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Genus Bupleurum (Apiaceae): current taxonomy and distribution in Bulgaria

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In this paper, the current diversity and distribution of genus Bupleurum in Bulgaria are presented. Field and herbarium studies have found that in the Bulgarian flora the genus is represented by 17 species (three perennials and 14 annuals) belonging to four sections. A new key for identification of the sections and taxa is provided. For each species, the diagnostic characters are noted down, as well as its closest relatives with which it can be confused. Literature and herbarium data of the species distribution in Bulgaria are summarized and illustrated on the map, with floristic regions and UTM grid.
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43PHYTOLOGIA BALCANICA, 28(1): 43-60, Soa, 2022
© Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 2022
DOI 10.7546/PhB.28.2022.4
Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences,
Acad. Georgi Bonchev St., bl. 23, 1113 Soa, Bulgaria, e-mail: tjankata@abv.bg
Received: March 01, 2022 ▷ Accepted: March 10, 2022
Genus Bupleurum (Apiaceae): current taxonomy
and distribution in Bulgaria
Stoyan Stoyanov
Key words: Bulgarian ora, Bupleurum, chorology, taxonomy, Umbelliferae
Abstract. In this paper, the current diversity and distribution of genus Bupleurum in Bulgaria are presented. Field
and herbarium studies have found that in the Bulgarian ora the genus is represented by 17 species (three
perennials and 14 annuals) belonging to four sections. A new key for identication of the sections and taxa
is provided. For each species, the diagnostic characters are noted down, as well as its closest relatives with
which it can be confused. Literature and herbarium data of the species distribution in Bulgaria are sum-
marized and illustrated on the map, with oristic regions and UTM grid.
Stoyanov, S. 2022. Genus Bupleurum (Apiaceae): current taxonomy and distribution in Bulgaria. --
Phytologia Balcanica, 28 (1): 43-60. -- ISSN 1310-7771 (print), 1314-0027 (online).
Citation:
Introduction
Bupleurum is one of the largest genera in Apiaceae,
numbering about 150 species (Neves & Watson 2004).
It is the richest genus of Apiaceae in the European ora
(Tutin1968), with about two-thirds of the species of the
genus occurring in Southeast Europe. Within its geo-
graphical range, there are three distinct centers of diver-
sity and speciation. One of the most ancient and prima-
ry centers is the Western Mediterranean, which includes
the Iberian Peninsula, Northwest Africa (Morocco,
Algeria and Tunisia), and Macaronesia (the Atlantic Is-
lands), with about 30 species, mainly with frutescent and
surutescent habit, traditionally included in the Bupleu-
rum subgenus Tenori a (Spreng.) Cauwet (Cauwet-Marc
1976). e second center is located in the Southeast
Asia and Himalayas and is characterized by the great
diversity of herbaceous perennials of Bupleurum, more
than 40 (Wu & Raven 2005). e Balkan Peninsula and
the Aegean Islands, which are part of the third center,
are notable for a large number of annual species of Bu-
pleurum, many of which are local endemic (Snogerup
& Snogerup 2003). e most species-rich European
country in Bupleurum is Greece, with 28 recorded taxa,
of which 25 are annuals (Snogerup & Snogerup 2001).
Similarly, the genus is represented in Anatolia with 46
species, 45 of which are annuals (Snogerup1972). All an-
nuals and non-ligneous perennials are merged into the
Bupleurum subgenus Bupleurum.
Half a century aer the treatment of genus Bu-
pleurum for Flora Europaea (Tutin 1968), the species
diversity has increased by about 40%: from 39 to 55
44 Stoyanov, S. • Bupleurum (Apiaceae) in Bulgaria
species (Hand 2011). e latest comprehensive study
of the genus (Assenov 1982) in Bulgaria is now quite
outdated and in need of updating. is is due to the
fact that new species for the Balkans have been record-
ed (Stoyanov 2018, 2019) and some infraspecic taxa
have been raised to the rank of specic (Snogerup &
Snogerup 2001). Accumulation of new data on the tax-
onomy and distribution of the Bupleurum species and
some changes in the taxonomic treatments called for
a critical revision of the genus in the Bulgarian ora.
e article aims to present a contemporary taxo-
nomic scheme of the genus Bupleurum in Bulgaria, to
summarize its synonymy in the Bulgarian ora, and to
highlight key characters of each species. A summary of
the current distribution of the species is also provided.
Material and methods
e study is based on extensive plant collection of
Bupleurum carried out in the period 2004-2018. Fur-
thermore, an overall review of the Bupleurum spec-
imens kept in the herbaria PR, PRC, SO, SOA, and
SOM (herbarium acronyms follow iers 2021+) has
been done. e present taxonomic treatment results
from studying 912 specimens (including 111 personal
gatherings) from Bulgarian populations.
e distribution of species is illustrated with maps
using Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid
(10×10 km) combined with the oristic subdivision of
the country. Floristic regions of Bulgaria (Fig. 1) are
described according to Jordanov (1966).
Fig. 1. Floristic regions of Bulgaria: Black Sea Coast (1a-Northern; 1b-Southern), Northeast Bulgaria (2), Danubian Plain (3), Forebalkan
(4a-Western; 4b-Eastern), Balkan Range (5a-Western; 5b-Central; 5c-Eastern), Soa Region (6), Znepole Region (7), Vitosha Region (8),
West Frontier Mts (9), Valley of River Struma (10a-Northern; 10b-Southern), Mt Belasitsa (11), Mt Slavyanka (12), Valley of River Mesta
(13), Pirin Mts (14a-Northern; 14b-Southern), Rila Mts (15), Mt Sredna Gora (16a-Western; 16b-Eastern), Rhodopi Mts (17a-Western;
17b-Central; 17c-Eastern), racian Lowland (18), Tundzha Hilly Country (19), and Mt Strandzha (20).
45Phytol. Balcan. 28(1) • Soa • 2022
For each taxon, bibliographic references and a
detailed list of synonymy has been prepeared. e
bibliography includes citation with reference to pro-
tologues, Bulgarian Floras (Velenovs 1891a, 1898;
Stojanov & Stefanov 1925, 1933, 1948; Stojanov & al.
1967; Assenov 1982) or other sources, in which the
species was rst recorded in Bulgaria, and the Flora
Europaea (Tutin 1968).
Taxonomic treatment
e genus Bupleurum is represented in the Bulgarian
ora by 17 species (three perennials and 14 annuals), all
belonging to the subgenus Bupleurum and subdivided
into four sections (Fig. 2). One of the species (B. fal-
catum) is presented with two subspecies. In the pres-
ent study, the subdivision of the genus Bupleurum into
subgenera (Koso-Poljansky 1913; Cauwet-Marc 1976)
is accepted. At the section level, the taxonomic scheme
follows Cauwet-Marc (1976) for the perennial species
and Snogerup & Snogerup (2001) for the annuals.
Key to sections and species of genus Bupleurum oc-
curring in Bulgaria
1. Bracts lacking, upper leaves perfoliate (I. Sect.
Bupleurum) .........................(1). B. rotundifolium
1*
. Bracts 1–5, upper leaves at most amplexicaule .2.
2. Bracts caducous, clearly dierent in length and/
or shape, herbaceous perennials (II. Sect. Bu-
pleurotypus) .......................................................... 3.
2*
. Bracts persistent, similar in length and shape,
annuals ...................................................................5.
3. Bracts and bracteoles linear to oblong-lanceo-
late, attened, 3-veined, with parallel venation
................. ........................................(2). B. falcatum
3*
. Bracts and bracteoles ovate-lanceolate to
ovate-elliptical, slightly concave, with reticulate
venation .................................................................4.
