. The purpose of this study was to investigate tourists’ motivations for using Airbnb and to segment them accordingly. The study involved an online survey completed in 2015 by more than 800 tourists who had stayed in Airbnb accommodation during the previous 12 months. Aggregate results indicated that respondents were most strongly attracted to Airbnb by its practical attributes, and somewhat less so by its experiential attributes. An exploratory factor analysis identified five motivating factors—Interaction, Home Benefits, Novelty, Sharing Economy Ethos, and Local Authenticity. A subsequent cluster analysis divided the respondents into five segments—Money Savers, Home Seekers, Collaborative Consumers, Pragmatic Novelty Seekers, and Interactive Novelty Seekers. Profiling of the segments revealed numerous distinctive characteristics. Various practical and conceptual implications of the findings are discussed.
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Purpose Accommodations providers in the sharing economy are increasingly competing with the hotel industry vis-à-vis the guest experience. Additionally, experience-related research remains underrepresented in the hospitality and tourism literature. The authors develop and test a model of experiential consumption to provide a better understanding of an emerging phenomenon in the hospitality industry. In so doing, the authors also expand Pine and Gilmore’s original experience economy construct. Design/methodology/approach Using data from a survey of 630 customers who stayed at a hotel or an Airbnb in the previous three months, the authors performed a multi-step analysis procedure centered on structural equation modeling to validate the model. Findings The authors demonstrate that the dimensions of serendipity, localness, communitas, and personalization represent valuable additions to Pine and Gilmore’s original experience economy construct. Airbnb appears to outperform the hotel industry in the provision of all experience dimensions. The authors further define the pathways that underlie the creation of extraordinary, memorable experiences, which subsequently elicit favorable behavioral intentions. Practical implications The findings suggest the need for the hotel industry to adopt a content marketing paradigm that leverages various dimensions of the experience economy to provide customers with valuable and relevant experiences. The industry must also pay greater attention to its use of branding, signage, and promotional messaging to encourage customers to interpret their experiences through the lens of these dimensions. Originality/value The study expands a seminal construct from the field of services marketing in the context of the accommodations industry. The Accommodations Experiencescape is offered as a tool for strategic experience design. The study also offers a model of experiential consumption that explains customers’ experiences with accommodations providers.
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Trust is a crucial prerequisite for peer-to-peer rental and sharing. Therefore, platform operators such as Airbnb have implemented a plethora of trust-building mechanisms, user interface (UI) artefacts, and reputation systems. While the role of reputation systems for establishing trust is well-understood, little is known about how reputation actually translates into tangible economic value, either by attracting more demand or by enabling the enforcement of higher prices. In this paper, we consider the economic value of trust-building artefacts on Airbnb by quantifying price effects of common reputation features from a signaling theory perspective. Our analysis is based on hedonic price modeling and a large-scale dataset from 86 German cities that provides insights in the price effects of a diverse set of variables (average rating score, number of ratings, Superhost status, ID verification, photos, and duration of membership). Employing hedonic price regression modeling, we find that index signals such as the hosts' rating scores and duration of membership are associated with economic value. Moreover, also conventional signals such as accommodation photographs consistently translate into price premiums. We discuss implications for platform operators, users, and the general design of Information Systems (IS) artefacts intended to facilitate peer-to-peer platform interactions.
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Airbnb is an online marketplace for peer-to-peer accommodation rental services. In contrast to traditional rental services, personal profile images, i.e. the sellers’ facial images, are present along with the housing on offer. This study aims to investigate the impact of a seller’s facial image and their expression upon buyers’ behavior in this context. The impact of facial expressions was investigated together with other relevant variables (price and customer ratings). Findings from a conjoint study (n=139) show that the impact of a seller’s facial expression on buying behavior in an online peer-to-peer context is significant. A negative facial expression and absence of facial image (head silhouette) abates approach and evokes avoidance tendencies to explore a specific web page on Airbnb, and, simultaneously decrease the likelihood to rent. The reverse effect was true for neutral and positive facial expressions. We found that a negative and positive facial expression had more impact on likelihood to rent, for women than for men. Further analysis shows that the absence of facial image and an angry facial expression cannot be compensated for by a low price and top customer ratings related to likelihood to rent. Practitioners should keep in mind that the presence/absence of facial images and their inherent expressions have a significant impact in the peer-to-peer accommodation rental services.
