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Leading creative teams: A process-perspective with implications for organizational leaders.

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Although research on the benefits of problem construction within the creative process is expanding, research on team problem construction is limited. This study investigates the cognitive process of problem construction and identification at the team level through an experimental design. Furthermore, this study explores team social processes in relation to problem construction instructions. Using student teams solving a real-world problem, the results of this study revealed that teams that engaged in problem construction and identification generated more original ideas than teams that did not engage in such processes. Moreover, higher satisfaction and lower conflict was observed among groups that engaged in problem construction compared to groups that did not engage in problem construction. These findings highlight the utility of problem construction for teams engaging in creative problem-solving.
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This chapter reviews the extensive literature on brainstorming to determine potential best practices. We present the major theoretical perspectives and highlight their relationship to the various factors that influence the effectiveness of brainstorming. We examine the utility of verbal brainstorming, electronic brainstorming and brainwriting for generation of creative ideas. We evaluate the effects of instructions, breaks, facilitators, training, tapping semantic categories, turnover and group size. We also note the gaps that exist in the literature and future research directions.
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Debriefs are a type of work meeting in which teams discuss, interpret, and learn from recent events during which they collaborated. In a variety of forms, debriefs are found across a wide range of organizational types and settings. Well-conducted debriefs can improve team effectiveness by 25% across a variety of organizations and settings. For example, the U.S. military adopted debriefs decades ago to promote learning and performance across the various services. Subsequently, debriefs have been introduced in the medical field, the fire service, aviation, education, and in a variety of organizational training and simulation environments. After a discussion of various purposes for which debriefs have been used, we proceed with a historical review of development of the concepts and use in industries and contexts. We then review the psychological factors relevant to debrief effectiveness and the outcomes for individuals, teams, and organizations that deploy debriefs. Future directions of particular interest to team researchers across a variety of psychological disciplines are presented along with a review of how best to implement debriefs from a practical perspective.
Conference Paper
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In a fast-changing world, constantly innovating remains one of the principal challenges most organizations are facing nowadays. Survival of organizations became principally linked to the creative generation capacity of their staffs. Nonetheless, fixation imposes a key constraint to the aptitude of individuals to constantly come up with innovative ideas. Numerous studies have highlighted the significant role that could be played by leadership in this regard. Nevertheless, most of these works studied leadership's role from a social perspective, reducing the function of creative leaders as facilitators. From a more cognitive perspective, very few works have shed the light on the role of creative leaders during ideation processes. However, very recent studies showed that leaders could efficiently play the role of de-fixators, by preparing carefully their interventions (instructions, feedbacks, etc.) within the ideation process, according to their capacity to recognize the frontier between fixation and de-fixation of a project. In the present paper, we have furthered these findings, by exploring the effect of feedbacks, in specific cases in which leaders lead their teams in the unknown with imperfect knowledge. Based on varying levels of knowledge (leaders' ability to recognize if a particular idea generated by his team is inside or outside fixation), we implemented a theoretical model for ideation management using design and probability theories. Using a theory-driven experimental procedure, we showed in this paper that leadership strategies for ideation management should adopt less generic and universal tactics (such as brainstorming rules for example), but rather more situational approaches depending on followers' capacity to think out of the dominant design. 2
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Empirical work on the effect of team cognition on team creativity and innovation is particularly sparse. While research on individual cognitive processes that lead to creativity and innovation is much more prevalent, interest in team cognition is more recent. Several important themes emerge from the research reported here. First, much of the work on team cognitive processes is focused on social cognition. Second, the various dimensions of team cognitive processes are interrelated. Third, while no research directly assessed the role of time on these cognitive processes, time may play an important part. The cognitive processes associated with creative problem solving, such as problem construction, idea generation, and idea evaluation and selection, can be viewed as occurring in a natural progression. Fourth, team cognitive processes can also influence, be influenced by, and interact with team social processes. Finally, team cognitive processes can mediate or moderate the relationship between team composition and team creativity and innovation.
