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insecurity and brain drain in Nigerian universities

AIPGG Journal of Humanities and Peace Studies Vol. 3. NO 1.2022
ISSN: 2756-5831 (ONLINE)
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Insecurity and the escalation of brain drain in the Nigerian universities,
Asor Gbamwuan
Department of History and Diplomatic Studies
Kola Daisi University, Ibadan,
Oyo State-Nigeria
Princely Agu Agidi
Department of History
Benue State University,
Makurdi, Benue State
Nigeria faces a plethora of security challenges since her political independence.
The era of the military administrations was characterised by gross violations of
fundamental human rights, and economic hardship. Therefore, it was hoped that
the democratic resurgence in 1999 would put the 'sleeping giant' on the right
path for development. Sadly, the nation faces tense security challenges including
Boko-Haram terrorism, Banditry, Kidnapping, farmer-herders conflict, militancy,
and secessionist movements among numerous others, and this has stimulated a
brain drain in the Nigerian Universities. The study adopted a desk review
approach of both primary and secondary sources. The study is pillared on
Dependency, Nationalist, and Globalisation models to drive home the
underpinning arguments. While the concept of Brain Drain and Insecurity were
clarified in the context of this study. The study unveiled that insecurity has
escalated the brain drain in the Nigerian Universities with serious implications for
quality and knowledge-driven economy. The study, therefore, suggests the
strengthening of the Nigerian national security apparatuses, civil-military
relations, the adoption of modern security strategies in the Nigerian Universities,
and the engagement of the Nigerian government in unresolved issues including
unemployment, hunger, and a fight against corruption among others.
Keywords: Insecurity, Brain Drain, Globalization, Nigerian Universities
The search for better places of work and living by both skilled professionals and
individuals who have received advanced training in Nigeria has never been as
frightening as we now have. Nigeria, just like other African countries have over
the years been robbed of her best brains. This set of people move to developed
countries and use the basic and advanced knowledge they have acquired from
Nigeria to build and develop their host country. This current trend has been
attributed to so many causes including; unsolved security issues like killings,
kidnapping, destruction of properties, low wages, unfavourable working
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AIPGG Journal of Humanities and Peace Studies Vol. 3. NO 1.2022
ISSN: 2756-5831 (ONLINE)
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conditions, unemployment, and underemployment among numerous other
reasons. The reasons for brain drain in Nigeria are not unconnected with the
search for better and more secure places to live. Besides, man as a social being
from time immemorial craves to live in a safer and more profitable environment
or society. As a wanderer, the man was conscious of the favourable
environment to make a living. The period of the Neolithic Revolution led to a
sedentary lifestyle and the best places for habitation were put into
consideration. For example, places that had abundant water, security zones, and
fertile land were chosen as areas for habitation. The ancient Egyptians lived on
the bank of the River Nile for agricultural purposes, communication, and trade
route across a vast and harsh land.1 In Nigeria, the towns of Bonny, Opobo
Town, Okrika, Buguma, Brass, Forcados, Creek Town, and Calabar grew from
coastal fishing and salt-trading villages. Hitherto, human beings have continued
to search for profitable places to live and this is the logic behind rural-urban
migration, urban-rural migration, rural-rural migration, and urban-urban
migration in modern times.
Brain drain which simply stands for an intellectual and skilled migration is
anchored on this phenomenon of searching for better conditions of habitation
and gains. Arising from this logic, brain drain becomes a philosophy of moving
from developing countries to the industrialised nations in the contemporary
world order. The flight of human and natural resources hitherto underscores
the underdevelopment of the global south. Reinforcing this debate Robyn, Guo,
and Rozario noted that; ‘Human capital is the most important form of wealth for
a modern nation. Countries with the most intellectual resources achieve the
highest rates of economic growth and the fastest development in science and
technology’.2 America is the world power today while the Asian Tigers are on
the rise because of their human resources buried in technological and scientific
This study, therefore, interrogates the worsening security challenges and their
implications for brain drain in Nigerian universities since the resurgence of the
Fourth Republic. The choice of this academic investigation is pillared on the
premise that scholars in various academic disciplines have tried to examine
these underpinning issues from different perspectives rather than the one
under study. For instance, Emeka and Iheonu; Osigbesan; Imafidon, among
many others have discussed the grave consequences of brain drain in the health
sector and their implications for the survival of the Nigerian state.3 In a similar
vein, Maja; Hallack and Poisson; Ekereke; Kpolovie and Obilor; Saint, Harrnet,
1 accessed, 22-02-2022.