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This study explores key content and themes from online reviews to explain major service attributes of peer-to-peer (P2P) accommodation sought by guests. The results from lexical analyses indicate that attributes frequently mentioned in guest reviews are associated with location (proximity to point of interest and characteristics of neighborhood), host (service and hospitality), and property (facilities and atmosphere). Reviews focusing on location and feeling welcome are consistently linked with higher rating scores, including accuracy, cleanliness, checkin, communication, value, and overall ratings. This confirms that P2P accommodation appeals to consumers who are driven by experiential and social motivations. Marketing implications are provided.
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OPEN ACCESS: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/toc/jtf/2/1 Purpose Although networked hospitality businesses as Airbnb are a recent phenomenon, a rapid growth has made them a serious competitor for the hospitality industry with important consequences for tourism and for tourist destinations. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the nature of the phenomenon, its potential further development in the next five years and the impact this developments will have on tourism, on hotels and on city destinations. Design/methodology/approach A literature study, combined with scenario workshops and a Delphi panel, were used to map current trends and uncertainties. With this input, future scenarios were elaborated using the Global Business Network (“scenario cross”) method. Findings Network platforms as Airbnb are often classified under something called the “Sharing Economy”, a denomination that obscures their true nature. Airbnb is a challenging innovation to which traditional hospitality will have to respond. Its impact has at the same time led to a call for regulatory policies. The definition of these policies and the evolution of tourism are variables that determine future scenarios. Attempts to ban the phenomenon mean a disincentive to innovation and protect oligopolistic markets; more receptive policies may have the desired results if tourism grows moderately but in booming destinations they may lead to a harmful commercialization. Originality/value Until now, Airbnb has been described in conceptual studies about the so-called “Sharing economy”, or more recently in empirical studies about isolated effects of holiday rentals. This paper contextualizes the evolution of networked hospitality and seeks to synthesize the sum of its impacts, thus enabling businesses and local governments to define positions and strategies.
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In a recent article on conducting international marketing research in the twenty-first century (Craig & Douglas 2001), the application of new (electronic) technology for data collection was encouraged. Email and web-based data collection methods are attractive to researchers in international marketing because of low costs and fast response rates. Yet the conventional wisdom is that, as some people still do not have access to email and the Internet, such datacollection techniques may often result in a sample of respondents that is not representative of the desired population. In this article we evaluate multimode strategies of data collection that include web-based, email and postal methods as a means for the international marketing researcher to obtain survey data from a representative sample. An example is given of a multimode strategy applied to the collection of survey data from a sample of respondents across 100 countries.
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Researchers often tend to use the words emotions, feelings, moods, and affect interchangeably, which creates confusion in both conceptual and methodological domains of tourism and hospitality research. However, the insights from neuroscience and psychology demonstrated that there are fundamental differences between these concepts, including their causes, duration, intensity, and outcomes. This research note aims to discuss conceptual and methodological aspects related to using emotions, moods, feelings, and affect, provide comprehensive definitions, and outline opportunities to capture them comprehensively in tourism and hospitality research.
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The unbridled propagation of the sharing economy halted abruptly with the onset of the pandemic, forcing sharing economy companies to respond to the new set of challenges faced by them. There were marked differences between the pre-and post-COVID challenges. Post-COVID, sharing economy companies designed novel response strategies including tempering ambitions, adapting business models, designing new standard operating procedures, displaying empathy towards employees and partners, building trust, and sharing information with stakeholders. This signified a reorientation of sharing economy companies in the hypercon-nected world where there is a blurring of boundaries as brand experiences and meanings are cocreated by stakeholders. Sharing economy companies would need to focus on different set of values to attain competitive advantage in the post-COVID world-partnership instead of confrontation, nurturing instead of destructive, open and sharing instead of closed, and empathetic instead of uncaring. This can help create meaningful differentiation and provide competitive advantage. ARTICLE HISTORY