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Interviews were conducted with thirteen professional designers to understand their attitudes towards fixation and the practices they adopt to address it. Fixation was thought to be encouraged and discouraged by a wide range of factors related to the project, the client, the design team, the organisational culture and the design activities employed. The experiences that designers accumulate during their professional lives were associated with fixation in different ways. The experience of prior design failures was thought to encourage fixation whilst the experience of varied solutions was thought to discourage fixation. Recognising fixation episodes and reflecting on them was described as the means by which designers could guard against such episodes in the future and thus be more creative.
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Leadership has been deemed, by some earlier scholars, to be less neces-sary in organizations that are knowledge-intensive. It has been assumed that because experts and professionals are driven largely by intrinsic motivation, extrin-sic management and leadership factors are less important. We believe this assump-tion is wrong. Leaders have been shown in recent studies to have a considerable influence on organizational performance in universities, research institutes, hospi-tals and in high-skill sports settings. What matters, we argue, is the kind of leader. Experts and professionals need to be led by other experts and professionals, those who have a deep understanding of and high ability in the core-business of their organization. Our contribution will summarize the literature on the relationship between expert leaders and organizational performance, and then we will present a theory of expert leadership in a new model that outlines the possible transfer processes through which expert leaders generate better organizational performance.
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Researchers have identified team learning as an important predictor of team performance. In healthcare organizations, it is especially critical for care quality and hospital performance that teams engage in learning behaviors to reduce errors and improve service effectiveness. The main objective of this study is to examine the role of change-oriented leadership in the learning process and outcomes of healthcare teams. The sample comprises a total of 698 healthcare professionals working in 107 teams at different public hospitals throughout Spain. Members of teams were invited to participate voluntarily by completing an anonymous individual questionnaire. The results show a mediating effect of team learning on the relationship between change-oriented leadership and team performance and psychological safety and team performance. Our study contributes to the literature by investigating the role of change-oriented leadership in facilitating team learning behaviors. Moreover, this study advances our understanding of the mediators of the relationship between team leadership and outcomes by testing to assess whether specific change-oriented leader behaviors nurture psychological safety, team learning and, therefore, performance.
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Managers (N= 112) from a large international consumer goods manufacturer participated in a field experiment in which they learned and applied the Simplex process of creative thinking to solve real management problems. The interrelationships among six attitudinal and behavioral skill variables learned during the training were measured to improve understanding of how these variables contribute to the process. Predicted relationships were tested and a best-fit causal model was developed. Behavioral skill in generating quantity of options was the most important variable overall: it was directly associated with behavioral skill in both generating quality options and evaluating options. The key attitudinal skill and the second most important variable overall was the preference for avoiding premature evaluation of options (deferral of judgement). The other attitude measured the preference for active divergence, played only an indirect role in the process.
Conference Paper
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Organizations are increasingly utilizing teams to develop creative solutions to solve problems. However, the generation of creative ideas alone may not be enough to ensure innovative solutions are implemented: teams must actively and effectively evaluate ideas prior to selecting new products or solutions to solve a problem. We followed a model of idea evaluation and selection and examined the relationships between team solution evaluation accuracy and the accurate selection of optimal solutions to solve a problem. Teams read a realistic story problem, evaluated ten possible solutions for quality and originality, and selected the best solution to solve the problem. Findings indicate that team accuracy in solution quality evaluations relates to the accurate selection of a high quality solution, while team accuracy in solution originality evaluations relates to the accurate selection of a creative solution. Implications for theories of team idea evaluation and selection and research are presented.
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This study examines the impact of intrateam and external high-quality relationships (HQRs) on learning processes and performance. Data collected from 178 teams in the service sector indicate that (a) intrateam HQRs (i.e., between team members and between team members and their manager) are related to psychological safety, which in turn facilitates learning processes; (b) external HQRs are associated directly with team learning; and (c) team learning is positively associated with enhanced team performance. The findings highlight the importance of both internal and external HQRs to facilitate learning and enhance performance in service organizations. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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This article provides insight into how some groups achieve extraordinary levels of creativity by reconsidering the collective process through which new ideas develop. Previous research has been premised on a model in which idea generation stimulated by divergent input increases the variance in ideas a group generates and therefore increases the chance that one of the group's ideas will be a radical, breakthrough creative product. In contrast, I present a dialectical model in which the integration of group members' perspectives (which I label creative synthesis) is the foundation for new ideas. I propose that the process of creative synthesis improves the chance that each of a group's ideas is a breakthrough. I elaborate the process facilitators of creative synthesis and the implications of the dialectical model for understanding extraordinary group creativity. Creative synthesis provides an alternative way for groups to combine their cognitive, social, and environmental resources into extraordinary output.
