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Waste management cycle emission projections: Liguria region case study

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Abstract

Comparative emission balance of the solutions to close the waste cycle for the Strategic Environmental Assessment of the 2021- 2026 Update of the Regional Plan for waste management and site remediation. The Plan was adopted by Regional Board on December 2021.
Waste management cycle emission projections: Liguria region case study
Carlo Trozzi
(carlo.trozzi@techne-consulting.com)
Task force on emission inventories &projections (TFEIP) - Expert Panel on Projections
9 May 2022 (Web)
!
Emission projections for waste management
cycle: Liguria region case study
Carlo Trozzi
(Techne Consulting, Roma)
Task force on emission inventories &projections (TFEIP)
Expert Panel on Projections
9 May 2022 (Web)
Waste management cycle emission projections: Liguria region case study
Carlo Trozzi
(carlo.trozzi@techne-consulting.com)
Task force on emission inventories &projections (TFEIP) - Expert Panel on Projections
9 May 2022 (Web)
!
Liguria region
a narrow strip of heavily populated land between the
sea and the mountains with many highways, three large
harbours including the largest Italian port, an airport,
two big power stations, a refinery, a steel mill
Waste management cycle emission projections: Liguria region case study
Carlo Trozzi
(carlo.trozzi@techne-consulting.com)
Task force on emission inventories &projections (TFEIP) - Expert Panel on Projections
9 May 2022 (Web)
!
Liguria Region evaluation tools
Øair quality monitoring system
Ømulti-years emission inventory from 1995 at
municipal level managed by E2Gov system
Øenergy balance elaboration and carbon footprint
estimate from 2005 at municipal level
Øemission projection model implemented with
2011 base year and projections at 5, 10, 15 years
Øexperiences in air quality models application
ØHorizon 2020 ClairCity project partner that has
apportioned emissions, concentrations, carbon
footprint, health outcomes by citizens’ behaviour
Waste management cycle emission projections: Liguria region case study
Carlo Trozzi
(carlo.trozzi@techne-consulting.com)
Task force on emission inventories &projections (TFEIP) - Expert Panel on Projections
9 May 2022 (Web)
!
CHIMERE
CALPUFF
Global
Biogenic
Emission
(MEGANE)
Global
models
boundary
conditions
Hourly gridded
pollutants
concentrations
Projection
WRF
Meteorological
Model
Global &
Local Meteo
Data
E2Plan - Tool for AQP & CF
Land Cover
Data
Regional,
municipal and
gridded emissions
Carbon
footprint
Regional, municipal
and gridded
scenario emissions
EC AQ
Directive
Compliance
Emission
Inventory
Energy
balance
Driving
forces
data
E2Gov
E2Port
E2Airport
E2Road
Waste management cycle emission projections: Liguria region case study
Carlo Trozzi
(carlo.trozzi@techne-consulting.com)
Task force on emission inventories &projections (TFEIP) - Expert Panel on Projections
9 May 2022 (Web)
!
Projections planning framework
In April 2022, at the end of the public consultation
and evaluation phase, a positive assessment was
expressed by the Regional Council regarding the
Strategic Environmental Assessment of the 2021-
2026 Update of the Regional Plan for waste
management and site remediation
The Plan was adopted by Regional Board on
December 2021, together with the Environmental
Report, including the impact study, comparative
emission balance of the solutions to close the waste
cycle, monitoring plan and non-technical summary
Waste management cycle emission projections: Liguria region case study
Carlo Trozzi
(carlo.trozzi@techne-consulting.com)
Task force on emission inventories &projections (TFEIP) - Expert Panel on Projections
9 May 2022 (Web)
!
Emissions projections in scenarios
ØEmissions projection are evaluated for the waste
flows forecasted in 2026 in Liguria region
ØThese flows are estimated to be in a range 160-
260 kton/year in input to mechanical-biological
treatment plants and 100-161 ktons/year
(min/max scenario) leaving the plants
ØA study was realized to evaluate the comparison
of the greenhouses gases and pollutants
emissions, among the different alternative
scenarios of final treatment
Waste management cycle emission projections: Liguria region case study
Carlo Trozzi
(carlo.trozzi@techne-consulting.com)
Task force on emission inventories &projections (TFEIP) - Expert Panel on Projections
9 May 2022 (Web)
!