2 Robyn, I. Guo, F. and Rozario, S. (eds.) (2003). Return Migration in the Asia Pacific,
United Kingdom Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
3 Emeka, N., and Iheonu (2012). Medical Brain Drain in Nigeria and its Impact on
Sustainable Development Goal 3. Osigbesan, O. (2021). ‘Medical Brain Drain and its Effect
on the Nigerian Health Care Sector’, Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies Collection.
Imafidon, J. (2018). ‘One Way Traffic: Nigeria’s Medical Brain Drain, A Challenge for
Maternal Health and Public Health System in Nigeria?’. M.A. Dissertation, Los Angels:
University of California.
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and Strassner, have looked at critical reasons that stimulated intellectual brain
drain in Nigeria's Higher Institutions of learning including inadequate funding
for education, low wages, the poor state of infrastructural facilities,
victimisation of academic staff, interference of government in institution’s
internal affairs, introduction and implementation of obnoxious policies by the
government, incessant strikes, students unrest, cultism et cetera.4 While on
their part, Bakoji; Mac-Gregor; John; Warren, and Burnt; all corroborated that
leadership deficit or dearth in Nigeria is a strategic issue for brain drain.5 From
this avalanche of literature, it is obvious that the attention of scholars has not
been adequately given to emerging forms of insecurity in Nigeria (terrorism,
banditry, kidnapping, et cetera) as a potent factor for the escalation of brain
drain in the Nigerian Universities in the Fourth Republic. Therefore, this study
is a bridge to this existing vacuum in academic discourse. This is because the
deteriorating nature of security in contemporary Nigeria has made the nation a
source of worry, fear, and confusion to live and contribute intellectually to the
development of the nation hence brain flight.
Conceptual Issues
Insecurity is a broad term that has attracted scholarly investigation, especially
its centrality to peace, protection, and human development generally. Achumba,
Igbomereho, and Akpor-Robaro disclose that:
Insecurity is a state of being subject to danger, expose to risk
or anxiety... lack of institutional capacity resulting in
government failure; pervasive material inequalities and
unfairness; ethnoreligious conflicts; conflict of perceptions
between the public and government; weak security system;
loss of socio-cultural and communal value system ... porous
borders; rural/urban drift; social irresponsibility of
companies; unemployment/poverty; terrorism.6
4 Maja, T. ‘Nigeria Education Sector Analysis: Analytical Synthesis of Performance and
Main Issues’, World Bank Paper. Hallack, J. and Poisson, M. (2007). ‘Corruption Schools:
Corrupt Universities: What can be Done’, Paris International Institute of Educational
Planning. Ekereke, A.S. (2013). ‘The Effects of Boko-Haram Insurgency and the School
System: A Case Study of Selected States in Northern Nigeria’, Science Journal of Sociology
and Anthropology, pp. 11-15. Kpolovie, P.J. and Obilor, I.E. (2013). ‘Adequacy-Inadequacy:
Education Funding in Nigeria’, Universal Journal of Education and General Studies, Vol.2.
No. 8. Pp.239-254. Saint, W., et al, (2003). ‘Higher Education in Nigeria: A Status Report’,
Higher Education Policy, Vol. 16, pp. 250-280.
5 Baroji, S. (2006). ‘All our Leaders are Corrupt-Ribadu’, Independence Daily, Vol. 3, No.
1012 (July 19th ). Mac-Gregor, J.B. (2010). Leadership, New York: Harper Touch Books.
John, G. (1990). On Leadership, New York: The Free Press. Warren, B. and Burnt, N. (1997).
Leaders: Strategies for Taking Charge, New York: Harper-Collins.
6 Achumba, I.C. et al, (2013). ‘Security Challenges in Nigeria and the Implication for
Business Activities and Sustainable Development’, Journal of Economics and Sustainable
Development’, Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, Vol. 4, No. 2.
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This implies that insecurity is all-encompassing; from physical, socio-economic,
political, ethno-religious, and so forth. Sharing a similar opinion, Adebanjoko,
and Ugwuoke cited in Zubairu avail that; ‘insecurity is the State of being subject
in every respect to terror, threat, risk, molestation, bullying, and harassment.7
Onoja sums up this argument concisely; ‘Insecurity is peoples’ relative feeling of
the presence of economic, political, social, cultural and psychological fear’. He
elaborated that:
Of these forms of insecurity, the one that is most common
and triggers consciousness of other forms of insecurity is
economic insecurity. Economic insecurity spawned other
forms of insecurity into existence. In simple terms, economic
insecurity is the absence of jobs, basic health care, accessible
drinking water, education, life-enhancing opportunities, and
creating policies that cater to the short, medium, and long
term needs of the different cadre of the population. It is the
absence of basic economic and social infrastructure that
would avail citizens the opportunity to cater to their welfare.