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Research on group creativity has concentrated on explaining how the group context influences idea generation and has conceptualized the evaluation of creative ideas as a process of convergent decision making that takes place after ideas are generated to improve the quality of the group’s creative output. We challenge this view by exploring the situated nature of evaluations that occur throughout the creative process. We present an inductive qualitative process analysis of four U.S. healthcare policy groups tasked with producing creative output in the form of policy recommendations to a federal agency. Results show four modes of group interaction, each with a distinct form of evaluation: brainstorming without evaluation, sequential interactions in which one idea was generated and evaluated, parallel interactions in which several ideas were generated and evaluated, and iterative interactions in which the group evaluated several ideas in reference to the group’s goals. Two of the groups in our study followed an evaluation-centered sequence that began with evaluating a small set of ideas. Surprisingly, doing so did not impede the groups’ creativity. To explain this, we develop an alternative conceptualization of evaluation as a generative process that shapes and guides collective creativity.
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Employees in many jobs encounter novel, ill-defined problems, and finding creative solutions to these problems may be the critical factor that allows their organization to maintain a competitive advantage. Solving problems creatively requires extensive and effortful cognitive processing. This requirement is magnified further by the complex, ambiguous situations in which most organizational problems occur. Employees must define and construct a problem, search and retrieve problem-relevant information, and generate and evaluate a diverse set of alternative solutions. Creativity necessitates that all these activities are completed effectively. It is unlikely, therefore, that creative outcomes will be realized without a large degree of support from organizations and organizational leaders. To provide this support, leaders must understand the cognitive requirements of creative problem solving. To this end, this article reviews the cognitive processes underlying creative problem solving and suggests avenues through which organizational leaders can facilitate these processes in an effort to enhance the creative problem solving of their employees.
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Interdisciplinary R&D teams have become quite common. Many of today’s scientific breakthroughs occur in interdisciplinary teams as the increasingly complex problems facing society often cannot be addressed by single disciplines alone. However, fostering creative and productive collaboration in interdisciplinary teams is no easy challenge. First, leading creative teamwork is difficult. Second, many of the factors that impede teams and teamwork are exacerbated in interdisciplinary teams. This chapter identifies the issues that make leading interdisciplinary creative teams more challenging and offers suggestions to address those challenges.
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Abstract ,The first ideas to be considered during creative idea generation can have profoundly constraining effects on the scope of the ideas that are subsequently generated. Even if initial ideasare intended to serve as helpful examples, or they are given simply to get the creative process going, the constraints of initial ideas may,be inescapable. Such constraints can impede,successful problem,solving and inhibit creative invention. Overcoming these constraints can be enhanced by reconsidering initially failed problems in new contexts. Empirical research examining,cognitive mechanisms,for these constraints is discussed. ,3 The Constraining Effects of Initial Ideas ,What is the best source of creative ideas? The wisdom of proverbs advises us that if we are to see farther than others, wemust "stand on the shoulders of giants." This means,thatwe,should use the prior knowledge,that has been provided by our predecessors, because in solving problems there is no need to "re-invent the wheel." On the other hand, a different proverb advises us not to get "stuck in a rut," meaning that using prior knowledge to solve problems can lead us to the same,old tired ideas and blocked thinking that stymied progress on those problems,in the past. How are we to choose,between,these apparently contradictory sources of wisdom? One way to address this question is through empirical studies of creative thinking and problem solving, a method
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Problem construction has been suggested as the first step in creative problem solving, but our understanding of the underlying process is limited. According to a model of problem construction (Mumford, Reiter-Palmon, & Redmond 1994), problem construction ability, active engagement in problem construction, and the presence of diverse and inconsistent cues influence creative problem solving. To test these hypotheses, 195 undergraduates were asked to solve 6 real-life problems and complete a measure of problem construction ability. Active engagement in problem construction was manipulated by instructions to the participants. Cue consistency was manipulated by the information presented in the problem situation. The quality, originality, and creativity of the solutions were evaluated. Results indicated that problem construction ability was related to higher qualify solutions as well as solutions rated as more original. Problem construction ability also interacted with cue consistency such that individuals with high problem construction ability produced solutions of higher quality and originality when faced with inconsistent cues. The implication of these findings to our understanding of creative problem solving and the problem construction process are discussed.