4. Leaves ovate to oblong-lanceolate, with pin-
nate-reticulate venation, lower pedunculate, up-
per amplexicaule ..................... (3). B. longifolium
4*
. Basal rosette leaves linear to linear-lanceolate, with
parallel venation, upper cauline leaves oblong-lan-
ceolate, amplexicaule ............. (4). B. ranunculoides
5. Bracteoles enclosing the owers before and aer
anthesis, elliptical-lanceolate to ovate, attened
to navicular, straw to bright yellow at anthesis
and in early fruiting stage, with ± noticeable
veins, oen with reticulate venation, ± scarious
(III. Sect. Aristata) ..............................................6.
5*
. Bracteoles erecto-patent to patent at all stages,
linear, lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, attened
to carinate, green, with parallel, obscure veins,
herbaceous (IV. Sect. Juncea) .............................8.
6. Stems pseudo-dichotomous near the base, bracts
and bracteoles attened, ± equal in shape and
size, elliptical-lanceolate, with pinnate-reticulate
venation, secondary veins anastomosed, all veins
prominent ................................... (7). B. odontites
6*
. Stems pseudo-dichotomous above the middle,
bracteoles ± navicular, elliptical to ovate, with
three conspicuous primary veins and with ob-
scure or lacking secondary veins ...................... 7.
7. Bracts linear-lanceolate with three parallel
veins and without secondary veins, bracteoles
ovate 3-veined, midvein with obscure, short,
pinnate secondary veins, with awn 2–3 mm
........................ .............................. (5). B. apiculatum
7*
. Bracts elliptical-lanceolate with three almost
parallel veins, midvein with ± prominent pin-
nate secondary veins, bracteoles elliptical to
ovate-elliptical, with three noticeable veins and
without secondary veins, with awn up to 1 mm
.................. ........................................... (6). B. avum
8. Fruit surface verrucose or papillose ................... 9.
8*
. Fruit surface smooth or rugulose .....................10.
9. Rays slightly unequal, divergent; petals bright yel-
low; ovary and unripe mericarps glauco-pruinose,
when ripe light brown with white papillae, ribs in-
conspicuous, styles 0.4–0.5 mm, longer than sty-
lopodium radius .........................(13). B. euboeum
9*
. Rays distinctly unequal, non-divergent; petals
reddish-yellow; unripe mericarps pale green to
46 Stoyanov, S. • Bupleurum (Apiaceae) in Bulgaria
purplish, when ripe dark brown, rugulose-pa-
pillose, with winged rugulose ribs, styles 0.1
0.2 mm, shorter than the stylopodium radius
........... .....................................(17). B. tenuissimum
10. Umbel rays 2–3(4) ...............................................11.
10*
. Umbel rays 4–8 ................................................... 15.
11. Rays clearly divergent, almost equal, fruits 4–6
mm, with sharp, ± winged ribs ...............................
.. .................................................. (16). B. praealtum
11*
. Rays non-divergent, distinctly unequal, fruits 1.5–
3 mm, with liform, weak or obscure ribs ...... 12.
12. Bracteoles 4 .........................................................13.
12*
. Bracteoles 5 ........................................................ 14.
13. Bracts and bracteoles carinate, with inconspicu-
ous veins; petal bend and inexed lobe distinctly
papillose; ripe mericarps brown, with three slen-
der vallecular vittae visible as thin strips between
the ribs ...................................(10 ) . B. asperuloides
13*
. Bracts and bracteoles ± attened, 3-veined, with
a prominent midvein; petal bend nely granu-
lose-rugulose; ripe mericarps dark brown, with
one large vallecular vittae visible as broad lon-
gitudinal purplish-brown to black strip between
ribs .................................................(11). B. boissieri
14. Virgate habit; branches standing almost straight
up or slightly spreading; bracts ± attened, clear-
ly 3-veined, petals reddish to maroon; ripe fruits
black, smooth, with liform ribs ........ (9). B. ane
14*
. Branches spreading or bending downwards, the
longest distinctly loose; bracts carinate, with in-
conspicuous veins; petals pale yellowish to red-
dish-yellow, distinctly papillose at bend; ripe
fruits light brown, nely rugulose, without dis-
tinct ribs ...........................(15). B. pauciradiatum
15. Umbel rays 4–5; bracts 2–3 ...............................16.
15*
. Umbel rays 6–8; bracts 3–5 ............................... 17.
16. Bracts twice longer than bracteoles, very unequal,
the longest one with 5–7 veins; petals yellow; ova-
ry and fruits greyish pruinose ...................................
.. .......................................(14). B. pachnospermum
16*. Bracts and bracteoles very similar in shape and
size, 3-veined; petals reddish to maroon, seldom
yellowish; fruits black ........................(9). B. ane
17. Rays up to 2 cm, subequal, very divergent at all
stages, mericarps up to 1.5 mm ...............................
.. ........................................... (8). B. aequiradiatum
17*
. Rays 0.5–5 cm, very unequal, ± divergent,
non-divergent in fruits, mericarps usually more
than 2 mm .......................... (12). B. commutatum
I. Sect. Bupleurum, Tutin, Fl. Eur. 2: 346. 1968; Cau-
wet-Marc, Biosyst. Espèces Vivaces Bupleurum Medit.
Occ. 3: 27. 1976.
Sect. Perfoliata Godron in Grenier & Godron, Fl.
France 1: 717. 1848; Boiss., Fl. Orient. 2: 834. 1872;
Calestani, Webbia 1: 164. 1905; Wol in Engler,
Panzenr. 43: 38. 1910; Stoj. & Stef., Fl. Bulg. ed. 1, 2:
814. 1925.
Type: B. rotundifolium L. typ. cons. prop., Hitchcock
& Green in Brit. Bot.: 138. 1929.
Annuals. Stems erect, unbranched or with short
branches in the upper part. Leaves broadly lanceo-
late, ovate-lanceolate to rounded, lower semiamplex-
icaule, middle and upper perfoliate. Bracts lacking.
Bracteoles ovate, mucronate, yellowish-green, aer
anthesis turning purplish-green. Mericarps ellipsoid
to rounded, smooth or tuberculate, ribs liform, oil
ducts obscure, obsolete.
(1). B. rotundifolium L., Sp. Pl.: 236. 1753; Velen., Fl.
Bulg.: 222. 1891a; Tutin, Fl. Eur. 2: 346. 1968; Assenov,
Fl. RP Bulg. 8: 112. 1982.
Lectotype: Habitat inter Europae australis segetes,
Herb. Linn. 335.1 (LINN – photo!), Rechinger &
Snogerup in Rechinger, Fl. Iran. 162: 269. 1987.
Diagnostic characters and similar taxa: Bupleurum
rotundifolium is the only member of sect. Bupleurum
in the Bulgarian ora. It diers from all other species
in Bulgaria with lack of bracts and perfoliate middle
and upper leaves. e closest species is B. subovatum,
widespread across the Mediterranean. It is distin-
guished with its elongated elliptical leaves, acute at the
top and tuberculate mericarp surface. Its nearest local-
47Phytol. Balcan. 28(1) • Soa • 2022
ities are in Greece, south of the Rhodopes. e species
is most likely to be found in the lowest parts of the
Eastern Rhodopes, in areas with calcareous bedrock,
or in arable lands.
Distribution in Bulgaria: Across the country, up to
1000 m (Plate I. 1). In the plains and the lower moun-
tain belt, in dry calcareous stony grasslands, among
sparse scrubs and as weed in arable lands.
Global distribution: Europe, SW Asia and N Africa.