The non-provision of these has created conditions of
political, cultural, and psychological exclusion detrimental to
In Nigeria today, the socio-economic aspect of insecurity is the order of the day.
The root causes of this form of security problem are corruption which manifests
in leadership failure. Apart from economic insecurity, the Nigerian state has
been engrossed in other forms of security challenges including militancy in the
south-south, the terrorist activities of Boko-Haram insurgency in the north-east,
Banditry, and kidnapping in the north-west, farmer-herder conflicts in the
north-central Nigeria, separatist insurgency in the south-east, among others.
These forms of security challenges according to Audu Bulama Bukarti, a senior
analyst on Sahel security at the Tony Blair Institute, ‘threatens the very fabric of
Nigerian society: With every attack, human lives are lost or permanently
damaged and faith in democracy and the country is diminishing’.9 These aspects
of security challenges form the trust and debate for brain drain in this work.
Brain Drain
The concept of brain drain is used both in academic and non-academic sectors.
In academia, it is the migration of intellectuals out of the underdeveloped or
developing nations to developed or industrialised nations to sell their labour.
In the non-academic literature, the term is generally used in a narrower sense
and relates more specifically to the migration of engineers, physicians,
7 Zubairu, N. (2020). ‘Rising Insecurity in Nigeria: Causes and Solutions’. Journal of Studies
in Social Sciences, Vol. 9, No.4, p.3.
8 Onaja, A. F. (2014). ‘In the Search of the Causes of Insecurity in Nigeria: A Note on
Administrations and their Agendas, Journal of Conflictology, Vol. 5, Issue 1, p.15.
9 Audu Bulama Bukarti was a senior analyst on Sahel security at the Tony Blair Institute.
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scientists, and other very highly skilled professionals with university training.10
To Hart, brain drain as a concept is ambiguous and should be better considered
as High Skill Migration (HSM). HSM as he tagged is the ‘migration of persons
with increased levels of skill and education who, if they stayed could contribute
significantly to the development of the country’.11 On this note, Dodani and
LaPorte provide an illustration of brain drain in the health sector when they
declared that; 'It is the migration of health personnel in search of the better
standard of living and quality of life, higher salaries, access to advanced
technology and more stable political conditions in different places worldwide.12
They warned that; 'this migration of health professionals for better
opportunities, both within countries and across international borders is of
growing concern worldwide because of its impact on health systems in
developing countries. In Nigeria for instance, there is a great dearth of health
workers. The ratio of doctors to the patient is 1: 2753 which means, there are
36.6 medical doctors for 100, 000 persons.13 Sadly, 12 doctors a week moved to
the United Kingdom (UK) in search of better opportunities.14 Francis summed
up the forgoing discussion that in a situation whereby a country loses its most
educated and talented workers to other countries through migration is what
brain drain is all about.15 The loss of brain has a gross effect on all facets of the
economy including loss of tax revenue, loss of future entrepreneurs, lack of
critical skilled workers, loss of economic confidence, innovative knowledge, and
a huge sum of educational investment among other things.
Theoretical Structure for Analysis
The comprehensiveness of this work bows on theoretical examination that can
address sensitive questions in the course of analyses. Without theoretical bases,
the question of why people in poor nations seek better abode in rich and
powerful nations cannot be adequately analysed. Also, why industrialised
nations need professionals and intellectuals from less developed countries can
never be adequately explained among other numerous questions. Arising from
this reason, world-system theory presents itself for critical evaluation of these
contending questions. One among the proponent of the world system theory is
10 Dodami, S. and LaPorte, R. E. (2020). ‘Brain Drain from Developing Countries: How can
Brain Drain be Converted into Wisdom Again?’, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine,
Royal Society of Medicine Press.
11 Hart, D.M. (2006). ‘From Brain Drain to Mutual Gain: Sharing the Benefits of High-Skill
Migration’. Issues in Science and Technology, Fall. Accessed on 21-02-2022.
12 Docquiera, F and Rapoport, H. (2006). ‘The Brain Drain’, A New Entry for the New
Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (second edition), p.2.
13 Ogunode, N.J., Ahmed L, Gregory, D, and Abubakar, L. (2020). ‘Administration of Public
Educational Institutions in Nigeria: Problem and Suggestion. European Scholar Journal
(ESJ), Vol. 1 No.3, pp:1-11.
14 Eromo, E. (2019). ‘Nigeria Must Tackle its Doctor Brain Drain’, The African Report.
15 Francis, J. (2022). ‘What is Brain Drain in Economics? Definition, Causes, Effects, and
Examples’. Accessed on, 22-02-22.