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Purpose This study aims to provide an in-depth understanding of the complex nature of Airbnb user experience by analyzing the pattern and sentiment of online reviews and assessing the relationships among review scores. Design/methodology/approach Big data analysis is conducted using Airbnb users’ online reviews of 16 US cities; correlation is run on review scores. Findings The key themes of Airbnb users’ online reviews are “clean,” “location,” “stay,” “home,” “place,” “host,” “neighborhood” and “recommend” and users have positive Airbnb experiences in general. The score of “cleanliness” significantly affects the “overall review” score. Research limitations/implications This study is exploratory in nature; mixed methods should be used in the future to measure the relationship between user experience and extracted themes. As the context is in the USA in the current study, comparisons of review patterns across different countries and regions are necessary for later studies. Furthermore, future studies should consider Airbnb users’ demographics, personality and lodging preferences. Practical implications It is important for Airbnb hosts to maintain a clean and accessible property. Both Airbnb hosts and hoteliers should enhance the attributes that generate positive customer reviews. Each city should develop different strategies based on the performance of “cleanliness” and “overall review.” Originality/value This study supplements the existing literature in Airbnb user experience by analyzing online reviews in 16 US cities via Leximancer 4.0.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discuss some common pitfalls in experimental research in the field of hospitality and tourism. It aims to offer recommendations on how to avoid such problems to enhance theory development. Findings This paper highlights some common pitfalls in hospitality research regarding manipulations, samples and data analyses. The challenges imposed by the global pandemic are also discussed. Research limitations/implications Researchers in hospitality are recommended to refine their experimental designs, to recruit appropriate and sufficient samples and to avoid the abuse of “researcher degrees of freedom” in data analysis. Originality/value This is the first study to review common mistakes in experimental research in hospitality research and to recommend some remedies. The findings of this study can contribute to stronger theory development.
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This review article (1) creates a knowledge map reflecting key areas of academic insight into the phenomenon of paid online peer-to-peer accommodation, (2) synthesizes these insights, and (3) points to regions on the knowledge map which require our attention in the future. This article also launches the Annals of Tourism Research Curated Collection on peer-to-peer accommodation networks, which contains past and hot off the press work on the topic and will continue to grow as new articles on the topic appear in Annals
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As an essential risk-reduction strategy, technology innovation is likely to play a key role in the hotel industry's recovery from the 2020 coronavirus pandemic. However, its impact on customer decision-making behavior is unknown. Focusing on technology innovation for reducing guest interaction with employees and enhancing cleanliness, the purpose of this research was to examine the impact of expected interaction and expected cleanliness on perceived health risk and hotel booking intention. Three experimental studies were conducted using online consumer samples. The studies found that low levels of expected interaction through technology-mediated systems lead to low levels of perceived health risk. Perceived health risk mediates the relationship between expected interaction and hotel booking intention. In addition, high levels of expected cleanliness through advanced cleaning technologies moderate the impacts of expected interaction on perceived health risk. Importantly, the proposed perceived risk mechanism was effective in post-pandemic scenarios. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
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The present paper examines whether Airbnb listing prices differ significantly between ‘casual’ hosts and hosts with multiple listings, regarded as professionals. To this effect the Airbnb apartment market in Athens (Greece) is used as a case study. Drawing on a sample of about 3.500 Airbnb apartments listed in May 2017, the study employs, first, typical hedonic price modelling to assess the determinants of listings’ price of both groups, and then it uses the Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition methodology to examine whether there is a price gap between casual and professional hosts, the characteristics that cause this price gap and their relative contribution to it. The research finds a statistically significant difference in the Airbnb pricing between casual and professional hosts, where about a half of the price gap is attributed to the ‘better’ listings that professionals manage (in terms of size, availability of amenities and locational attributes), and a half to the different reaction hosts have towards specific Airbnb characteristics. In particular, professionals value higher (i.e. place more trust on) the Superhost badge issued by Airbnb as an institution, whereas casual hosts place trust on (and price accordingly) the evaluations provided by the guests.
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Although Airbnb's impact on hotels has been quantified for major hotel markets in the United States, these effects have not been quantified in international hotel markets. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to examine the effects of Airbnb listings on key hotel performance metrics in an international context. In particular, we examine the effects of Airbnb listings on hotel revenue per available room (RevPAR), average daily rate (ADR), and occupancy rate (OCC) in major international hotel markets, namely London, Paris, Sydney and Tokyo. The results show that Airbnb listings in these major cities have been increasing more than 100% year over year and that the effect of Airbnb on hotel RevPAR and OCC is negative and statistically significant. In particular, a 1% increase in Airbnb listings decreases hotel RevPAR by between 0.016% and 0.031% in these hotel markets. The implications of these findings for destinations and hoteliers are discussed.