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The effects of type and level of personal involvement on information search and problem solving were investigated in a laboratory setting. Participants were given a problem eliciting high value involvement, high outcome involvement, or low involvement. Before providing a solution to the problem, participants had the opportunity to search for additional information about the problem using a computer. The amount of information searched and the time spent searching were measured, as was the quality of problem solutions. Results showed that increases in information search resulted in more original and more appropriate problem solutions. Results also revealed that solution originality and appropriateness were highest among participants who were involved because the problem's outcome was relevant to them and lowest among participants who were involved because the problem affected their values and morals. The results of this study indicate that high involvement may not be universally beneficial to the generation of high-quality problem solutions.
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Afield study was conducted to investigate changes in the importance of project critical success factors across four stages in the project life cycle. A total of 408 project managers or project team members cur-rently involved in a project responded to the questionnaire. Ridge regression analysis was performed on the initially derived ten critical success factors, reducing the final number of critical success factors to eight. A stepwise regression was then done on the critical success factors at each of the four stages in the project life cycle. Results indi-cated that the relative importance of several of the criticalfactors change significantly based on life cycle stages.
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This paper presents a model of team learning and tests it in a multimethod field study. It introduces the construct of team psychological safety—a shared belief held by members of a team that the team is safe for interpersonal risk taking—and models the effects of team psychological safety and team efficacy together on learning and performance in organizational work teams. Results of a study of 51 work teams in a manufacturing company, measuring antecedent, process, and outcome variables, show that team psychological safety is associated with learning behavior, but team efficacy is not, when controlling for team psychological safety. As predicted, learning behavior mediates between team psychological safety and team performance. The results support an integrative perspective in which both team structures, such as context support and team leader coaching, and shared beliefs shape team outcomes.
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There are obstacles to creativity: one of them is called fixation effect, the fact that some knowledge about existing or obvious solutions is spontaneously activated and constrains the generation of new solutions. Converging evidence in cognitive psychology has indicated that the ability to generate original ideas can be limited by recently activated knowledge, such as examples of solutions. On the other hand, neuroimaging studies have recently demonstrated that exposure to examples could, on the contrary, have a stimulating effect on originality. To make sense of what seems to be contradictory studies, we hypothesized that two types of examples could have opposite effects on originality: (1) restrictive examples - within the fixation effect - could lead to a reduction in the originality of the solutions, whereas (2) expansive examples - outside the fixation effect - could provoke solutions of higher originality. Results from a total of 160 participants confirmed that the solutions proposed by the group exposed to restrictive examples were less original than those given by the group exposed to expansive examples.
Article
Past research on idea evaluation has focused on how individuals evaluate the creativity of finalized ideas. But idea evaluation is also important early in the creative process, when individuals must forecast the potential creativity of rough initial ideas as they decide which to develop. Using five experiments, this paper examines individuals’ accuracy in forecasting the potential creativity of their initial ideas. Participants ranked the potential creativity of their initial ideas before developing them into final ideas. Results suggest that participants tended to under-rank their highest-potential idea. The initial idea that participants thought was their second best tended to actually be their best idea in the end. Broadly, the results suggest that creators exhibit myopia when forecasting the potential creativity of their initial ideas, leading them to overlook their most promising initial ideas. However, forecasting at a higher (more abstract) construal level helped participants identify their best initial idea.
Article
This study investigates the role that information search behavior plays in the process of creative problem solving. Although models of creative processing posit that information search is a necessary stage of creative problem solving, no research has separated and measured information search from earlier processes to determine the nature of the role it plays in the creative problem solving process. Two hundred twenty-one people participated in a study where active engagement in problem construction was manipulated. Participants were allowed to search for additional information that may facilitate the generation of a creative solution. Measures of information search that have been shown to influence performance on decision-making tasks were captured. The results indicated that the length of time spent searching, the quantity of information viewed, and the breadth of information search mediate the relationship between problem construction engagement and creativity across categories. Furthermore, the relationship between the efficiency of information search and creativity depends upon problem construction engagement. For people who engaged in problem construction, the more efficiently they searched for information, the more creative their solution. The efficiency of information search had no impact on creativity for people who did not engage in information search. The implications of these findings as they relate to the overall field of creative problem-solving are discussed.