II. Sect. Bupleurotypus (Koso-Pol.) Cauwet-Marc, Bio-
syst. Espèces Vivaces Bupleurum Medit. Occ. 3: 28. 1976.
Subgenus Bupleurotypus sect. Eubupleurotypus Ko-
so-Pol., Acta Horti Petropol., 30(2): 164. 1913.
Lectotype (designated here): B. ranunculoides L.
Perennial herbs, occasionally ligneous at the base.
Stems erect, branched mainly in the upper part and sel-
dom at the base. Leaves linear, linear-lanceolate to ovate,
amplexicaule, in some species the lower ones petiolate.
Bracts 15, linear-lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, unequal,
oen caducous. Bracteoles mostly ve, linear to ovate, yel-
lowish-green, aer anthesis purple green to bronze. Meri-
carps ellipsoid, smooth, ribs noticeable, liform to winged.
(2). B. falcatum L., Sp. Pl.: 237. 1753; Velen., Fl. Bulg.:
223. 1891a; Tutin, Fl. Eur. 2: 349. 1968; Assenov, Fl. RP
Bulg. 8: 124. 1982.
Lectotype: Habitat in Misniae, Vallesiae sepibus, Herb.
Burser XVI(1): 10 (UPS), Neves & Reduron in Jarvis &
al. (ed.), Taxon 55(1): 209. 2006.
Fig. 2. Section sub-
division of subgenus
Bupleurum:
A. Sect. Bupleurum,
bracts lacking;
B. Sect. Bupleurotypus,
bracts caducous, clearly
dierent in length and/
or shape;
C. Sect. Aristata,
bracts and bracteoles
± scarious, with
prominent noticeable
veins, enclosing the
owers before and aer
anthesis;
D. Sect. Juncea, bracts
and bracteoles herba-
ceous, with weak
± obscure veins, erec-
to-patent to patent at
all stages.
48 Stoyanov, S. • Bupleurum (Apiaceae) in Bulgaria
[– B. gramineum sensu Velen., Fl. Bulg. (1891a) et Stoj.
& Stef., Fl. Bulg. ed. 1, 2 (1925), non Vill. in Prosp.
Hist. Pl. Dauphiné (1779)].
Global distribution: S, C and E Europe and Asia.
Notes: Polymorphic species, both in terms of habit
(from single stems to numerous, highly branched) and
in the shape and size of leaves, number of bracts, num-
ber and length of rays. Small individuals with a few
short-rayed umbels develop in limestone rock habi-
tats. Signicantly more stable features are the number
and shape of bracteoles, as well as the characreristics
of owers and mericarps.
Key to subspecies of B. falcatum
1. Lower leaves petiolate, umbels 3–7-rayed, rays 0.5–3
сm, straight, divergent. Bracts 3–5, clearly dierent in
length and shape ........... (2.1). B. f. subsp. falcatum
1*. All leaves sessile, umbels 6–12-rayed, rays 2–5 cm,
arcuate, slightly divergent. Bracts 0–2, linear, un-
equal .............................. (2.1). B. f. subsp. cernuum
(2.1) B. falcatum subsp. falcatum
Distribution in Bulgaria: Black Sea Coast (South-
ern), Danubian Plain, Forebalkan (Western), Balkan
Range (Central and Eastern), Znepole Region, Vitosha
Region, Valley of River Struma (Northern), Rila Mts,
Mt Sredna Gora, Rhodopi Mts (Western and Central),
racian Lowland (Plate I. 2), up to 1500 m. In the
plains and in the lower and middle mountain belts,
oen on limestone.
(2.2) B. falcatum subsp. cernuum (Ten.) Arcang., Comp.
Fl. Ital., ed. 2: 590. 1894; Tutin, Fl. Eur. 2: 349. 1968. B.
cernuum Ten., App. 1 Cat. Hort. Neap.: 38. 1815.
Type: Italy, montis Virginis et Matesii.
= B. orbelicum Velen. in Sitzungsber. Königl. Böhm.
Ges. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss.: 47. 1890; Velen., Fl.
Bulg.: 222. 1891 B. gramineum var. orbelicum ( Ve -
len.) Stoj. & Stef., Fl. Bulg. ed. 1, 2: 816. 1925. Holo-
type: Bulgaria, in graminosis alpinis m. Rila, 08.1889,
J. Velenovský (PRC 451430!).
= B. diversifolium Rochel in Bot. Reise Banat: 40. 1838;
Velen., Fl. Bulg. Suppl.: 133. 1898 B. gramineum sub-
sp. diversifolium (Rochel) Stoj. & Stef., Fl. Bulg. ed. 1,
2: 815. 1925.
[– B. gramineum sensu Velen., Fl. Bulg. (1891a) et Stoj.
& Stef., Fl. Bulg. ed. 1, 2 (1925), non Vill., Prosp. Hist.
Pl. Dauphiné (1779)].
[– B. sibthorpianum auct. Bulg., non Sm. in Sibth. et
Sm., Fl. Gr. Prodr. 1: 179 (1806)].
Notes: In the latest Floras of Bulgaria, the name B.
sibthorpianum has been misused for the alpine forms
of B. falcatum, which presently refer to the infraspe-
cic taxon B. falcatum subsp. cernuum. Actually, B.
sibthorpianum, described from the calcareous moun-
tains of the Peloponnese in Greece and representing
a narrow-leaved form of B. falcatum subsp. falcatum,
appears to be synonymous with the latter.
Distribution in Bulgaria: Balkan Range (Western
and Central), Vitosha Region, West Frontier Mts (Mt
Osogovska), Mt Belasitsa, Pirin Mts, Rila Mts, 1500–
2500 m (Plate I. 3). In the mountains, mainly on si-
liceous substrates, seldom on limestone, usually in
stony pastures.
(3). B. longifolium L., Sp. Pl.: 237. 1753; Velen., Fl.
Bulg. Suppl.: 133. 1898; Tutin, Fl. Eur. 2: 346. 1968;
Assenov, Fl. RP Bulg. 8: 113. 1982.
Lectotype: Habitat Gottingae, inque monte Jura Helve-
tiae, Herb. Burser XVI(1): 2 (UPS), Neves & Reduron in
Jarvis & al. (ed.), Taxon 55(1): 210. 2006.
Diagnostic characters and similar taxa: Bupleurum
longifolium is distinguished by its obovate to round-
ed bracts and bracteoles, broadly elliptical petiolated
basal leaves and oblong ovate sessile cauline leaves,
cordate and amplexicaule at the base. Leaves with
pinnate-reticulate venation. Similar broadly ellipti-
cal petiolated basal leaves are also characteristic of B.
falcatum subsp. falcatum, but in the latter veins are
arcuate. Bupleurum longifolium and B. rotundifoli-
um are similar in their oblong-ovate to round stem
leaves, but in the former, they are amplexicaule, with
a broad cordate base, while in the latter, they are per-
foliate. Furthermore, B. rotundifolium is annual and
has no bracts. Bupleurum longifolium resembles B. ra-
nunculoides in the umbel structure. Both species have
3–5 ovate to rounded bracts, but in the former, ower
pedicels are 2–3 mm long, and in the latter, they are
up to 1 mm.
49Phytol. Balcan. 28(1) • Soa • 2022
Distribution in Bulgaria: Balkan Range (Central – Tri-
glav massif, northwards of peak Mazalat, Armankaya
locality and in the river valleys of Tazha and Praskals-
ka), Znepole Region (Mt Paramunska) (Plate I. 4). In the
beech belt, seldom above the upper forest line. None of
the cited localities have been conrmed during the pres-
ent study. e species is included in the Red Data Book
of R. Bulgaria as Critically Endangered (Stoyanov 2015).