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This study analyzes the intellectual structure of the sharing economy (SE) in the hospitality and tourism industry, starting from a sample of 189 papers. A co-citation analysis was performed on the 99 most frequently cited studies. The analysis carried out identified five clusters. These groups include the following: (i) the constituent elements of sharing, (ii) the SE and the sharing phenomenon, (iii) noncommercial website platforms and the social impact generated by sharing firms, (iv) economic impacts, and (v) some negative impacts. Each cluster is succinctly described, presenting the main theme and some subtopics.
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Consumers make Airbnb choices not only based on property features but also based on host characteristics. However, very limited studies have examined how consumers respond to the gender of the Airbnb host. To fill that gap, this study examines the impact of gender congruity on consumers’ Airbnb booking intentions by using a 2 host gender (male vs. female) ×2 consumer gender (male vs. female) quasi-experimental design. With a sample of 200 U.S. consumers, ANCOVA results indicate that female consumers are more likely to book an Airbnb property hosted by a female (vs. a male). However, such a gender preference doesn’t exist among males. Moreover, mediation tests with the bootstrapping approach show that the effect of gender congruity is primarily mediated by affective trust rather than cognitive trust and such a mediating effect only exists among females (vs. males). The study findings provide important insights into marketing communications of peer-to-peer accommodations.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate attributes that influence Airbnb customer experience by analysing online reviews from users staying in London. It presents a text mining approach to identify a set of broad themes from the textual reviews. It aims to highlight the customers’ changing perception of good quality of accommodations. Design/methodology/approach This paper analyses 169,666 reviews posted by Airbnb users who stayed in London from 2011 to 2015. Hierarchical clustering algorithms are used to group similar words into clusters based on their co-occurrence. Longitudinal analysis and seasonal analysis are conducted for a more coherent understanding of the Airbnb customer behaviour. Findings This paper provides empirical insights about how Airbnb users’ mindset of good quality of accommodations changes over a five-year timespan and in different seasons. While there are common attributes considered important throughout the years, exclusive attributes are discovered in particular years and seasons. Research limitations/implications This paper is confined to Airbnb experiences in London. Researchers are encouraged to apply the proposed methodology to investigate Airbnb experiences in other cities and detect any change in customer perception of quality stay. Practical implications This paper offers implications for the prioritisation of customer concerns to design and improve services offerings and for alignment of services with customer expectations in the sharing economy. Originality/value This paper fulfils an identified need to examine the change in customer expectation across the timespan and seasons in the case of Airbnb. It also contributes by illustrating how big data can be used to uncover key attributes that facilitate the engagement with the sharing economy.
Article
The sharing norm has enabled many of unused resources revamped and returned with some value to both travelers and local communities in the sharing economy. Airbnb requires remarkable trust that goes beyond the level where both user and host take risks from a sharing transaction. This paper suggests an empirical research model developed based on the trust building model and attachment theory explaining how users develop their trust and further attachment through two major routes. The results indicate that the cognitive trust-identity attachment building mechanism is more effective than affective trust-bond attachment depending on the emotional distance between the users and hosts. Finally, this paper provides scholars with theoretical enhancement on the trust and attachment literature and recommends managers of the sharing businesses to enrich users’ trust-attachment toward the firm and the service provider that has a strong influence on users’ behavioral intention to use.
Purpose: A growing body of research from various domains has investigated Airbnb, a two-sided market platform for peer-based accommodation sharing. We suggest that it is due time to take a step back and assess the current state of affairs. In this paper, we hence conflate and synthesize research on Airbnb. Design/methodology/approach: To facilitate research on Airbnb and its underlying principles in electronic commerce, we hence present a structured literature review on Airbnb. Findings: Our findings are based on 118 articles from the fields of Tourism, Information and Management, Law, and Economics between 2013 and 2018. Based on this broad basis, we find that a) research on Airbnb is highly diverse in terms of domains, methods, and scope, b) motives for using Airbnb are manifold (e.g., financial, social, environmental), c) trust and reputation are considered crucial by almost all scholars, d) the platform’s variety is reflected in prices, and e) the majority of work is based on surveys and empirical data while experiments are scarce. Originality/value: Our study provides a comprehensive overview of work on the accommodation sharing platform Airbnb, to the best of our knowledge, representing the first systematic literature review. We hope that researchers and practitioners alike will find this review useful as a reference for future research on Airbnb and as a guide for the development of innovative applications based on the platform’s peculiarities and paradigms in electronic commerce practice. From a practical perspective, the general tenor suggests that hotel and tourism operators may benefit from a) focusing on their core advantages over Airbnb and differentiating features and b) aligning their marketing communication with their users’ aspirations. Implications: Based on the present assessment of studied topics, domains, methods, and combinations thereof, we suggest that research should move towards building atop of a common ground of data structures and vocabulary and that attention should focus on the identified gaps and hitherto scarcely employed combinations. The set of under-represented areas includes cross-cultural investigations, field experiments and audit studies, the consideration of dynamic processes (e.g., based on panel data), Airbnb’s “experiences” and automated pricing algorithms, as well as the rating distribution’s skewness.