Article
This study examined the relationship between problem finding (PF) and creativity. A search of published and unpublished studies in English from 1960 to 2015 resulted in 40 studies with a total of 6,649 male and female participants, with ages ranging from childhood to adulthood. Accordingly, this meta-analysis estimated the population correlations between PF and creativity within the 40 studies; it examined whether the correlations varied according to the sample characteristics or other aspects of the individual investigations. We also examined how various labels are used in PF literature and how the terms differ from one another. Using the random-effects model, the results showed that PF and creativity were significantly correlated, r = .22 (95% confidence interval [.11, .32], p = < .001), but with high heterogeneity. Moreover, 3 of 5 moderators were significant and explained the variation in the mean effect size: (a) the various indices of divergent thinking, (b) the PF domain, and (c) participants’ age. An analysis of variance showed that using different labels in PF and creativity research did not significantly alter study results. Still, the findings suggest that PF consists of various processes that evolve when individuals discover, identify, or define problems. This study also calls for measures that can assess ill-defined problems to complement existing divergent thinking measures that assess presented problems.
Chapter
Leadership and creativity are broad, complex domains. Creativity in the leadership domain is often examined in terms of how the leaders influence the creativity of their subordinates, but there is less focus on how the leaders are creative themselves. This chapter examines a range of individual differences, managerial decision making, and organizational factors that could influence a leader's creativity. Individual differences such as person ality traits, emotional intelligence, creative cognitions, and expertise could be important factors that influence the leader's creativity. Further, we integrate research on decision-making styles and information processing to further explore potential influences on leader creativity. Although the individual differences and managerial decision-making factors are impor tant, leadership and creativity in an organization do not happen without the influence of environmental factors. We explore how resources, organiza tional strategy, and differing levels of leadership (e.g., the leader-follower dynamics) influence leader creativity. By combining multiple research lines, we hope to offer a more robust examination of a perceived scarcity of research into how leaders can be creative.
Chapter
Team creativity has been recognized as an important to organizational success in a competitive market. Organizations face complex problems and frequently utilize teams to solve these problems because of the diverse perspectives, knowledge, and experience of team members. However, creative teams frequently encounter challenges and obstacles to effective problem solving. Leaders of creative teams play a critical part in facilitating team creative problem solving, team effectiveness, and creative outcomes. In this chapter, the authors review the literature on creative team leadership and discuss the vital role of creative team leaders in managing the creative problem-solving effort, managing team social processes, and managing the environment in which the team functions. Leaders manage the creative problem-solving process through facilitating idea generation, promoting effective problem construction, encouraging information sharing among team members, assisting in idea evaluation and selection, and providing support throughout the problem-solving process. Leaders further manage team interactions through capitalizing on the functional diversity of team members, creating an environment of psychological safety and trust, supporting a climate of innovation, managing task and relational conflict, and facilitating effective communication and collaboration. Finally, leaders manage the external environment, referring to both the internal organizational environment (but external to the team), as well as the environment external to the organization. Successful management of the external environment is accomplished by ensuring the team has adequate resources, facilitating communication and collaboration with other teams and with the environment outside of the organization, and serving as a “champion of innovation.”. © Michael D. Mumford and Sven Hemlin 2017. All rights reserved.
Article
Since the concept of psychological safety was introduced, empirical research on its antecedents, outcomes, and moderators at different levels of analysis has proliferated. Given a burgeoning body of empirical evidence, a systematic review of the psychological safety literature is warranted. As well as reviewing empirical work on psychological safety, the present article highlights gaps in the literature and provides direction for future work. In doing so, it highlights the need to advance our understanding of psychological safety through the integration of key theoretical perspectives to explain how psychological safety develops and influences work outcomes at different levels of analysis. Suggestions for future empirical research to advance our understanding of psychological safety are also provided.