Global distribution: C and E Europe – from C France
to W Russia, southwards to N Balkans.
(4). B. ranunculoides L., Sp. Pl.: 237. 1753; Tutin, Fl. Eur.
2: 349. 1968; Stoyanov, Phytol. Balcan. 10(2-3): 187. 2004.
Lectotype: Habitat in Helvetia & Pyrenaeis, Herb.
Burser XVI(1): 8 (UPS), Neves & Reduron in Jarvis &
al. (ed.), Taxon 55(1): 210. 2006; Epitype: Herb. Clif-
ford: 104, Bupleurum 3 (BM 000558361), Neves & Re-
duron in Jarvis & al. (ed.), Taxon 55(1): 210. 2006.
Diagnostic characters and similar taxa: e tall-
er individuals of this species with its habit, shape of
basal and stem leaves, shape of umbels and number
of umbel rays are similar to B. falcatum subsp. cernu-
um. e latter is characterized by its linear, acuminate
and almost identical bracts and bracteoles, while in B.
ranunculoides, bracts and bracteoles are unequal, lan-
ceolate to ovate, obtuse and the uppermost leaves have
a wide cordate amplexicaule base.
Distribution in Bulgaria: Vitosha Region (peak
Belchova Skala), 1800–1850 m (Plate I. 5). In moun-
tain stony grasslands and among sparse scrubs of Ju-
niperus sibirica. e only population of the species in
Bulgaria occupies an area of about 2 ha. e species is
included in the Red Data Book of R. Bulgaria as Criti-
cally Endangered (Stoyanov 2015).
Global distribution: Europe – in the mountainous
regions of the Iberian Peninsula, Apennines and Bal-
kans, Alps and Carpathians.
III. Sect. Aristata Godron in Grenier & Godron, Fl.
France 1: 724. 1848.
Sect. Eubupleura subsect. Aristata (Godron) Briq.,
Monogr. Bupl. Alp. Marit.: 52. 1897; Stoj. & Stef., Fl.
Bulg. ed. 1, 2: 817. 1925 Sect. Isophyllum subsect.
Aristata (Godron) Tutin, Fl. Eur. 2: 346. 1968 Sect.
Aristata subsect. Aristata p. p., S. Snogerup & B.
Snogerup, Willdenowia 31: 225. 2001.
Type: B. aristatum Bartl. (= B. veronense Turra).
= Sect. Glumacea Boiss., Fl. Orient. 2:835. 1872; Cales-
tani, Webbia 1: 165. 1905 Sect. Eubupleura subsect.
Glumacea (Boiss.) H. Wol in Engler, Panzenr. 43:
39. 1910.
Annuals. Stems erect, pseudo-dichotomous-
ly branched from the middle, seldom from near the
base, with numerous umbels. Basal leaves linear to
linear-lanceolate, sessile or seldom short-petiolate,
middle and upper stem leaves sessile, semiamplexi-
caule, with 35 parallel veins, acuminate. Bracts 25,
lanceolate, elliptical to ovate-lanceolate, 35-veined,
occasionally with pinnate secondary veins. Bracteoles
ve, enclosing the owers before and aer anthesis,
elliptical-lanceolate to ovate, oen navicular, awned,
semi-transparent, straw to bright yellow at anthesis
and in early fruiting stage, ± scarious, 37-veined and
without or with ± conspicuous secondary veins. Meri-
carps ellipsoid, smooth, with weak liform ribs and
single vallecular vittae.
(5). B. apiculatum Friv., Flora 18: 335. 1835; Velen.,
Fl. Bulg.: 225. 1891a; Stoj. & Stef., Fl. Bulg. ed. 2: 759.
1933 et op. c. ed. 3: 834. 1948; Stoj., Stef. & Kitanov, Fl.
Bulg. ed. 4, 2: 781. 1967; Tutin, Fl. Eur. 2: 347. 1968;
Assenov, Fl. RP Bulg. 8: 114. 1982; B. glumaceum var.
apiculatum (Friv.) Stoj. & Stef., Fl. Bulg. ed. 1, 2: 817.
1925.
Type: Rumelia, Frivaldszky (syntypes BP 273845!,
WU 0069470 – photo!).
[– B. semidiaphanum sensu Velen. Fl. Bulg. (1891a) et
B. glumaceum var. semidiaphanum sensu Stoj. & Stef.,
Fl. Bulg. (1925), non Boiss. (1859)].
[– B. avicans sensu Velen. Fl. Bulg. Suppl. (1898) et B.
glumaceum var. avicans sensu Stoj. & Stef., Fl. Bulg.
(1925), non Boiss. & Heldr. (1859)].
[– B. sulphureum sensu Velen. Fl. Bulg. Suppl. (1898)
et B. glumaceum var. sulphureum sensu Stoj. & Stef., Fl.
Bulg. (1925), non Boiss. & Balansa (1859)].
[– B. baldense subsp. gussonei sensu Assenov, Fl. RP
Bulg. 8 (1982), non (Arcang.) Tutin in Heywood, Fed-
des Repert. 74 (1967)].
Diagnostic characters and similar taxa: Bracts ve,
with three parallel veins, awned, narrowly lanceolate,
50 Stoyanov, S. • Bupleurum (Apiaceae) in Bulgaria
± herbaceous, twice longer than bracteoles. Umbel
rays unequal. Bracteoles ve, elliptical to ovate-ellip-
tical, at owering pale yellow, in the fruit stage straw
yellow, with three main veins and short obscure sec-
ondary veins, long-awned, awn more than 2 mm. e
bracteoles are similar in shape and size to those of B.
avum, but in the latter they are translucent, 3-veined
and without secondary veins, and the awn is up to
1 mm. Furthermore, at anthesis the bracteoles are
bright yellow.
Distribution in Bulgaria: Black Sea Coast (North-
ern), Northeast Bulgaria, Balkan Range (Central and
Eastern), Soa Region, Znepole Region, Vitosha Re-
gion, West Frontier Mts, Valley of River Struma, Mt
Slavyanka, Valley of River Mesta, Rila Mts, Mt Sredna
Gora, Rhodopi Mts, racian Lowland, Tundzha Hilly
Country, up to 1500 m (Plate I. 6). In stony grasslands,
on calcareous and sandy substrates.
Global distribution: Balkan Peninsula – S and NE
Bulgaria, Republic of N Macedonia, E Serbia, NE
Greece, and Romanian Dobrogea.
(6). B. avum Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 205. 1775;
Stoj., Stef. & Kitanov, Fl. Bulg. ed. 4, 2: 781. 1967; Tutin,
Fl. Eur. 2: 346. 1968; Assenov, Fl. RP Bulg. 8: 114. 1982.
Holotype: Dardanelles, Forsskål cent. 7 no. 23 (C).
= B. thracicum Velen., Sitzungsber. Königl. Böhm.
Ges. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Cl. 1892: 381. 1892; Vel-
en., Fl. Bulg. Suppl.: 135. 1898.
[– B. glumaceum sensu Velen. Fl. Bulg. (1891a) et Stoj.
& Stef., Fl. Bulg. (1925), non Sm. (1806)].
[– B. apiculatum p. p. sensu Stoj. & Stef., Fl. Bulg. ed. 2
(1933) et op. c. ed. 3 (1948), non Friv. (1835)].
Diagnostic characters and similar taxa: Bracts and
bracteoles widely elliptical, ± scarious, translucent,
awned, awn up to 1 mm, bright yellow at anthesis.