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This study investigates the attributes that influence Airbnb users’ experiences by analysing a “big data” set of online review comments through the process of text mining and sentiment analysis. Findings reveal that Airbnb users tend to evaluate their experience based on a frame of reference derived from past hotel stays. Three key attributes identified in the data include ‘location’, ‘amenities’ and ‘host’. Surprisingly, ‘price’ is not identified as a key influencer. The analysis suggests a positivity bias in Airbnb users’ comments while negative sentiments are mostly caused by ‘noise’. This research offers an alternative approach and more coherent understanding of the Airbnb experience. Methodologically, it contributes by illustrating how big data can be used and visually interpreted in tourism and hospitality studies.
Purpose Consumers increasingly depend on the Internet as the information source to make their hospitality decisions, which highlights the need for more research in online recommendation. Due to the globalization, culture and its effects on marketing become an increasingly important subject to investigate. Therefore, this research offers a cross-cultural investigation of consumers’ different trustworthiness and credibility perceptions when facing online recommendations from different information resources. Design/methodology/approach This research utilizes the source-credibility theory to examine consumers’ responses to online recommendations from two sources. Participants were recruited from two equivalent marketing panels in each culture. A 2 (online recommendation source: in-group vs. out-group) by 2 (culture: American vs. Chinese) between-subjects quasi-experiment was conducted to test the hypotheses. Findings The results demonstrate that culture moderates consumer responses to the two types of online sources. Chinese consumers, due to their more collectivist nature, exhibit higher levels of purchase intent when the recommendation originates from an in-group rather than from an out-group. Such differences are not observed among the more individualist American consumers. Furthermore, trustworthiness plays an important role in influencing Chinese consumers’ perception of recommendation credibility and the consequent purchase intent. Practical implications This research provides guidelines to hospitality practitioners when developing their social networking sites and online marketing strategies across different cultures. Originality/value The current study conducts an in-depth investigation of cultural differences in consumers’ perceptions of and reactions to online recommendations from other customers with various social distances.
Article
We evaluate the effect of institutional trust on the willingness to pay more taxes to support the welfare state. We found a positive effect of institutional trust on the willingness to pay more taxes to support the welfare state irrespective of the empirical approach used. Our instrumental variable analysis shows that causality run from institutional trust to welfare state support. A one-unit increase in institutional trust leads to a 15 percentage point increase in the willingness to pay more taxes to help the needy. Similarly, a one-unit increase in institutional trust leads to a 16 percentage point increase in the willingness to pay more taxes to support public health care and education. Consequently, institutional trust should be viewed as one of the most important mechanisms that protect the welfare state from dismantling and retrenchment. We also found a stronger effect of support for more universal programs such as public health care and education than for helping the needy.
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New York City launched a restaurant sanitation letter grade system in 2010. We evaluate the impact of customer loyalty on restaurant revisit intentions after exposure to a sanitation grade alone, and after exposure to a sanitation grade plus narrative information about sanitation violations (e.g., presence of rats). We use a 2 (loyalty: high or low) × 4 (sanitation grade: A, B, C, or pending) between-subjects full factorial design to test the hypotheses using data from 547 participants recruited from Amazon MTurk who reside in the New York City area. Our study yields three findings. First, loyal customers exhibit higher intentions to revisit restaurants than non-loyal customers, regardless of sanitation letter grades. Second, the difference in revisit intentions between loyal and non-loyal customers is higher when sanitation grades are poorer. Finally, loyal customers are less sensitive to narrative information about sanitation violations.