Emissions evaluation 2026 scenarios
Mechanical
Treatment plant
landfilling
Waste-to-
energy
Waste-to-
chemicals
carbon footprint
balance with
electricity produced
carbon footprint
balance with fuel
produced
Waste management cycle emission projections: Liguria region case study
Carlo Trozzi
(carlo.trozzi@techne-consulting.com)
Task force on emission inventories &projections (TFEIP) - Expert Panel on Projections
9 May 2022 (Web)
!
Emissions: mechanical/biological
treatment plants
2019 Refinement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Volume 5: Waste
(https://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2019rf/vol5.htm)
EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2019, 5.B.2 Biological treatment of waste - anaerobic Digestion Biogas (2019)
(https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2019/part-b-sectoral-guidance-chapters/5-waste/5-b-2-biological-
treatment/view)
GHG/pollutant
EF
(g/Mg)
Emissions min
(Mg)
Emissions max
(Mg)
CH
4
2.000
320
520
CO
2eq
42.000
6.720
10.920
NH
3
227,1
36
59
input to mechanical/biological treatment plants
160-260 kton wastes
Waste management cycle emission projections: Liguria region case study
Carlo Trozzi
(carlo.trozzi@techne-consulting.com)
Task force on emission inventories &projections (TFEIP) - Expert Panel on Projections
9 May 2022 (Web)
!
Emissions scenarios: landfill disposal
Disposal of municipal, industrial and other
solid waste produces significant amounts of
methane. In addition landfilling also
produces biogenic carbon dioxide and non-
methane volatile organic compounds as well
as PM and other pollutants.
Methane emissions continue several decades (or even centuries)
after waste disposal. Likewise, methane emissions released from a
landfill in any given year include emissions from waste disposed that
year, as well as from waste disposed in prior years.
There are two commonly acceptable methods for estimating
methane emissions from solid waste disposal: first order of decay
(IPCC waste model Tier 2) and methane commitment (IPCC Tier 1)
°
°2019 Refinement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Volume 5: Waste
https://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2019rf/vol5.htm
Greenhouse Gas Protocol, Global Protocol for Community-Scale Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventories (GPC), An Accounting and
Reporting Standard for Cities https://ghgprotocol.org/sites/default/files/ghgp/standards/GHGP_GPC_0.pdf
Waste management cycle emission projections: Liguria region case study
Carlo Trozzi
(carlo.trozzi@techne-consulting.com)
Task force on emission inventories &projections (TFEIP) - Expert Panel on Projections
9 May 2022 (Web)
!
methane commitment estimate
takes a lifecycle and mass-
balance approach and
calculates emissions based
on the amount of waste
disposed in a given year,
regardless of when the
emissions actually occur (a
portion of emissions are
released every year after
the waste is disposed)
Waste management cycle emission projections: Liguria region case study
Carlo Trozzi
(carlo.trozzi@techne-consulting.com)
Task force on emission inventories &projections (TFEIP) - Expert Panel on Projections
9 May 2022 (Web)
!
Emissions: landfilling
An estimate of the biogas recovered was subtracted from the calculated quantity.
For the assessment of recovery, reference was made to the average percentage of
recovery (42%) from landfills assessed at national level. However, it should be
emphasized that the quantity of recoverable methane has decreased in recent
years due to the variation in the composition of the waste itself, therefore the
estimate is conservative and consequently the emissions could be underestimated.
Finally a sensitivity study was realized for the composition of waste; the variation
is very limited: in the order of -4% if we take street collection as a reference and in
the order of + 3% if we take door-to-door collection as a reference
GHG/pollutant
Emissions min
(Mg)
Emissions max
(Mg)
CH
4
2.926
1.229
CO
2eq
61.447
25.808
NMVOC
27
11
NH
3
21
9
1 t CO21 t CO2eq
1 t CH421 t CO2eq
1 t N2O310 t CO2eq
Waste management cycle emission projections: Liguria region case study
Carlo Trozzi
(carlo.trozzi@techne-consulting.com)
Task force on emission inventories &projections (TFEIP) - Expert Panel on Projections
9 May 2022 (Web)
!