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Immanuel Wallerstein and his work had its root in at least three schools of
thought or philosophies. Thus, the Annals school was represented by Fernand
Braudel, the Marxist school represented by Karl Marx and Fredrick Engels, and
the dependency theory.16 Other political and economic thinkers in this group
are the neo-Marxists including Karl Polanyi, Nikolai Kondratiev, and Joseph
Schumpeter.17 Their various studies gave impetus for Wallerstein’s studies
which were presented and published variously; The Rise and Future Demise of
the World Capitalist System: Concepts for Comparative Analysis, in 1974. Then,
his most important work - The Modern World-System I: Capitalist Agriculture
and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century
appeared in three volumes in 1974, 1980, and 1989.
Wallerstein traced the root of European imperialism up to colonialism and its
effects on the colonies. To demonstrate his critical arguments, he postulated the
core and periphery hypotheses. Although, his arguments did not streamline the
fact that the periphery was exploited by the core nations. Rather, he projected
the nature of capitalism which centres on the accumulation of surplus value
hence his radical departure from the dependency school of thought. The
dependency theory saw this relationship as creating underdevelopment in the
global south. Wallerstein cited in Sorinel argued that:
A world system is what Wallerstein terms a "world
economy", integrated through the market rather than a
political center, in which two or more regions are
interdependent concerning necessities like food, fuel, and
protection, and two or more polities compete for domination
without the emergence of one single center forever.18
The core nations have political stability, technological know-how, economic
buoyancy, and better socio-economic organisation. While the periphery is
unstable politically, economically, and socially among other things and this is
where the Wallerstein thesis locates the central logic behind the issue of brain
drain in the peripheral countries of the world. Reinforcing these polemics,
Kardulias averred that:
The core state incorporates periphery areas into the
capitalist world economy because these marginal regions
often contain important natural resources. Through political
and economic control of the system, Wallenstein contends,
core states exploit the labour and material resources of the
16 Barfield, T. (ed.) (1998). The dictionary of anthropology, Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 498499.
17 Dodami, S. and LaPorte, R. E. (2020). ‘Brain Drain from Developing Countries: How can
Brain Drain be Converted into Wisdom Again?’, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine,
Royal Society of Medicine Press.
18 Sorinel, C. (2022) ‘Immanuel Wallerstein’s World System Theory’, Lecture material,
Ovidius Universitaty Constana Facultaty of Economic Sciences, p. 221.
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peripheral areas and receive a disproportionately large
share of the surplus or benefit.19
The debate by Kardulias presents the potency of the nationalist model in this
discourse. Proponents of the nationalist model are Don Patinkin, and K.N.
Kabra, among numerous others.20 These scholars shared the central view that
each nation must produce and use its human capital. Their contention stems
from the premise that brain drain is dangerous and harmful to the emerging
economies of the global South and that it unduly benefits recipient countries.
Thus, Kabra succinctly captures this scenario when he said that the global
north; 'takes away by another hand (and in larger quantities) what it gives with
one hand as donations or aid to the global south."21 (emphasis is mine). Thus,
the developing Third World incurs a loss through wicked world economic
relations of the neo-imperialist class. Critiques rightly observed that the
nationalist ideology is premised on a lack of critical evaluation of the challenges
that stimulate brain drain in less developed countries of the world. There are
domestic security challenges that push these people to better places in the
world. To curb the issue of brain drain the nationalists suggest restrictive
mechanisms as a policy option. Here again, critics and political commentators
reminded them that globalisation whose impact has dismantled physical
boundaries leads to the inevitability of a brain drain conundrum.
Reasoning from the counter position of the nationalist ideology is the
internationalist model. They underscored the fact that brain drain is a mutually
beneficial exchange of human and fiscal capital in the world labour market.
Ansah captured the internationalist perspective that
Human beings voluntarily seek the highest reward
commensurate with their education and training, and the
trend reflects voluntary choices made by migrants... It
assumes that, all things being equal, migration will be based
on the demand and supply forces in the labor market and
how well a worker can take advantage of or use acquired
Harry Johnson saw nothing wrong with this situation and as such tagged brain
drain as a ‘short term loss if at all any’, and can be easily replaced by new skilled
19 Kardulias, P.N. (2010). ‘World System Applications for Understanding the Bronze Age in
the Eastern Mediterranean; accessed on 22-02-
20 Kabra, K.N. (1976). Political Economy of Brain Drain: Reverse Transfer of Technology,
New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann.
21 Kabra, K.N. (1976). Political Economy of Brain...p.16.
22 Ansah, E.E.(2002). ‘Theorizing the Brain Drain’. African Issues, Vol. 30, No. 1, p.21.
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workers trained in those various fields.23 One of the few losses that proponents
such as Johnson are willing to acknowledge is the loss in tax revenue to the
government from these professionals, who would have been earning relatively
high salaries. He was blindfolded to appreciate the loss arising from the cost of
training such professionals and even the time duration to replace them.
