The 2022 Re-Norming of the Reiss Motivation Profile®
William Aflleje, Statistician, Reesh LLC
Mike Reiss, Vice President, IDS Publishing Corporation
Maggi M. Reiss, President, IDS Publishing Corporation
©2022. IDS Publishing Corporation. All rights reserved.
This report describes a statistical analysis of data collected from the Reiss Motivation
Profile® (RMP), a standardized psychological test developed by Professor Steven
Reiss. The RMP identifies 16 life motives or basic desires, which are goals common to
everyone. Everyone is motivated by these 16 basic desires, but individuals prioritize
them differently. How an individual prioritizes the basic desires determines the person’s
values, influences the development of personality traits, and predicts behavior in real-
life contexts. Professor Reiss’s theory of motivation has been applied to leadership
training and conflict resolution in business, assessing motivational reasons for academic
underachievement, advising students on college and career choices, enabling athletes
to achieve peak performance through understanding their tendencies under the stress
of competition, and identifying the value differences that underlie chronic conflicts in
The RMP’s initial norms from 2007 included approximately 7,800 respondents and were
based on a universal set of metrics standardized across both genders as well as all
countries and age groups. A re-norming of the RMP completed in 2012, which included
about 45,000 respondents, continued to support the use of a universal set of metrics. In
2017 a second re-norming based on data collected from approximately 80,000 test
takers revealed significant differences between females and males on five of the basic
desires, thus leading to the implementation of gender norms. Separate country norms
also were developed for those nations with sufficient data to allow for statistically valid
The current statistical analysis addressed four issues: We reexamined the need for
separate gender norms and for separate country norms. We investigated again
whether or not RMP scores vary systematically by the age of the respondent, and we
explored possible motivational differences across generations.
Overall descriptive analysis provided evidence that:
• females and males continue to differ significantly on the same five basic
motives previously identified,
• test takers from various countries continue to differ in the importance
attached to some motives,
• RMP scores do not correlate with age, and
• the averages and variance for the basic desires are fairly constant across
generations with the exception of Generation Z.
The current data not only continue to support the use of separate gender and country
norms but also reaffirm that separate age norms are not necessary. Further, the current
data indicate the need for separate norms for Generation Z.
Demographics of RMP Respondents
From 2002 through 2021, IDS Publishing Corporation collected RMP responses from
135,807 individuals including 61,065 females (45%) and 74,732 males (55%). The test
takers, who ranged in age from 12 to 99 (mean = 37), represent 159 countries and
Generation Years of Birth Number of Respondents
WW II 1922 – 1927 90
Post War 1928 – 1945 376
Boomers I 1946 – 1954 2,834
Boomers II 1955 – 1964 17,084
Generation X 1965 – 1980 56,589
Millennials 1981 – 1996 45,468
Generation Z 1997 – 2012 12,806
The current statistical procedures were similar to those adopted during the re-norming
conducted in 2017. When analyzing possible differences between genders and across
countries and generations, we used a two-sample z-test to compare two means, and we
confirmed those results with nonparametric statistical methods.
Due to the current sample size of 135,807 respondents, small differences between the
means of two groups would show as significant, but such significance should be viewed
as an artifact of the large number of test takers. Although the difference between
scores of 30.0 and 30.5 is important for an individual test taker, such a very small
difference is not significant when comparing the means of sizable groups. Therefore,
we adopted an additional constraint in interpreting the data. In order to be considered
significant, a difference greater than two was required when comparing the means of
two groups (e.g., females and males), and a difference greater than three was required
when comparing the means of three or more groups (e.g., countries, generations).
In our exploration of the possible impact of age on a respondent’s RMP scores, we used
a regression analysis model with an R-squared value as the measure of effect.
Issue 1: Do the current data continue to identify significant differences in life
motives across gender?
The current data analysis reaffirmed the findings of the re-norming conducted in 2017
with regard to gender differences in RMP scores. As shown in Table 1, females and
males share similar motivational profiles for the basic desires of Curiosity, Eating,
Family, Honor, Idealism, Independence, Order, Saving, Social Contact, Status,
Tranquility, and Vengeance. For five basic desires, however, the mean RMP scores for
females and males differed significantly. On average, women scored significantly
higher than men for Acceptance and Beauty, while men scored significantly higher than
women for Physical Activity, Power, and Romance. In other words, females generally
attach greater importance to the needs for self-affirmation and aesthetic experiences.
Males, on the other hand, generally place greater importance on the needs for physical
exercise, achievement, and sex.
It should be noted that the current findings replicate the gender differences identified
five years ago. That is, we have identified the same five basic desires – Acceptance,
Beauty, Physical Activity, Power, Romance – as differentiating the motivational profiles
of males and females. The stability of these findings provides further evidence for the
validity of the RMP as a scientific measure of life motives.
Issue 2: Do the current data continue to identify differences in life motives across
Given the importance of the demographic variable of gender for accurate interpretation
of an individual’s RMP scores, we reexamined possible differences in motivation
priorities only in those countries with a minimum of 900 female test takers and 900 male
test takers. Seven countries met this criterion: Austria, Finland, Germany, Poland,
Switzerland, Taiwan, and the USA. As shown in Table 2, the current data analysis
revealed some significant differences for five of these seven countries.
For some basic desires, females and males within a country scored similarly. For
example, compared to the global norms, both females and males who claimed Poland
as their country of residence scored significantly higher, on average, for the basic
desires of Honor and Tranquility. Thus, both women and men in Poland place higher
value on character and safety than does the overall population of RMP respondents.