Emissions factors: waste to energy
2006 IPCC Guidelines for National
Greenhouse Gas Inventories Volume 2
Energy, Chapter 2: Stationary Combustion
EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory
guidebook 2019, 5.C.1.a Municipal waste
incineration (2019)
Pollutants emission factors from EMEP/EEA
GB waste chapter. Efs assume that
desulphurization, NOx abatement (SNCR),
particle abatement (ESP and/or FB) and
activated carbon are in place. It can be
assumed that these emission factors are
representative for modern waste
incineration plants
As far as carbon dioxide is concerned, the
emissions are estimated as 50% of the
quantity actually emitted taking into
account the organic fraction of the waste
itself considered as neutral
Waste management cycle emission projections: Liguria region case study
Carlo Trozzi
(carlo.trozzi@techne-consulting.com)
Task force on emission inventories &projections (TFEIP) - Expert Panel on Projections
9 May 2022 (Web)
!
Emissions: waste to energy
GHG/pollutant
E max
CO
2eq
Mg
86.309
CO2
Mg
84.203
N2O
Mg
7
CH4
Mg
0
CO
Mg
6,6
NMVOC
Mg
0,9
NO
x
Mg
172,4
PM
10
Mg
0,5
PM
2,5
Mg
0,5
TSP
Mg
0,5
SO
x
Mg
14,0
NH
3
Mg
0,5
Black Carbon
kg
16,9
GHG/pollutant
E min
E max
As
kg
0,6
1,0
Cd
kg
0,5
0,7
Cr
kg
1,6
2,6
Cu
kg
1,4
2,2
Hg
kg
1,9
3,0
Ni
kg
2,2
3,5
Pb
kg
5,8
9,3
Se
kg
1,2
1,9
Zn
kg
2,5
3,9
Benzo(a)
pyrene
kg
0,8
1,4
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
kg
1,8
2,9
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
kg
1,0
1,5
Indenopyrene
kg
1,2
1,9
HCB
g
4,5
7,3
PCB
mg
0,3
0,5
PCDD
-F
mg
5,3
8,5
Waste management cycle emission projections: Liguria region case study
Carlo Trozzi
(carlo.trozzi@techne-consulting.com)
Task force on emission inventories &projections (TFEIP) - Expert Panel on Projections
9 May 2022 (Web)
!
waste to chemical
A Plant was planned for the
production of hydrogen and
methanol structured in a
series of macro-stages: first of
all the waste gasification
phase, followed by the
purification of the generated
syngas and, finally, the
treatment of the latter in a
catalytic reactor, a section in
which chemical
transformations take place,
for the synthesis of ethanol,
methanol and then hydrogen.
A preliminary evaluation of
the quantity of methanol and
hydrogen produced would
amount to 88,800 t / year and
1,440 t / year respectively.
From MIT energy initiative (https://energy.mit.edu/news/turning-waste-into-clean-fuels/)
Waste management cycle emission projections: Liguria region case study
Carlo Trozzi
(carlo.trozzi@techne-consulting.com)
Task force on emission inventories &projections (TFEIP) - Expert Panel on Projections
9 May 2022 (Web)
!
Emissions: waste to chemical
some preliminary calculations estimate the primary
energy consumption for the natural gas turbine
connected to the reactor of 154 -248 GWh in the
min/max hypothesis. The following emissions are
obtained with GB EFs for gas turbines
GHG/pollutant
Units
Emissions
min
Emissions
max
CO
2eq Mg
31.320
50.450
NO
xMg
26,6
42,8
COVNM
Mg
0,9
1,4
CO
Mg
2,7
4,3
Black
Carbon Kg
2,8
4,5
EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2019, 1.A.1Energy industries (2019)
Waste management cycle emission projections: Liguria region case study
Carlo Trozzi
(carlo.trozzi@techne-consulting.com)
Task force on emission inventories &projections (TFEIP) - Expert Panel on Projections
9 May 2022 (Web)
!