Finally, the globalisation model rationalises that brain drain thesis. The model
suggests that brain drain should rather be put in its rightful perspective as
'brain distribution or circulation' given the dynamics of the contemporary
global village. One of the characteristics of globalisation is the erosion of the
physical barriers concomitant sharing of ideas. Therefore, the globalisation
model which nationalists see as an adverse factor becomes a major tool for
maintaining a vibrant, virtual international network of professionals. But we
should be reminded that globalisation is a fast-moving train that has left most of
the countries in the global south their inherent benefits. Unless underdeveloped
countries are well-positioned to tap its benefits otherwise the idea of 'brain
circulation' would remind a mirage.
Historical Narratives on Brain Drain in Nigeria: the Insecurity Perspective
Beginning from the birth of Nigeria as a political entity in 1960, several security
problems confronted the nation that drove numerous professionals and
academia out of the country. Among these numerous factors were coups and
counter-coups. The first coup which stimulated ceaseless coups and counter-
coups in Nigeria was master-minded by Major Kaduna Nzeogwu in 1966.24 The
coup ushered in the rule of Major General Johnson Aguiyi Ironsi, the then
commander-in-chief of the army, replacing Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa the
Head of State. The coup particularly generated suspicion and exacerbated
ethnic politics in the Nigerian military whose end-product was a series of ethnic
and tribal counter-coups.25 For example, from 1966 to 1993, a good number of
coups were recorded including the July 1966 coup led by Lt. Colonel Murtala
Muhammad, the July 1975 coup coordinated by a faction of Junior Army
Officers, the 1976 coup led by Dimka, the December 1983 coup lead by Senior
Army Officers, the August 1985 coup lead by Major General Ibrahim Babangida,
the alleged Vatsa coup of December 1985, the Major Gideon Orkar coup of 1990,
the Sani Abacha coup of August 1993.26 Generally, the military often justifies
their coups on bad governance whereas their various administrations were
characterised by bad governance and a high level of human rights violations
leading to a brain drain in all sectors of the Nigerian economy, including the
university system.
23 Harry J. (1968). ‘The Internationalist Perspective,’ in Walter, A. (ed). The Brain Drain,
New York: Macmillan, pp. 92-108.
24 First, R. (1970). Power in Africa. New York: Pantheon Books.
25 First, R. (1970). Power in Africa, p. 210.
26 Omoigui, N. Nowamagbe. ‘Special Branch Report: ‘Military Rebellion of 15th January
1966". accessed on 15-03-2022.
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Those various military administrations committed a lot of atrocities that
pushed a good number of intellectuals and professionals out of Nigerian soil.
Specifically, General Babangida and General Sani Abacha’s regimes were
accused of mostly violating the fundamental human rights of the citizens.
Nwachukwu, Aghamelo, and Nwaneri were more forthcoming when they
observed that:
Human rights records in Nigeria particularly under the
military era from 1985 to 1998, which covered the Generals
Ibrahim Badamosi Babangida and Sani Abacha regimes,
witnessed high levels of human rights abuses and violations
in the country. Instructively, there was perhaps no basic
right that was abridged in the period under review. There
was military brutality against the civil populace, cases of
extra-judicial killings soared, access to justice by ordinary
Nigerians was severely restricted, and international
passports and other travelling documents of individuals and
officials were seized with impunity to prevent opposition
and cow articulate critics of the juntas into submission... To
worsen matters, the unconstitutional practice of arresting
relations in place of accused persons-whether factual or
fabricated-among other vices intensified the level of
insecurity in the country.27
Some dangerous human rights violations and atrocities committed by General
Babangida and General Sani Abacha’s regimes were the detention of some
Nigeria Labour Congress in 1988, the enactment of the Teaching Decree in 1993
which compelled striking workers to resume within one week or lose their jobs,
the jailing of Chief M.K.O. Abiola, General Olusegun Obasanjo, Chief Frank
Kokori and countless others followed.28 Press or media houses were shut down,
and fire-bombed by unknown persons who always were never apprehended by
the police authority. Also on the 10th of November, 1995 Kenule Beeson Saro
Wiwa, the Ogoni liberation fighter was murdered by hanging together with
eight other members of the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People
(MOSOP) activists.29 The assassination of Kudirat Abiola in June 1996 was
another grave violation of the fundamental human right to live. Kudirat was the
wife of Chief M.K.O. Abiola, the acclaimed winner of the annulled 1993
presidential election. The 79-year-old Chief Alfred Rewane was murdered in
October 1995 in his house in Lagos. While the leader of Afenifere Chief
Abraham Adasanya and Alex Ibru the publisher of the Guardian Newspaper
27 Nwachukwu, S.N., Aghamelo, A., and Nwaneri, S. (2014). ‘An Account of Human Right
Violations in Nigeria (Pre-British, British and Post Independence)’. European Scientific
Journal (special edition). Vol.2. p.234.