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This article provides evidence on the concentration of peer-to-peer tourist accommodations in the center of cities and the role of distance. On that basis, an explanatory model is proposed to understand the locating decisions of the different agents involved. The model is empirically implemented through a two-stage least squares regression, which allows estimating the elasticity of demand with respect to price and distance. Results for the Spanish cities of Barcelona and Madrid confirm similar price elasticity of demand in both (2.2 and 2.4, respectively) but greater sensibility of demand with respect to distance to the center in the former.
Purpose This study aims to identify the individual and trip characteristics that are associated with intention to use peer-to-peer accommodation, including past experience (users vs. non-users), accommodation preferences, traveler personality, and tripographic variables. Design/methodology/approach To compare Airbnb users and non-users, quantitative research was conducted to test for group differences. A questionnaire was designed and administered face-to-face in major tourist areas. Quota sampling was used to ensure comparable samples of Airbnb users and non-users. Findings While Airbnb users and non-users expressed few differences in their demographics and perceived importance of accommodation attributes, the two groups vary in their perception of Airbnb and evaluation of Airbnb compared to hotels, suggesting some positive and negative changes after experiencing Airbnb. Respondents who were more allocentric were more likely to use Airbnb. Hotels were preferred for traveling with family as well as shorter trips, while Airbnb was preferred for traveling with friends as well as longer trips. Practical implications This study identified several challenges for Airbnb and other sharing platforms, including consumers’ security concerns, potential decrease in the likelihood of repeat usage, and low likelihood of using Airbnb when traveling with family. Originality/value While previous studies focused more on existing customers of peer-to-peer accommodation, this study compared users and non-users and identified key differences in their perceptions. The use of traveler personality and tripographic variables to examine intention to use Airbnb provides a unique perspective to consider Airbnb as an “allocentric destination,” and the type of trips that are more compatible with the Airbnb experience.
Article
The statistical tests used in the analysis of structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error are examined. A drawback of the commonly applied chi square test, in addition to the known problems related to sample size and power, is that it may indicate an increasing correspondence between the hypothesized model and the observed data as both the measurement properties and the relationship between constructs decline. Further, and contrary to common assertion, the risk of making a Type II error can be substantial even when the sample size is large. Moreover, the present testing methods are unable to assess a model's explanatory power. To overcome these problems, the authors develop and apply a testing system based on measures of shared variance within the structural model, measurement model, and overall model.
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This study aims to investigate the effects of online customer reviews, regulatory focus, and product type on purchase intention, as well as the effect of whether purchase intention is moderated by perceived justice. Experiment 1 compares the effects of regulatory fit and regulatory non-fit on purchase intention after a consumer is exposed to online customer reviews. Experiment 2 examines whether product type (i.e. ‘search goods’ versus ‘experience goods’) moderates the relationship between regulatory fit (or non-fit) and purchase intention for a consumer who has been exposed to online customer reviews. Additionally, in Experiment 2, the moderating role of perceived justice in the link between regulatory fit (or non-fit) and purchase intention is explored. The findings of Experiment 1 indicate that regulatory fit has a more significant effect on purchase intention than the non-fit condition. The results of Experiment 2 also confirm that regardless of regulatory fit, consumers have a lower purchase intention for search goods than for experience goods after exposure to negative online customer reviews. Finally, this study reveals that consumers with high perceived justice demonstrate higher purchase intention compared with consumers with lower perceived justice, regardless of regulatory fit effect or product type.
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Peer-to-peer business models rely on interpersonal communication for their success. In this article, we focus on Airbnb – an exemplar of the so-called ‘sharing economy’ – and more specifically, on Airbnb’s reciprocal reviewing system, which enables both hosts and guests to review one another. Our study takes a computer-assisted, qualitative approach to explore linguistic patterns of evaluation in Airbnb reviews. Our findings indicate that Airbnb reviews tend to comprise a very restricted set of linguistic resources, establishing the site’s norm of highly positive commentary, which in turn makes Airbnb reviews, on the surface, appear to be quite similar to one another. However, a micro-analytic comparison of positive reviews reveals that less-than-positive experiences are sometimes communicated using more nuanced, subtle cues. This study contributes to existing literature on electronic word of mouth in the tourism industry by highlighting how evaluation is communicated, while simultaneously responding to hospitality scholars’ calls for analyses which extend beyond the star ratings and also take into account consumers’ constructions of experience in the review texts themselves.
