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All content in this area was uploaded by Dennis Albert on May 14, 2022
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Philipp Schachinger1, Dennis Albert1, Rachel L. Bailey2,
1Institute of Electrical Power Systems, Graz University of Technology; 2Zentralanstalt für Meterologie und Geodynamik Austria
DCC Measurement #5
Geomagnetically Induced Currents and
Space Weather Prediction in Austria
Space Weather Prediction GIC Simulation and Measurement
Freeware tool LFC-Simulator (see QR code)
Electric field calculation
The electric field for the GIC calculation is either preset or calculated with the
1-D earth conductivity models
Power grid calculation
For the calculation of the GICs, we use the
. In combination
with transformer models, reactive power consumption and power quality are
calculated and analyzed.
Developing a forecasting model using machine learning (recurrent neural
26 years of data from 1995 till 2021
OMNI solar wind (back-propagated to the Lagrange-1 point)
Regional geoelectric field modelled from local geomagnetic variations
using the plane wave approach and a subsurface resistivity layer
model (validated against measured GICs in transformers after putting
the geoelectric field through a model of the power network).
Input: Solar wind data from the Lagrange-1 point with 2-hour history
(orange in plot)
Output: maximum expected geoelectric field in the next 30-min following
a minimum of ~20-min solar wind expansion time to Earth (red in plot).
The field is for the region of Austria, assumed to be homogenous due to
the small size of the country.
LSTM (Long Short-Term Memory recurrent neural network)
One model for Ex, one for Eycombine to forecast GICs at
Case Study: GMD May 12th 2021
•simulated and measured GIC for client #01 with peak current of -8 A
•max. measured current in client #05 was -13.8 A
Mitigation during GMD May 12th 2021
DC flux compensation system installed in multiple transformers
client #07 measured GIC and compensating current of system
each phase/wounded limb has its own compensation winding
Calculating per phase GIC and total GIC in transformer neutral
𝑛CW number of turns of compensation winding
𝐼comp primary current of compensation system
𝑛HV number of turns of high-voltage winding
Austria - Some Statistics
Population: 8.9 million
Size: 84 000 km2(600 km wide)
Neighbouring countries: Switzerland,
Germany, Czechia, Slovakia, Hungary,
Slovenia, Italy, Liechtenstein (8)
Geomagnetic latitude: 46°
Power Grid Operator: Austrian Power
No. of HV substations: 65
No. of GIC measurement devices: 9
An Austrian national space weather portal showing current space weather conditions
and detailing national research into space weather is currently under development!
Check back here in the next weeks to see the launch: https://cobs.zamg.ac.at
Bailey, R. L., Leonhardt, R.,
Möstl, C., Beggan, C., Reiss, M.
A., Bhaskar, A., & Weiss, A. J.
(2022). Forecasting GICs and
geoelectric fields from solar wind
data using LSTMs: Application in
Austria. Space Weather, 20,