28 Nwachukwu, S.N., Aghamelo, A., and Nwaneri, S. (2014). ‘An Account of Human...’p.235.
29 Aron, R. (1996), Peace and War. New York: Doubleday, p.32.
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narrowly escaped assassination attempts.30 Other assassinated victims of this
period were the late Comrade Ola Oni, a retired university teacher; Alhaji Lam
Adesina, the incumbent civilian governor of Oando, and numerous others not
mentioned here.31
The high level of insecurity at this point pushed pro-democracy activists such as
Professor Wole Soyinka, the first African Nobel Laureate for Literature, Chief
Anthony Enahoro, the man who moved the motion for internal self-government
in 1953, General Alani Akinrinade, former army chief; and Chief Cornelius
Adebayo, the former executive governor of Kwara State, into self-exile.32
Instances of bombs explosion were common, especially in Lagos, the
commercial hub of Nigeria, Ibadan, Port Harcourt, Ilorin, Zaria, Kano, and
Kaduna. General Sani Abacha also threw a good number of journalists into
prison for several years without trial including George Mbah of the Tell weekly
magazine, Kunle Ajibade of The News, Ben Charles-Obi, editor of the now-
defunct Classique magazine, and the erudite female journalist, Chris Anyanwu.
These journalists were tortured in detention.33 All these developments raised
tensions and made Nigeria very unsafe for businesses, teaching, and research by
the university dons et cetera. They also account for why Nigeria ranked very
high among countries that were accused of violating human rights and the list is
endless. Insecurity as a result of human rights violations by the military
dictators stimulated brain drain by 1988 a presidential committee for Brain-
Drain headed by Prof. Oye Ibidapo-Obe revealed that Nigeria lost about 10, 694
professionals in the tertiary sector alone.34 Also, during the Abacha's autocratic
rule, the Nigerian Health Minister, Dr. Ikechukwu Madubuike lamented that a
staggering 21,000 Nigerian doctors were practicing in the US, while several
health institutions in the country lack adequate manpower.35 It was the general
yearnings of the entire Nigerian citizens that the resurgence of the democratic
governance in 1999 would stem the tide of the general decades of insecurity
accompanied by the military administrations. Therefore, the remaining
segments of this chapter examine the fourth republic and its inherent security
contradictions leading to brain drain in Nigeria's University sector.
The Dynamics of Insecurity in Nigeria since 1999 and their Implications
on the University System
Most Nigerians and the international community expected that the democratic
resurgence of the Fourth Republic in Nigeria would ensure the security of lives
30 Egwaikhide, F.O. and Isumonah, F.A. (2001). ‘Nigeria Paralysed: Socio-political Life
under General Sani Abacha’. Africa Development / Afrique et Développement, Vol. 26, No. 3-