Bracteoles with three elevated main veins and with-
out secondary veins. Bupleurum apiculatum has simi-
lar bracteoles, but in contrast, it has, short, secondary
veins between main veins and a longer awn, exceeding
2 mm. e two species are well distinguished in the
shape and venation of bracts – in B. apiculatum they
are narrowly lanceolate, herbaceous to slightly scari-
ous, with three parallel main veins, while in B. avum
bracts are elliptical, with three arcuate main veins and
clear secondary venation.
Distribution in Bulgaria: Black Sea Coast (South-
ern), Balkan Range (Eastern), Rhodopi Mts (Eastern),
racian Lowland, Tundzha Hilly Country, up to 500
m (Plate II. 1). In the plains and foothills, in dry stony
grasslands, mainly on siliceous substrates.
Global distribution: SE part of the Balkan Peninsu-
la (SE Bulgaria, NE Greece and the European part of
Turkey), the Aegean Islands, W and S parts of Asia
Minor.
(7). B. odontites L., Sp. Pl.: 237. 1753; Velen., Fl. Bulg.:
226. 1891a; Stoj. & Stef., Fl. Bulg. ed. 1, 2: 818. 1925.
Lectotype: Habitat in alpibus Vallesiae, Herb. Linn.
335.11 (LINN – photo!), Reduron in Snogerup &
Snogerup (ed.), Willdenowia 31: 225. 2001.
= B. fontanesii Guss., Fl. Sic. Prodr.: 313. 1827; Velen.,
Fl. Bulg. Suppl.: 137. 1898; Stoj. & Stef., Fl. Bulg. ed. 2:
759. 1933 et op. c. ed. 3: 835. 1948; Stoj., Stef. & Kita-
nov, Fl. Bulg. ed. 4, 2: 781. 1967; Tutin, Fl. Eur. 2: 347.
1968; Assenov, Fl. RP Bulg. 8: 116. 1982.
Diagnostic characters and similar taxa: e only
Bulgarian representative with reticulate venation of
bracts and bracteoles. Umbels short pedunculate or
subsessile, ower pedicels quite unequal. Bupleurum
odontites has lanceolate, attened bracteoles, while in
the other two species of the section Aristata they are
ovate-elliptical, ± navicular.
Distribution in Bulgaria: racian Lowland (be-
tween the villages of Shtit and Raykova Mogila,
Svilengrad district), Tundzha Hilly Country (Elhovo
and Topolovgrad districts), up to 200 m (Plate II. 2).
In ruderal grassy places, at roadsides, on the periphery
of arable lands and occasionally as weed in the elds.
e species probably has an adventitious origin. It is
included in the Red Data Book of R. Bulgaria as En-
dangered (Stoyanov 2015).
Global distribution: S Europe (casual, probably in-
troduced), Crimea, N Africa, Asia Minor, and the
Middle East.
IV. Sect. Juncea (Briq.) Calestani, Webbia 1: 166. 1905.
Sect. Eubupleura subsect. Juncea Briq., Monogr.
51Phytol. Balcan. 28(1) • Soa • 2022
Bupl. Alp. Marit.: 97. 1897; Wol in Engler, Panzenr.
43: 39. 1910; Stoj. & Stef., Fl. Bulg. ed. 1, 2: 815. 1925,
p. p. Sect. Isophyllum subsect. Juncea (Briq.) Tutin,
Fl. Eur. 2: 347. 1968 Sect. Aristata subsect. Juncea
(Briq.) S. Snogerup & B. Snogerup, Willdenowia 31:
264. 2001.
Lectotype: B. junceum L. (= B. praealtum L.), S.
Snogerup & B. Snogerup, Willdenowia 31: 264. 2001.
= Sect. Graminea Boiss., Fl. Orient. 2: 835. 1872, p. p.
= Sect. Annua [unranked] Trachycarpa Lange in
Willkomm & Lange, Prodr. Fl. Hisp. 3: 68. 1880
Sect. Eubupleura subsect. Trachycarpa (Lange) Briq.,
Monogr. Bupl. Alp. Marit.: 108. 1897; Wol in Engler,
Panzenr. 43: 39. 1910 Sect. Trachycarpa (Lange)
Calestani, Webbia 1: 165. 1905 Sect. Isophyllum sub-
sect. Trachycarpa (Lange) Tutin, Fl. Eur. 2: 348. 1968.
Annuals. Stems erect, with pronounced main stem,
with shorter or longer lateral branches or pseudo-di-
chotomously branched only in the upper part, umbels
numerous at top and laterally of the branches. Leaves
linear to linear-lanceolate, sessile and semiamplexi-
caule, with 35 parallel veins. Bracts 25, linear to el-
liptical-lanceolate, 15-veined, herbaceous. Bracteoles
45, erecto-patent to patent at all stages, linear to ob-
long lanceolate, with 13 main veins, withous second-
ary veins, acute to acuminate, attened or carinate,
herbaceous. Mericarps ellipsoid to prismatic, smooth
to verrucose, with weak or liform ribs. Vallecular vit-
tae 13, seldom more.
(8). B. aequiradiatum (H. Wol) Snogerup & B.
Snogerup, Willdenowia 31: 302. 2001; B. commutatum
var. aequiradiatum H. Wol in Engler, Panzenr. 43:
84. 1910; Stoj., Stef. & Kitanov, Fl. Bulg. ed. 4, 2: 780.
1967; B. commutatum subsp. aequiradiatum (H. Wol)
Hayek, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(1): 975.
1927 [Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balcan. 1]; Tutin, Fl. Eur. 2:
348. 1968; Assenov, Fl. RP Bulg. 8: 120. 1982.
Lectotype: Bulgaria, Nova Mahala [Stoevo village,
Asenovgrad district], 08.1906, V. Stříbrný (SOM
55206!; isolectotypes BP 274070!, PR 859562!, PR
859563!), Stoyanov, Phytotaxa 392(3): 205. 2019.
Diagnostic characters and similar taxa: Top umbels
6–8-rayed, rays up to 20 mm, ± equal, clearly diver-
gent (Fig. 3A). Mericarps ± rouded, ca. 1.5 mm long,
pedicels as long as mericarps. During owering, B.
aequiradiatum resembles B. praealtum, but the latter
has 3(–4)-rayed umbels. It is also similar to B. commu-
tatum, but the latter has longer, unequal rays, non-di-
vergent in fruits, pedicels 2–3 times longer than meri-
carps, and ellipsoid mericarps, exceeding 2 mm.
Distribution in Bulgaria: Black Sea Coast, Northeast
Bulgaria, West Frontier Mts (Mt Osogovska), Rhodo-
pi Mts (Central and Eastern), racian Lowland,
Tundzha Hilly Country, up to 700 m (Plate II. 3). In
dry grasslands and sparse scrubs, on calcareous and
siliceous substrates.
Global distribution: C and E parts of the Balkans
Peninsula (C and N Greece, Republic of N Mace-
donia, SE Serbia, S and E Bulgaria, and Romanian
Dobrgea, Stoyanov 2019) and W part of Asia Minor
(Stoyanov 2020). Recorded for Crimea (Wol 1910),
where it most likely has been confused with B. gerardi
All. It is erroneosly reported for Croatia (Snogerup &
Snogerup 2001) and Albania (Barina & al. 2011).
(9). B. ane Sadler, Fl. Comit. Pest. 1: 204. 1825; Stoj.
& Stef., Fl. Bulg. ed. 1, 2: 817. 1925; Tutin, Fl. Eur. 2:
348. 1968; Assenov, Fl. RP Bulg. 8: 122. 1982.