Book
Americans have long recognized that investments in public education contribute to the common good, enhancing national prosperity and supporting stable families, neighborhoods, and communities. Education is even more critical today, in the face of economic, environmental, and social challenges. Today's children can meet future challenges if their schooling and informal learning activities prepare them for adult roles as citizens, employees, managers, parents, volunteers, and entrepreneurs. To achieve their full potential as adults, young people need to develop a range of skills and knowledge that facilitate mastery and application of English, mathematics, and other school subjects. At the same time, business and political leaders are increasingly asking schools to develop skills such as problem solving, critical thinking, communication, collaboration, and self-management - often referred to as "21st century skills." Education for Life and Work: Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century describes this important set of key skills that increase deeper learning, college and career readiness, student-centered learning, and higher order thinking. These labels include both cognitive and non-cognitive skills- such as critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration, effective communication, motivation, persistence, and learning to learn. 21st century skills also include creativity, innovation, and ethics that are important to later success and may be developed in formal or informal learning environments. This report also describes how these skills relate to each other and to more traditional academic skills and content in the key disciplines of reading, mathematics, and science. Education for Life and Work: Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century summarizes the findings of the research that investigates the importance of such skills to success in education, work, and other areas of adult responsibility and that demonstrates the importance of developing these skills in K-16 education. In this report, features related to learning these skills are identified, which include teacher professional development, curriculum, assessment, after-school and out-of-school programs, and informal learning centers such as exhibits and museums. © 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Chapter
Technology exerts an all-encompassing impact on the modern workplace, and has a strong influence on how designers approach creative problem solving. Such technologies can be valuable tools for organizations seeking to develop creative solutions to maintain a competitive advantage. However, with the rapid pace of technological development, it can be difficult for organizations to remain up-to-date and ahead of the competition. There is much that is still unknown about the ways in which novel technologies influence creative performance. The chapter attempts to provide insight on this topic by utilizing a process model of creative endeavors to predict how various types of technology may be used to enhance organizational creativity and innovation. Recommendations for future research and practice in the realms of technology and innovation are also discussed.
Chapter
This chapter discusses the definition, source, process, and measurement of creativity. The definition of creativity involves primarily novelty and appropriateness but is influenced by the quality, importance, and production history of a piece of work. In future research, the behavior of judges could be examined further to refine the definition of creativity. The source of creativity involves intelligence, knowledge, thinking styles, personality attributes, motivation, and the environment. These components work together to yield creative performance. Each component deserves further study, and the interaction of components especially needs to be explored. The chapter describes the creative process and the theoretical range of process models. The examination of the four-stage process model points to the need for more specification and development of creative process models in general. In particular, differences between the creative and routine problem-solving process need to be determined, and the use of intellectual abilities, knowledge, and other components of creativity need to be linked to the process in more detailed ways. The chapter also discusses creativity assessment methods. Each method has positive features, negative features, and room for improvement.
Article
Failures in cross-functional product development teams are often attributed to a team's inability to capitalize on their diversity. In this study we develop and test a model of representational gaps (Cronin & Weingart, 2007a; Weingart et al., 2005) to determine factors that influence creativity in cross-functional product development teams.
Article
There is disagreement among researchers about whether IQ tests or divergent thinking (DT) tests are better predictors of creative achievement. Resolving this dispute is complicated by the fact that some research has shown a relationship between IQ and DT test scores (e.g., Runco & Albert, 1986; Wallach, 1970). The present study conducted meta-analyses of the relationships between creative achievement and both IQ and DT test scores. The analyses included 17 studies (with 5,544 participants) that established the correlation coefficients between IQ and creative achievement and 27 studies (with 47,197 participants) that established the correlation coefficients between DT test scores and creative achievement. Marginal, but statistically significant, Fisher's Z-transformed correlation coefficients were revealed. The analysis found a significantly higher relationship between DT test scores and creative achievement (r = .216) than between IQ test scores and creative achievement (r = .167). The differences in the correlation coefficients were explained by differences in DT tests, creative achievement types, predicted time periods, and creativity subscales. The significant independent moderator effect for different DT tests indicates that the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) predict creative achievement better than any other DT test included in this study. Among the creative achievement types, music is predicted the best by IQ and all others are predicted best by DT tests. Among the time periods evaluated, the relationship between DT test scores and creative achievement had the highest correlation at the period of 11–15 years.