4. P.230.
31 Egwaikhide, F.O. and Isumonah, F.A. (2001). ‘Nigeria Paralysed...’, p.230.
32 Egwaikhide, F.O. and Isumonah, F.A. (2001). ‘Nigeria Paralysed...’, p.230.
33 Tell Magazine, 10th August 1998.
34 Adegoke, B. Y. (2019, April 25). Does Nigeria have too many Doctors to Worry About a
“Brain Drain”? BBC News. Accessed
35 Adegoke, B. Y. (2019, April 25). Does Nigeria have too ... p.16.
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and property, respect for human liberty, and rule of law, among other
democratic ethos. Democracy, in theory, is the best system of government hence
it is a people-oriented government. It is far better than monarchy, aristocracy,
dictatorship et cetera. It is in this wise that Abraham Lincoln cited in Becker and
Raveloson looked at democracy as ‘government of the people, by the people and
for the people’.36 However, Nigerian democracy between 1999 and 2021 has
posed daunting security challenges that are instrumental to brain drain. First is
the phenomenon of ‘Do or Die Affairs politics’, ‘god-son and god-father politics’,
'prebendal politics’ et cetera which created a lot of political and electoral
violence in the Nigerian state. The 2002 electoral violence in wannune, the
2003/2004 electoral violence in kwande, the 2006 electoral violence in Gwer,
and the 2007 electoral violence in Buruku, all in Benue State are clear
indications of the democratic failures.37
In other parts of Nigeria, the electoral violence emerged with the assassination
of prominent Nigerians in the likes of Dr. Marshall Harry, regional campaign
coordinator of All Nigeria’s People Party (ANPP), Chief Bola Ige, a strong leader
of Alliance for Democracy (AD) and Anthony General and Minister of Justice.38
Specifically, in Rivers state over 280 pre-election deaths were recorded in
2007.39 Bakare reported how the 2011 election claimed over 800 lives over
three days in Northern Nigeria and displaced 65,000 people.40 Alao
corroborated this argument which summarises the incidences and fatalities of
the 2019 general election in Nigeria in the following way:
North Central: 23 incidents, 111 people killed, North East: 16
incidents, 146 people killed, North West: 20 incidents, 172
people killed, South East: 7 incidents, 14 people killed,
South-South: 59 incidents, 120 killed; and South West: 36
incidents, 63 killed when the incident and fatality numbers
are parsed on a state-by-state basis, Benue, Borno, Kaduna,
Rivers and Zamfara, lead the casualty figures. From an
analysis of the period of study which covers a period of 127
36 Becker, P. and Raveloson, J. A. (2008). What is Democracy? Realized by KMF-Cnoe and
Nova Stella with the assistance of the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (FES) and with the
collaboration of Friedel Daiber (University of Trier), p.4.
37 Gbamwuan, A., et al, (2020). ‘Wannune Electoral Violence of 2002: Implications for
Development in the 21st Century Tivland’. African Journal of Peace and Conflict Studies, Vol.
9, No. 3.p. 169.
38 IRI/NDI (2019). Nigerian International Election Observation Mission Report 2019.
Retrieved from https://www.iri-fndi-nigerian-international-election-observationmission-
39 The International Crisis Group and Human Right Watch, 2007.
40 Bakare, T. (2018). ‘Boko Haram Releases Kidnapped UNIMAID Lecturers’, in the
Guardian Newspaper, accessed on;
kidnapped-unimaid-lecturers/. 09-03-2022.
Electronic copy available at:
AIPGG Journal of Humanities and Peace Studies Vol. 3. NO 1.2022
ISSN: 2756-5831 (ONLINE)
12 or
days, about 15% of all incidents, and 20% of all fatalities
occurred on election day.41
Therefore, the electoral process and elections in specific poses daunting
challenges for democratic governance in Nigeria hence the migration of
professionals and intellectuals in the Fourth Republic.
Militancy has been on the rise, especially before the creation of the Ministry of
Niger Delta by President Umaru Musa Yar’ Adua in September 2008. Although,
the struggle began with the likes of Isaac Adaka Baro in 1966, leader of the
Niger Delta Volunteer Force (NDVF), Ledum Mitee, the leader of the Movement
for the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP), as a result of neglect of the Ogoni
land by the Transnational Companies (TNCs).42 At the initial stage of these
movements, the fundamental challenge was coordination but this had its
watershed when Ken Saro-Wiwa began to influence the young Ijo leaders who
were critical of their present and future fate and were resolved to take their
destinies into their own hands.43 Therefore, numerous other emancipation
groups that became violent and labelled as militancy with terrorising activities
emerged. Examples, the Movement for Emancipation of Niger Delta (MEND),
Uhrobo’s Niger Delta Green Justice Mandate in Delta state, the Bakassi Strike
Force in Cross River, and the Oyobio-Oyobio in Akwa Ibom, to name a few.
While Individuals such as Ateke Tom, Asari Dokubo, Sobomabo Jackrich
(Egberi-Papa), Farah Dagogo, and the late Soboma George are well-known for
their militancy activities.44 The activities of the militancy pushed a good
number of TNCs and intellectuals out of the shores of Nigeria hence they needed
to strive for a safer and more profitable environment.
In the North, Boko-Haram terrorist group has devastated the security of lives
and property. The activities of this group targeted government institutions,
churches, mosques, and market centres, among others. This created an unsafe
environment for University intellectuals hence university institutions were not
left out of the target especially in the North-East, the epicentre of the Boko-
Haram terrorist group. Corroborating this position, Okocha averred that:
There was also a direct attack on the school in late 2014
when the group entered offices and workshops, destroying
files and stealing equipment such as drilling and welding
machines, making off with them in university buses...The
closure forced many students and staff to leave the region
(North-East). We lost the lives of some of our students due
41 Alao, A. (2021). ‘Electoral Violence in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic: Implication for
Democratic Development’. Journal of Administrative Science, Vol.18, Issue 2. pp. 335-336.
42 Banigo, Y. (2008). 'The War is Not Over: The Ijo Struggle in the Post-Civil War Era’.
Adejo, A. M. (ed.) The Nigerian Civil War Forty Years After What Lessons, Makurdi: Aboki
Publishers, pp. 360-372.