Type: Hungary, ad sepes vinearum um den Blocks- und
Adlerberg Budae et in graminosis arenosis siccis circa
Pestinum sat frequens (syntype BP 627618!).
= B. gerardi Jacq., Fl. Austr. 3: 31. 1775, non All. (1774);
Velen., Fl. Bulg.: 225. 1891a; Stoj. & Stef., Fl. Bulg. ed.
1, 2: 817. 1925.
= B. gerardi var. breviradiatum Rchb., Iconogr. Bot. Pl.
Crit. 2: 56. 1824 B. breviradiatum (Rchb.) Wettst.,
Biblioth. Bot. 5(He 26): 52. 1892; Velen., Fl. Bulg.
Suppl.: 135. 1898.
Variability: Among the Bulgarian populations of
the species there are two morphotypes, more or less
distinguishable by their habit and partly by the col-
or of petals. One of them has virgate habit, relatively
short branches (5–6 cm), standing almost straight up,
non-divergent rays, and reddish to maroon petals. In
the past, it has been considered a separate species: B.
breviradiatum. e other morphotype has spreading
lateral branches, 10–15 cm long, slightly divergent
umbel rays and yellow to reddish-yellow petals. e
dierences between the two morphotypes are minor
52 Stoyanov, S. • Bupleurum (Apiaceae) in Bulgaria
and they are now considered as part of the infraspecif-
ic variability of the species.
Diagnostic characters and similar taxa: Usually vir-
gate habit, bracts and bracteoles oblong linear-lan-
ceolate, 3-veined. Umbel rays quite unequal, oen
non-divergent, petals reddish to reddish-yellow and
unripe mericarps dark green to reddish-green (Fig.
3B). Bupleurum ane is similar to B. pachnospermum,
but the latter is pseudo-dichotomously branched in
the upper part, and has longer spreading branches,
divergent rays, elliptical-lanceolate unequal bracts
and bracteoles, the largest bract 5–7-veined, bright
yellow petals, and glauco-pruinose ovary and unripe
mericarps.
Distribution in Bulgaria: Across the country, up to
1200 m (Plate II. 4). In dry grasslands, sparse scrubs,
riparian meadows, on sandy, calcareous and siliceous
substrates.
Global distribution: C and SE Europe (from Panno-
nian-Carpathian region to the Balkans), Crimea, Cau-
casus, NW part of Asia Minor.
(10). B. asperuloides Heldr. ex Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Ori-
ent. ser. 2, 6: 76. 1859; Velen., Fl. Bulg. Suppl.: 133.
Fig. 3. Morphology of umbels in B. ae-
quiradiatum (A), B. ane (B), B. com-
mutatum (C), and B. pachnospermum
(D) (photographs by Stoyan Stoyanov
and Zoran Nikolov).
53Phytol. Balcan. 28(1) • Soa • 2022
1898; Tutin, Fl. Eur. 2: 348. 1968; Assenov, Fl. RP Bulg.
8: 122. 1982.
Lectotype: Greece, in vinetis prope pagum Rachova in
regione inferiori m. Parnassi, alt. 2500’ circ., 26.08.1856,
Heldreich 513, Herb. Graec. Norm. 3386 (isolectotypes
BP 273946-273948!, BP 479670!, G 00359449 – pho-
to!), Pimenov in Snogerup & Snogerup (ed.), Willde-
nowia 31: 276. 2001.
[– B. sintenisianum sensu Wol in Engler, Panzenr.
43 (1910) et Hayek, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg.
Beih. 30(1) (1927), non Uechtr. in Kanitz, Pl. Roman.
(1879-1881), nom. nud., based on Sintenis no. 474a
from Romania (LD!)].
Diagnostic characters and similar taxa: Bracteoles
four, conspicuously carinate. Petals distinctly verru-
cose at the bend and inexed lobe. Unripe mericarps
prismatic to semi-ellipsoid with weak ribs, when ripe,
the three vallecular vittae stand out on the mericarp
surface as three thin parallel lines between the ribs.
Among the Bulgarian representatives, B. boissieri also
has four bracteoles, but they are almost attened, with
distinct veins and the petals are without papillae, only
granulose at bend. By its habit, characteristics of the
umbels and presence of verrucae at petal bend, B. as-
peruloides is quite similar to B. pauciradiatum, but the
latter has ve bracteoles and its mericarps are rugu-
lose, with obscure ribs.
Distribution in Bulgaria: Black Sea Coast, Balkan
Range (Eastern), Valley of River Struma, Rhodopi Mts
(Eastern), racian Lowland, Tundzha Hilly Country,
up to 800 m (Plate II. 5). In dry stony grasslands and
on the margins of sparse scrubs, in the plains and low-
er parts of the mountains, on calcareous and siliceous
substrates.
Global distribution: S and E parts of the Balkans
(Bulgaria, Republic of N Macedonia and Greece),
Crimea, SW Russia (Black Sea coastal area of Krasno-
dar Krai Region) and W part of Asia Minor.
(11). B. boissieri Post, Bot. J. Lin. Soc. 24: 426. 1888;
Stoyanov, Phytotaxa 392(3): 205. 2019.
Lectotype (designated by M.G. Pimenov & F. Jacque-
moud in Stoyanov, Phytotaxa 392(3): 205. 2019): Tur-
ke y, in sylvaticis montis Amani [Amanos Mountains],
23.09.1884, G. Post 91 (G 00150141, photo!).
= B. sintenisianum Uechtr. in Kanitz, Pl. Roman.:
207. 1879-1881. Type (designated by Snogerup &
Snogerup, Willdenowia 31: 207. 2001): Romania, Do-
brudscha, Babadagh, Wald von Tschukarowa [Ciucuro-
va], 24.08.1872, P. Sintenis 474a (LD 1078470!), nom.
nud.
= B. uechtritzianum Stoyanov, Phytol. Balcan. 16(1):
66. 2010. Holotype: Bulgaria, Ruse district, Dve Mogili
Municipality, east and northeast of Ostritsa village, 210
m, 43°32.067’ N, 25°59.000’ E, 28.08.2009, S. Stoyanov
& I. Kolev (SOM 165541!).
Diagnostic characters and similar taxa: Bracteoles
four, ± attened, 3-veined. Unripe mericarps with
noticeable purplish-brown to dark-brown longitudi-
nal stripes between the ribs due to the dark content
of the vallecular oil ducts. Among the Bulgarian rep-
resentatives, B. asperuloides has also four bracteoles,
but they are carinate, and its petals are with verrucae
at the petal bend. Furthermore, the two species dier
in the number of their vallecular vittae – single in B.
boissieri, and three per vallecula in B. asperuloides.
Distribution in Bulgaria: Black Sea Coast (North-
ern – above Bolata bay, Kaliakra Reserve; W of Bal-
chik town; at the villages of Obrochishte and Lyahovo,
Balchik district; Frangensko Plateau, above Aksakovo
town), Northeast Bulgaria (in the valley of Cherni
Lom river, between the villages of Ostritsa and Kat-
selovo, Ruse district), up to 300 m (Plate II. 6). In dry
stony grasslands and on the margins of sparse scrubs
of Paliurus spina-christi and Carpinus orientalis, on
limestone and marl substrates.
Global distribution: NE part of the Balkans (NE
Bulgaria and Romanian Dobrogea), Crimea and SW
Asia (Turkey, Syria and Georgia).
(12). B. commutatum Boiss. & Balansa in Boiss., Di-
agn. Pl. Orient. ser. 2, 6: 75. 1859; Velen., Fl. Bulg.: 224.