Direct emissions balance
GHG
pollutant
Emissions min Emissions max
MBT
land-
filling
waste to
energy
waste to
chemical
MBT land-
filling
waste to
energy
Waste to
chemicals
CO
2eq
Mg
6.720
53.608
31.318
10.920
86.309
50.452
CO
2
Mg
52.300
31.100
84.203
50.100
N
2O
Mg
4,2
0,6
7
0,9
CH
4
Mg
320
2,2
520
3,6
NO
x
Mg
107,1
26,6
172,4
42,8
COVNM
Mg
4,1
0,9
0,9
1,4
SO
x
Mg
8,7
0,2
14,0
0,3
NH
3
Mg
36
0,3
0,0
59
0,5
0,0
HMs
kg
17,6
0,1
28,3
0,2
PAHs
kg
4,7
0,0
7,6
0,0
BC
kg
10,5
2,8
16,9
4,5
HCB
g
4,5
0,0
7,3
0,0
PCB
mg
0,3
0,0
0,5
0,0
PCDD
-F
mg
5,3
0,0
8,5
0,0
Waste management cycle emission projections: Liguria region case study
Carlo Trozzi
(carlo.trozzi@techne-consulting.com)
Task force on emission inventories &projections (TFEIP) - Expert Panel on Projections
9 May 2022 (Web)
!
Carbon footprint projections
Considering the general goals of the project we
evaluated avoided emissions from electricity and
fuels produced by selected technologies in term of:
ØFuel (methanole-hydrogen) produced from
waste-to chemical process
ØElectricity produced by incineration with energy
recover
ØBiogas recovered from landfilling
Waste management cycle emission projections: Liguria region case study
Carlo Trozzi
(carlo.trozzi@techne-consulting.com)
Task force on emission inventories &projections (TFEIP) - Expert Panel on Projections
9 May 2022 (Web)
!
Carbon footprint waste-to-chemical
Assuming the substitution of methanol produced
with this process with methanol produced from
fossil sources, it is possible to evaluate the
reduction of CO2emissions for the production of
methanol, using an IPCC*emission factor of 0.67
Mg per Mg of methanol produced from natural gas
CO
2Units
Emissions
min
Emissions
max
Emissions
from electricity generation Mg
31.100
50.100
Savings
for substitution of methanol by natural gas Mg -
29.700
-
47.900
Final
emissions Mg
1.400
2.200
*2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Volume 3. Industrial Processes and Product Use.
Conventional Steam Reforming, without primary reformer (Default Process and Natural Gas Default Feedstock)
Waste management cycle emission projections: Liguria region case study
Carlo Trozzi
(carlo.trozzi@techne-consulting.com)
Task force on emission inventories &projections (TFEIP) - Expert Panel on Projections
9 May 2022 (Web)
!
Carbon footprint waste-to-energy
Carbon footprint landfill
The recovered biogas produce, in substitution of
natural gas a reduction of 170-230 Mg of CO2
Assuming a national average producibility *of
electricity from waste (760 kWh/Mg) and a
national emission factor #for CO2emissions from
electricity consumed (258,3 g CO2/kWh) we obtain
a reduction of emission of 19.631-31.606 Mg
2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Volume 2 Energy, Chapter 2: Stationary Combustion
°ISPRA, Rapporto rifiuti urbani, 2021
*ISPRA, Indicatori di efficienza e decarbonizzazione del sistema energetico nazionale e del settore elettrico, 2021
Waste management cycle emission projections: Liguria region case study
Carlo Trozzi
(carlo.trozzi@techne-consulting.com)
Task force on emission inventories &projections (TFEIP) - Expert Panel on Projections
9 May 2022 (Web)
!
Final carbon footprint emissions balance
GHG
pollutant
Emissions min Emissions max
MBT
land-
filling
waste to
energy
waste to
chemical
MBT land-
filling
waste to
energy
Waste to
chemicals
CO
2eq
Mg
6.720
33.971
1.618
10.920
84.582
54.694
2.552
CO
2
Mg
32.669
1.400
52.597
2.200
N
2O
Mg
4,2
0,6
7
0,9
CH
4
Mg
320
2,2
520
4.041
3,6
From a summary comparison of the emissions in
the different plant solutions considered, the waste
to chemicals solution appears significantly to have
the least impact both in terms of Carbon footprint
and air pollutants.
Waste management cycle emission projections: Liguria region case study
Carlo Trozzi
(carlo.trozzi@techne-consulting.com)
Task force on emission inventories &projections (TFEIP) - Expert Panel on Projections
9 May 2022 (Web)
!
The project team
ØRegione Liguria
ØCecilia Brescianini
ØBaroni Andrea
ØOteri Domenico
ØTechne Consulting
ØCarlo Trozzi
ØEnzo Piscitello
ØRita Vaccaro
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