Article
Idea evaluation is a critical aspect of creative thought. However, a number of errors might occur in the evaluation of new ideas. One error commonly observed is the tendency to underestimate the originality of truly novel ideas. In the present study, an attempt was made to assess whether analysis of the process leading to the idea generation and analysis of product originality would act to offset underestimation error in the evaluation of highly original new ideas. Accordingly, 181 undergraduates were asked to evaluate the originality of marketing campaigns being developed by six different teams where the level of idea originality was varied. Manipulations were induced to encourage active analysis of interactional processes and the originality of team products. It was found that active analysis of product originality and appraisal of interactional processes reduced errors in evaluating the originality of highly novel ideas. The implications of these findings for the evaluation of new ideas are discussed.
Article
Despite the preponderance of research concerning creativity and ethical leadership, the possibility of why and how a leader's ethical behaviour may stimulate follower creativity has not been examined. Employing an online experimental design, we applied a virtue ethics framework to examine associations between subordinates' perceptions of their leader's integrity and their intention to think creatively and to engage in risk taking. Subordinates' perceptions of their leader's behavioural integrity positively predicted their sense of psychological safety. Moreover, psychological safety positively predicted followers' intention to think creatively and to take risks. Copyright © 2011 ASAC. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.RésuméMalgré le grand nombre de recherches consacrées à la créativité et au leadership éthique, la question de savoir comment et pourquoi le comportement éthique du leader stimulerait la créativité de ceux qui le suivent n'a pas retenu l'attention des chercheurs. À partir d'une conception expérimentale en ligne, nous avons utilisé le cadre de la vertu éthique pour examiner le lien entre les perceptions que les subordonnés ont de l'intégrité de leur leader et leur intention de penser de façon critique et de prendre des risques. L'étude montre que les perceptions que les subordonnés ont de l'intégrité comportementale de leur leader prédisent positivement leur sens de sécurité psychologique. Par ailleurs, la sécurité psychologique prédit positivement les intentions des suiveurs de penser de façon critique et de prendre des risques. Copyright © 2011 ASAC. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
The present effort was intended to assess how situational variables influence the relative performance of groups and individuals on creative problem-solving tasks. More specifically, a priming manipulation was used to increase the number of alternatives available for problem solving while training was used to provide groups with shared mental models bearing on the problem. It was found that having more ideas available led to better individual performance. Group performance, however, was enhanced by training appropriate to problem content that allowed for elaboration and refinement of ideas. These findings indicate that interventions intended to enhance creativity may have different effects at the individual and group level. The need to consider multiple levels of situational influences in attempts to understand creative achievement is discussed.
Article
Although, traditionally, constraints are held to inhibit creative thinking, more recent research indicates that constraints can, at times, prove beneficial. Constraints, however, come in many forms. In the present study, 318 undergraduates were asked to develop advertising campaigns for a new product, a high-energy root beer, where campaigns were evaluated for quality, originality, and elegance. Prior to starting work on these campaigns different constraints were, or were not imposed, with constraints being established based on fundamentals in marketing, themes in marketing, environmental information, and task objectives. It was found that task objective constraints resulted in better creative problem solving when participants were motivated. However, imposition of multiple constraints led to poorer creative problem solving. Thus the number and nature of the constraints imposed on creative problems must be balanced. The implications of these observations for understanding creative problem solving are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Research regarding work with ideas in industrial settings has predominantly treated ideas as rather stable ‘black boxes’. This article contributes a new understanding of idea work and seeks to expand our understanding of how a product concept is constituted and synthesised through socio-material interaction of organisational members and engagement in idea work. The article contributes a case study of the development process behind the energy-saving Alpha Pro circulator launched by the Danish pump manufacturer Grundfos. Based on an analysis of how organisational players engage in the controversial and shifting understandings of what seems to constitute a successful product, the article offers a new perspective on navigating the players’ ideas in the political processes of innovation. It suggests that navigation of technological frames can offer a new perspective to make explicit the implicated actors’ world views, including what they perceive as relevant problems and related strategies for solving them.