1891a; Stoj. & Stef., Fl. Bulg. ed. 1, 2: 816. 1925; Stoj. &
Stef., Fl. Bulg. ed. 2: 759. 1933 et op. c. ed. 3: 834. 1948;
Stoj., Stef. & Kitanov, Fl. Bulg. ed. 4, 2: 780. 1967 (sub
B. c. var. commutatum); Tutin, Fl. Eur. 2: 348. 1968
(sub B. c. subsp. commutatum); Assenov, Fl. RP Bulg.
8: 119. 1982 (sub B. c. subsp. commutatum).
54 Stoyanov, S. • Bupleurum (Apiaceae) in Bulgaria
Lectotype: Turkey, B2 Izmir, Vignes au-dessus de Bir-
ghui (Tmolus occidental.), 23.07.1854, Balansa 36 (G
00330131 – photo!), Pimenov in Snogerup & Snogerup
(ed.), Willdenowia 31: 296. 2001.
= B. laxum Velen., Österr. Bot. Z. 41: 397. 1891b; Ve-
len., Fl. Bulg. Suppl.: 134. 1898 B. commutatum var.
laxum (Velen.) Velen., Fl. Bulg.: 225. 1891a; Stoj. &
Stef., Fl. Bulg. ed. 1, 2: 816. 1925; Stoj. & Stef., Fl. Bulg.
ed. 2: 759. 1933 et op. c. ed. 3: 834. 1948.
Isotype: Bulgaria, in graminosis ad Rilo Selo, 07.1889,
J. Velenovský (BP 415137!).
[– B. australe sensu Velen., Fl. Bulg. Suppl. (1898),
Stoj. & Stef., Fl. Bulg. ed. 2 (1933), op. c. ed. 3 (1948),
Stoj., Stef. & Kitanov, Fl. Bulg. ed. 4, 2 (1967) et B. ge-
rardi var. australe sensu Stoj. & Stef., Fl. Bulg. ed. 1, 2
(1925), non Jordan, Pug. Pl. Nov. (1852)].
[– B. gerardi sensu Assenov, Fl. RP Bulg. 8 (1982) et
Tutin, Fl. Eur 2 (1968), non All. in Mélang. Philos.
Math. Soc. Roy. Turin 5 (1774)].
Diagnostic characters and similar taxa: Umbel rays
distinctly unequal, up to 50 mm, ± divergent at anthe-
sis, non-divergent in fruit stage (Fig. 3C). Bract and
bracteole margins entire or inconspicuously serrulate
only at apex. Mericarps ellipsoid, ca. 2.5 mm long,
with liform ribs. Bupleurum commutatum resembles
B. aequiradiatum, but the latter has almost equal rays,
up to 20 mm, divergent at all stages, bract and brac-
teole margins serrulate, and mericarps up to 1.5 mm,
with weak ribs.
In the Bulgarian herbaria, many specimens of B.
commutatum have been found misidentied as B. ge-
rardi All. e two species have some similarities in the
habit and characteristics of umbels, but they are well
distinguished in the morphology of owers and fruits.
Bupleurum commutatum has petals 0.9 mm wide, while
in B. gerardi they are almost twice narrower, up to 0.5
mm. Furthermore, the stylopodium of B. commutatum
is as wide as mericarp and styles are ca. 0.5 mm, exceed-
ing the stylopodium radius, while in B. gerardi stylopo-
dium is narrower than mericarp and styles are up to 0.2
mm. In conclusion, it was found that B. gerardi does not
occur in Bulgaria (Stoyanov 2019).
Distribution in Bulgaria: Balkan Range (Central),
Soa Region, Znepole Region, Vitosha Region, West
Frontier Mts, Valley of River Struma (Southern), Mt
Belasitsa, Mt Slavyanka, Pirin Mts, Rila Mts, Mt Sred-
na Gora, Rhodopi Mts, racian Lowland, Tundzha
Hilly Country, 100–1500 m (Plate III. 1). In dry stony
grasslands, on siliceous, serpentine and sandy sub-
strates, seldom on limestone, southwards of Stara
Planina Mts.
Global distribution: C part of the Balkan Peninsula (S
Bulgaria, SE Serbia, Republic of N Macedonia, and N
Greece), W and C parts of Asia Minor. It is erroneosly
reported for Crimea (Snogerup & Snogerup 2001), but
in fact the cited specimens belong to B. gerardi All.
(13). B. euboeum Beauverd & Topali, Candollea 7:
260. 1937; Snogerup & Snogerup, Willdenowia 31:
268. 2001.
Holotype: Greece, in locis maritimis arenosis prope ur-
bem Chalkis Euboeae copiosissimum, 22.06.1935, Topali
& Beauverd 504 (G 00367653 – photo!).
[– B. marschallianum auct. Bulg. non C.A. Mey. (1831)].
[– B. tenuissimum subsp. gracile sensu Assenov, Fl.
RP Bulg. 8 (1982) et Tutin, Fl. Eur. 2 (1968), non (M.
Bieb.) H. Wol in Engler, Panzenr. 43 (1910)].
Diagnostic characters and similar taxa: Bracts three,
petals yellow, fruits ovate, covered with small white
papillae, ribs obscure, styles 0.4–0.5 mm. Among
the Bulgarian representatives, only B. euboeum and
B. tenuissimum have warty formations on the meri-
carp surface. However, the latter has 4–5 barcts, red-
dish-yellow petals, mericarps with yellowish verrucae
and conspicuous winged rugulose ribs, and style up to
0.2 mm, shorter than the stylopodium radius.
Distribution in Bulgaria: Valley of River Stru-
ma (Southern – in the area of mineral baths near
Marikostinovo village, Petrich district), racian
Lowland (near Plovdiv town) (Plate III. 2). In saline
grasslands. South Bulgaria is the northern limit of the
species area. It has probably re-expanded its range via
migration of waterfowl.
Global distribution: S Bulgaria, coastal parts of
Greece (including the Aegean Islands), Republic of
N Macedonia (Stoyanov & Ćušterevska 2021), and W
part of Asia Minor.
(14). B. pachnospermum Pančić, Fl. Princ. Serb.: 329.
1874 (in clavi); Velen., Fl. Bulg.: 225. 1891a; Stoj. &
55Phytol. Balcan. 28(1) • Soa • 2022
Stef., Fl. Bulg. ed. 2: 759. 1933 et op. c. ed. 3: 834. 1948;
Stoj., Stef. & Kitanov, Fl. Bulg. ed. 4, 2: 780. 1967; B.
junceum var. pachnospermum (Pančić) Stoj. & Stef., Fl.
Bulg. ed. 1, 2: 816. 1925.
Type: Serbia, in rupestribus Vrške Čuke, 1868, Pančić
6408 (BEOU – photo!, sub B. pruinosum Pančić, nom.
nud.).
= B. gerardi subsp. glaucocarpum Borbás, Term. Füz.
19: 221. 1896 B. commutatum subsp. glaucocarpum
(Borbás) Hayek, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih.
30(1): 975. 1927 [Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balcan. 1]; Tutin,
Fl. Eur. 2: 348. 1968; Assenov, Fl. RP Bulg. 8: 119. 1982.
Diagnostic characters and similar taxa: Stem pseu-
do-dichotomous in the upper part, rays ± divergent,
unequal, bracts and bracteoles elliptical-lanceolate, the
longest bract has 5(–7) clear veins, petals bright yellow,
ovary and unripe mericarps glauco-pruinose (Fig. 3D).
In habit, B. pachnospermum resembles B. ane, but the
latter has non-divergent rays, linear-lanceolate bracts
and bracteoles, reddish to maroon petals, and unripe
mericarps are dark green to purplish green.