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If you would like a copy of the article for your personal use, please email me: mingming.cheng@otago.ac.nz This paper provides an objective, systematic and holistic review of the sharing economy (SE) academic literature to uncover the theoretical foundations and key themes underlying the field by using co-citation analysis and content analysis. Sixty-six publications on sharing economy with ten papers related to tourism and hospitality from 2010 to 2015 (inclusive) have been identified. This paper revealed three broad areas of foci with sharing economy research in general: (1) SE's business models and its impacts, (2) nature of SE, and (3) SE's sustainability development as well as two areas of foci in tourism and hospitality specifically: (1) SE's impacts on destinations and tourism services (2) SE's impacts on tourists. The sharing economy has a strong intellectual tradition from lifestyle and social movement field, consumption practice and sharing paradigm. This paper presents a more robust framework and holistic understanding of the sharing economy field and calls for a new theory-informed research agenda on sharing economy to coalesce multi-level perspectives.
Article
Various studies have examined the effects of factors on online attitudes and behavior. By applying the Technology Acceptance Model, this study is focused on investigating factors that affect customers online purchasing behavior. In particular, this study examines i) effects of such factors as product information, price, convenience, and perceived product or service quality on perceived usefulness; ii) effects of convenience, perceived product or service quality, and desire to shop without a salesperson on perceived ease of use; iii) effects of perceived ease of use on perceived usefulness; iv) effects of perceived ease of use and usefulness on intentions to shop online; and v) effects of trust on purchase intentions. The data collected online and offline were analyzed using factor and regression analysis, and structural equation modeling. The results of this study indicate that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and trust had a statistically significant effect on behavioral intention to shop on the Internet.
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Research has shown that performance differences exist between brand-affiliated hotels and unaffiliated properties. However, the extant empirical results are mixed. Some research has shown that brands outperform unaffiliated hotels on various metrics, whereas other research has shown the opposite. This article analyzes this issue using a matched-pair approach where we compare the performance differences of brand-affiliated and unaffiliated properties between 1998 and 2010. The matched-pair approach ensures that local competitive conditions as well as hotel characteristics are the same across the comparison pair. In addition, all potential omitted-variable bias and model misspecifications are avoided. Thus, to address our research question, we compare branded hotels with unaffiliated properties that are identical in age, market segment, location, and duration of operation, as well as having a similar number of rooms. Our analysis shows that performance differentials are present, albeit not systematic. We found no consistent advantages in all segments for either the affiliated hotels or the comparable unaffiliated properties, taking into account our comparison factors. That said, the methodology of our approach yields results that are more informative to the affiliation choice of owners and to the growth strategies of hotel brand–owner companies than those of previous empirical studies.
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‘Sharing economy’ platforms such as Airbnb have recently flourished in the tourism industry. The prominent appearance of sellers' photos on these platforms motivated our study. We suggest that the presence of these photos can have a significant impact on guests' decision making. Specifically, we contend that guests infer the host's trustworthiness from these photos, and that their choice is affected by this inference. In an empirical analysis of Airbnb's data and a controlled experiment, we found that the more trustworthy the host is perceived to be from her photo, the higher the price of the listing and the probability of its being chosen. We also find that a host's reputation, communicated by her online review scores, has no effect on listing price or likelihood of consumer booking. We further demonstrate that if review scores are varied experimentally, they affect guests' decisions, but the role of the host's photo remains significant.
Purpose This study aims to propose that there may be a marketable segment of guests who are willing to pay a premium for guestrooms that are cleaned using enhanced disinfection techniques beyond the normal room cleaning procedures. Room cleanliness is important to hotel guests. Some hotel brands currently offer allergy-free rooms, charging a premium for this service. However, no hotel brands currently serve the market that is willing to pay more for enhanced disinfection. This exploratory study investigates whether there is such a segment and, if so, what price premium these customers are willing to pay for enhanced disinfection. Design/methodology/approach Survey methods were used to determine the consumer’s perceptions of hotel guestroom cleanliness; the effectiveness of traditional and enhanced cleaning methods; and willingness to pay for enhanced guestroom disinfection. Findings Younger travelers and female travelers of all ages may be willing to pay a significant price premium for enhanced disinfection of a hotel guestroom. Research limitations/implications The survey instrument was administered via the Internet, limiting the sample. The study participants were not asked about hotel brand; thus, the results could not be analyzed by brand or service level. Originality/value Past research focuses only on traditional cleaning methods. This article provides a template for the hotel industry to explore the feasibility of offering enhanced cleanliness as a revenue-generating amenity.