For other basic desires, females and males within a country scored differently. In
comparing residents of Switzerland to the global RMP population, we found that
females, but not males, scored significantly lower, on average, for the basic desire of
Status. Thus, while men in Switzerland attach average importance to the need for
respect based on social standing, Swiss women place lower value on the desire for
For two countries – Austria and Germany, we found no significant differences between
the respondents’ scores on the basic desires and those of the global population.
For another two countries – Switzerland and the USA, differences were identified on
only one motive and only for females. On average, women in Switzerland scored
significantly lower for the basic desire of Status, while women in the USA scored
significantly higher for the basic desire of Honor, compared to the global female norms.
The scores of respondents from Poland differed significantly from those of the RMP
global population on two motives. As noted above, females and males who claimed
Poland as their country of residence scored as having a strong need for the basic
desires of Honor and Tranquility.
When we compared the scores of Finnish respondents to those of the overall RMP
population, we discovered significant differences on seven motives. Both females and
males scored significantly higher, on average, for Romance, and both scored
significantly lower, on average, for Saving. In general, the scores for females were
significantly higher for the basic desire of Physical Activity. Males, on the other hand,
scored significantly higher, on average, for Vengeance and significantly lower, on
average, for the basic desires of Beauty, Family, and Power. These findings suggest
women and men in Finland share similar values for sex and collecting but dissimilar
values for physical fitness, revenge, aesthetic experiences, family life, and achievement.
Residents of Taiwan also differed significantly from the global population on seven
motives. Both females and males scored significantly higher, on average, for
Tranquility. In general, females scored significantly lower for the basic desires of
Physical Activity and Social Contact. The scores of males, though, were significantly
higher, on average, for Acceptance, Beauty, Idealism, and Saving. These results
indicate women and men in Taiwan attach similar importance to the need for safety but
dissimilar importance to the needs for physical fitness, peer companionship, self-
affirmation, aesthetic experiences, social justice, and collecting.
Issue 3: Do the current data demonstrate a correlation between RMP scores and
age of the respondent?
The original norming process as well as the two previous re-normings of the RMP did
not demonstrate a relationship between age of a respondent and a given motive. With
the addition of about 55,000 new test takers since 2017, we decided to reexamine the
issue of whether or not a correlation exists between RMP scores and age.
Using regression analysis, we created a statistical model with motive serving as the
response variable and age serving as the explanatory variable. An R-squared value
less than 0.3 is generally considered a very weak effect, whereas an R-squared value
greater than 0.7 is generally considered a strong effect size. For each of the motives
assessed by the RMP, we found no R-squared value larger than 0.02. Thus, we
concluded that age is not a good linear predictor of how a respondent will score on any
of the basic desires.
Issue 4: Do the current data reveal significant differences in life motives across
Given the low numbers of respondents from the WW II and Post War generations, our
analysis focused only on the five generations with sufficient data for meaningful
comparisons: Boomers I, Boomers II, Generation X, Millennials, and Generation Z.
As shown in Table 3, we found no significant differences for any of the motives between
the average scores of Boomers I, Boomers II, Generation X, and Millennials. The
findings suggest individuals from these generations generally share similar values.
For Generation Z, however, we identified six motives that differentiate this generation
from the other four generations: Curiosity, Eating, Family, Saving, Tranquility, and
Vengeance. Compared to earlier generations, GenZers scored significantly higher, on
average, for the basic desires of Eating, Saving, Tranquility, and Vengeance. They also
scored significantly lower, on average, for Curiosity and Family. These results indicate
GenZers attach greater importance to the needs for food, collecting, safety, and
revenge while attaching lower importance to the needs for intellectual thought and
family life, as compared to individuals from four previous generations.
It should be noted that the six motives differentiating Generation Z from earlier
generations were the same for females and males. On average, both genders within
Generation Z scored significantly higher for Eating, Saving, Tranquility, and Vengeance,
and both scored significantly lower for Curiosity and Family.
Although respondents from Generation Z were residents of a number of different
countries, most of them were concentrated in only five nations: Curacao, Finland,
Poland, Singapore, and the USA. Given the extremely unbalanced numbers, we could
not undertake a valid analysis of possible differences across countries. It is important to
note, though, that the differences in motives between Generation Z and earlier
generations are not limited to one country or one culture.
In an effort to better understand these results, we considered the possibility that the
differences seen in individuals from Generation Z may arise from their having completed
the RMP at a young age (i.e., between ages 12 and 24). Therefore, we compared the
scores of GenZers with those of Millennials who previously took the test at those same
ages. The scores of Millennials who took the test when they were adolescents and
young adults were similar to the scores of Millennials who completed the assessment
when they were older. That is, the scores of the young Millennials were not similar to
those of GenZers. Thus, age at time of testing does not appear to explain the findings.
We then explored the possibility that the global pandemic caused by COVID-19 may
have had an unusually severe impact on individuals from Generation Z. With relatively
limited life experiences, GenZers may be less resilient – that is, less able to cope with
the deleterious effects of the pandemic. This hypothesis, however, was not supported
by the data, as we found that the scores of GenZers who completed the RMP before
March 2020 were not significantly different from the scores of those who took the test
after that date. Thus, the global pandemic is not a likely explanation for the current
The statistical analysis of data gathered on 135,807 test takers who completed the RMP
between 2002 and 2021 revealed differences across gender, country, and generations.
In other words, an individual’s gender, country of residence, and generational cohort
can provide a different perspective on which of the life motives are most important to the
person. Therefore, the RMP will continue to have separate norms for females and
males as well as separate norms for countries with sufficient numbers of test takers. For
the first time, moreover, the RMP will include a separate norm for respondents who are
members of Generation Z.