Distribution in Bulgaria: Forebalkan (Western
Vrashka Chuka), Soa Region, Znepole Region (Mt
Chepan and Mt Konyavska), Vitosha Region, ra-
cian Lowland (Stoevo village, Asenovgrad district and
Besaparski Hills), 200–1200 m (Plate III. 3). In dry
stony calcareous grasslands.
Global distribution: C Europe (Austria, Hungary
and the Czech Republic) and W and C parts of the
Balkans.
(15). B. pauciradiatum Fenzl ex Boiss., Fl. Orient. 2:
848. 1872; Stoyanov, Phytotaxa 365(2): 140. 2018; B.
asperuloides var. laxum Fenzl in Tchihatch., Asie Min.
Bot. 1: 418. 1860.
Type: Turkey, iter Cilicicum in Tauri alpes “Bulgar
Dagh”, supra Gülek, 30.06.1853, . Kotschy 78 (ho-
lotype W 0075794 – photo!; isotype LE 00015709 –
photo!).
Diagnostic characters and similar taxa: Branches
virgate, spreading or bending downwards, the longest
distinctly loose, petals 0.3–0.4 mm wide, distinctly pa-
pillose at bend, ripe fruits light brown, nely rugulose,
ribs obscure. Among the Bulgarian representatives, B.
asperuloides also has papillae on petal bend, but it has
four bracteoles (versus ve in B. pauciradiatum), the
petals are 0.7–0.8 mm wide, and the three vallecular
vittae stand out on the mericarp surface as three thin
parallel lines between the liform ribs.
Distribution in Bulgaria: Black Sea Coast (Northern
– above Bolata bay, Kaliakra Reserve) (Plate III. 4).
Global distribution: Turkey (S Anatolia and Mt
Amanos) and Bulgaria (locally – above Bolata bay,
Kaliakra Reserve).
(16). B. praealtum L., Fl. Monsp.: 12. 1756; Tutin, Fl.
Eur. 2: 347. 1968; Assenov, Fl. RP Bulg. 8: 118. 1982.
Lectotype: Dodoens, Stirp. Hist. Pempt.: 633 (le g-
ure), Snogerup in Davis, Fl. Turkey 4: 408. 1972.
= B. junceum L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2: 343. 1762; Velen., Fl.
Bulg.: 224. 1891a; Stoj. & Stef., Fl. Bulg. ed. 1, 2: 816.
1925; Stoj. & Stef., Fl. Bulg. ed. 2: 758. 1933 et op. c.
ed. 3: 834. 1948; Stoj., Stef. & Kitanov, Fl. Bulg. ed. 4,
2: 780. 1967.
= B. junceum var. multiorum Velen., Fl. Bulg.: 224.
1891a; Stoj. & Stef., Fl. Bulg. ed. 1, 2: 816. 1925; Stoj. &
Stef., Fl. Bulg. ed. 2: 758. 1933 et op. c. ed. 3: 834. 1948.
Diagnostic characters and similar taxa: Bracts three,
umbels 3-rayed, rays clearly divergent, almost equal,
bracteoles 4–5, distinctly shorter than the owers.
e leaves ± keel-shaped, folded along the midrib.
Mericarps are the largest among the representatives
of the genus, reaching 6 mm. By its habit, B. praeal-
tum is similar to B. aequiradiatum, but the latter has
58-rayed umbels, 45 bracts and its fruits are much
smaller, ca. 1.5 mm.
Distribution in Bulgaria: Across the country, up to
1200 m (Plate III. 5). In dry calcareous grasslands and
sparse scrubs, seldom on sandy and siliceous substrates,
from the plains up to the oak belt in the mountains.
Global distribution: C, S and SE Europe.
(17). B. tenuissimum L., Sp. Pl.: 238. 1753; Stoj. &
Stef., Fl. Bulg. ed. 3: 834. 1948; Stoj., Stef. & Kitanov,
Fl. Bulg. ed. 4, 2: 781. 1967; Tutin, Fl. Eur. 2: 348. 1968
(sub B. t. subsp. tenuissimum); Assenov, Fl. RP Bulg. 8:
124. 1982 (sub B. t. subsp. tenuissimum).
Lectotype: Linnaean Herbarium Stockholm no. 116.13
(S!), Reduron in Snogerup & Snogerup (ed.), Willde-
nowia 31: 264. 2001.
56 Stoyanov, S. • Bupleurum (Apiaceae) in Bulgaria
Plate I. Distribution maps of the Bupleurum species in Bulgaria:
1. B. rotundifolium; 2. B. falcatum subsp. falcatum; 3. B. falcatum subsp. cernuum; 4. B. longifolium; 5. B. ranunculoides; 6. B. apiculatum
( – herbarium records; – literature data; – herbarium and literature data).
57Phytol. Balcan. 28(1) • Soa • 2022
Plate II. Distribution maps of the Bupleurum species in Bulgaria:
1. B. avum; 2. B. odontites; 3. B. aequiradiatum; 4. B. ane; 5. B. asperuloides; 6. B. boissieri
(– herbarium records; – literature data; – herbarium and literature data).
58 Stoyanov, S. • Bupleurum (Apiaceae) in Bulgaria
Plate III. Distribution maps of the Bupleurum species in Bulgaria:
1. B. commutatum; 2. B. euboeum; 3. B. pachnospermum; 4. B. pauciradiatum; 5. B. praealtum; 6. B. tenuissimum
( – herbarium records; – literature data; – herbarium and literature data).
59Phytol. Balcan. 28(1) • Soa • 2022
Diagnostic characters and similar taxa: Glaucous
plant, bracts 4–5, fruits ± rounded, with yellowish ver-
rucae and conspicuous winged rugulose ribs, and style
up to 0.2 mm, shorter than the stylopodium radius. By
its long, spreading arcuate lateral branches, the species
can be confused with B. asperuloides, especially in the
owering stage. Among the Bulgarian representatives,
only B. tenuissimum and B. euboeum have warty for-
mations on the mericarp surface. However, the latter
has mericarps with whitish papillae (not yellowish),
obscure ribs, and styles 0.4–0.5 mm, longer than the
stylopodium radius.
Distribution in Bulgaria: Black Sea Coast, Northeast
Bulgaria, Danubian Plain, Balkan Range (Eastern),
Soa Region, Vitosha Region, Valley of River Struma
(Southern), Mt Sredna Gora (Western), Rhodopi Mts
(Western), racian Lowland, Tundzha Hilly Country,
Mt Strandzha, up to 700 m (Plate III. 6). It predomi-
nantly occurs in saline habitats, in the lower parts of
the country.
Global distribution: Europe, NW Africa and NW
part of Asia Minor.
Conclusion
e following changes have occurred as compared to
the last comprehensive taxonomic treatment of the ge-
nus Bupleurum by Assenov (1982): three new species
have been found for the Bulgarian ora – B. ranuncu-
loides, B. pauciradiatum and B. boissieri, and the dis-
tribution of the recently reported species B. euboeum
(Snogerup & Snogerup 2001) has been conrmed;
three taxa, B. baldense subsp. gussonei, B. gerardi and
B. tenuissimum subsp. gracile, erroneously recorded
for Bulgaria, have been excluded; and the misused
name, B. sibthorpianum, has been replaced with B. fal-
catum subsp. cernuum.
Acknowledgements. is research has received sup-
port from the SYNTHESYS Project (http://www.synthesys.
info/) funded by the European Commission (Grants CZ-
TAF-5909 and HU-TAF-2472). e author is grateful to
Rayna Natcheva and Georgi Stoyanov for preparation of
maps and gures.
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