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Despite the growing body of research on creativity in team contexts, very few attempts have been made to explore the team-level antecedents and the mediating processes of team creative performance on the basis of a theoretical framework. To address this gap, drawing on Paulus and Dzindolet's (2008) group creativity model, this study proposed team creative efficacy, transformational leadership, and risk-taking norms as antecedents of team creative performance and team proactivity as an intervening mechanism between these relationships. The results of team-level regression analyses conducted on the leaders and members of 103 Korean work teams showed that team creative efficacy and risk-taking norms were positively associated with team creative performance. Furthermore, the relationships between team creative efficacy and team creative performance and between risk-taking norms and team creative performance were mediated by team proactivity. These findings offer new insights regarding the antecedents and the mediator of creative performance in team contexts and important implications for theory and practice.
Teams of people working together for a common purpose have been a centerpiece of human social organization ever since our ancient ancestors first banded together to hunt game, raise families, and defend their communities. Human history is largely a story of people working together in groups to explore, achieve, and conquer. Yet, the modern concept of work in large organizations that developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries is largely a tale of work as a collection of individual jobs. A variety of global forces unfolding over the last two decades, however, has pushed organizations worldwide to restructure work around teams, to enable more rapid, flexible, and adaptive responses to the unexpected. This shift in the structure of work has made team effectiveness a salient organizational concern. Teams touch our lives everyday and their effectiveness is important to well-being across a wide range of societal functions. There is over 50 years of psychological research—literally thousands of studies—focused on understanding and influencing the processes that underlie team effectiveness. Our goal in this monograph is to sift through this voluminous literature to identify what we know, what we think we know, and what we need to know to improve the effectiveness of work groups and teams. We begin by defining team effectiveness and establishing the conceptual underpinnings of our approach to understanding it. We then turn to our review, which concentrates primarily on topics that have well-developed theoretical and empirical foundations, to ensure that our conclusions and recommendations are on firm footing. Our review begins by focusing on cognitive, motivational/affective, and behavioral team processes—processes that enable team members to combine their resources to resolve task demands and, in so doing, be effective. We then turn our attention to identifying interventions, or “levers,” that can shape or align team processes and thereby provide tools and applications that can improve team effectiveness. Topic-specific conclusions and recommendations are given throughout the review. There is a solid foundation for concluding that there is an emerging science of team effectiveness and that findings from this research foundation provide several means to improve team effectiveness. In the concluding section, we summarize our primary findings to highlight specific research, application, and policy recommendations for enhancing the effectiveness of work groups and teams.
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We examined how psychological safety fosters knowledge‐sharing processes and enables team creative performance. Using a multi‐respondent design, we tested our hypotheses using survey data collected from 73 patient‐centred healthcare teams working in the field on rare diseases. The data were analysed using latent class regression analysis. We confirmed that a high level of psychological safety within the team is a significant predictor of creative team performance and is mediated by the sharing of two types of knowledge: information and know‐how.
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Debriefs (or "after-action reviews") are increasingly used in training and work environments as a means of learning from experience. We sought to unify a fragmented literature and assess the efficacy of debriefs with a quantitative review. Used by the U.S. Army to improve performance for decades, and increasingly in medical, aviation, and other communities, debriefs systematize reflection, discussion, and goal setting to promote experiential learning. Unfortunately, research and theory on debriefing has been spread across diverse disciplines, so it has been difficult to definitively ascertain debriefing effectiveness and how to enhance its effectiveness. We conducted an extensive quantitative meta-analysis across a diverse body of published and unpublished research on team- and individual-level debriefs. Findings from 46 samples (N = 2,136) indicate that on average, debriefs improve effectiveness over a control group by approximately 25% (d = .67). Average effect sizes were similar for teams and individuals, across simulated and real settings, for within- or between-group control designs, and for medical and nonmedical samples. Meta-analytic methods revealed a bolstering effect of alignment and the potential impact of facilitation and structure. Organizations can improve individual and team performance by approximately 20% to 25% by using properly conducted debriefs. Debriefs are a relatively inexpensive and quick intervention for enhancing performance. Our results lend support for continued and expanded use of debriefing in training and in situ. To gain maximum results, it is important to ensure alignment between participants, focus and intent, and level of measurement.