43 Banigo, Y. (2008). 'The War is Not Over...’ p. 372.
44 The Fund for Peace, 2017.
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13 or
to the insurgency... For students who left, their parents were
afraid of bringing them back to places like Mubi because
Mubi has been the worst hit by Boko Haram in Adamawa
[State]. Some of our lecturers, especially from the south, did
not come back.45
Furthermore, Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack reinforces that:
Dozens of schools and universities in Nigeria were bombed
or set on fire by violent extremists, killing hundreds of
students, teachers, and other education personnel. The
University of Maiduguri was targeted repeatedly. Schools
were used as barracks, weapons caches, and detention and
killing centers. Hundreds of students were abducted from
classrooms, particularly girls, many of whom were then
forced into marriage.46
As observed variously, the attacks left some lecturers never to return to the
North-Eastern region. The activities of Boko-Haram terrorism sent some
unfortunate lecturers and students to their early graves. There are numerous
examples to drive home this argument but the sequel to mention is the instance,
at the University of Maiduguri (UNIMAID) where two lecturers, two
technologists, and a driver were killed in 2016. The onslaught on the five
University lecturers of the department of geology together with the staff of the
Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) team on oil exploration lead
to their untimely deaths. 47 The kidnapping of the University lecturers by Boko-
Haram terrorists was also on the rise. For example, in July 2017 three lecturers
of the UNIMAID were kidnapped by the Boko Haram faction headed by Abu
Mus’ab Al-Barnawi and were released by negotiation with the Nigerian federal
government.48 These attacks on the Nigerian University lecturers projected the
volatile nature of the academia in the Nigerian polity hence the need for
overseeing work by this category of professionals.
Added to the above security challenges are the activities of banditry and
farmers-herders conflicts. These posed serious daunting challenges for the
45 Okocha, S. (2020). ‘North East universities press on in the shadow of Boko Haram’,
University World News, African Edition. Accessed on; 09-03-
46 Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack (2018). ‘ Education Under Attack
2018 Nigeria’., available at: [accessed 9 March 2022]
47 Haranu, A. (2017).Boko Haram NNPC Ambush: UNIMAID ASUU confirms five staff dead, four
missing. Premium Times, accessed on;
boko-haram-nnpc-ambush-unimaid-asuu-confirms-five-staff-dead-four-missing.html. 09-03-2022.
48 Bakare, T. (2018). ‘Boko Haram Releases Kidnapped UNIMAID Lecturers’, in the
Guardian Newspaper, accessed on;
kidnapped-unimaid-lecturers/. 09-03-2022.
Electronic copy available at:
AIPGG Journal of Humanities and Peace Studies Vol. 3. NO 1.2022
ISSN: 2756-5831 (ONLINE)
14 or
Nigerian academics to live in staff quarters, travel for conferences, or visit other
universities, especially on road hence most of the roads are unsafe. The Global
Upfront Newspaper reported the issue of how four lecturers of the University of
Abuja (Uniabuja), were kidnapped by the bandits in the Giri Staff quarters,
along the Abuja-Lokoja Expressway.49 Among these abducted scholars were
Prof. Bassey Ubong (together with his nine-year-old son, and housemaid), the
Deputy Registrar, Malam Mohammed Sambo, and Prof. Sumaila Obansa Joseph
(with his son), and Dr. Tobins Ferguson Hamilton. Other incidences of
kidnapping and abduction of University dons in Nigeria between August 2021
and January 2022 have been reported by InforDaily Newspaper in the following
Lecturer at the Department of Linguistics and
Communication, University of Port Harcourt, Dr. Jones was
kidnapped: A lecturer with Ken Saro Wiwa Polytechnic in
Bori LGA of Rivers State, simply identified as Mr. James,
abducted by gunmen at his residence in Ugwurutali, Ikwere
LGA. Dean, Faculty of Science and Education and Head of
Department of Mathematics, Federal University Dutsin-Ma,
Katsina State was abducted; Professor Johnson Fatokun,
abducted along Akwanga-Keffi highway at Kurmi Shinkafa
village. Abductors kidnap Dr. Dan Ella, a lecturer in the
Department of Theatre Arts, University of Jos et cetera.50
Ogunode et al., and Scholars at Risk provide us with the scenario in the
University of Science and Technology, Port-Harcourt, and the University of
Calabar in Cross River State, thus:
On January 19, 2016, unidentified perpetrators kidnapped
the Director of the Centre for Continuing Education at Rivers
State University of Science and Technology in Port
Harcourt... On May 3, 2016, seven gunmen reportedly
entered the campus of the University of Calabar, Cross River
State, at night, firing shots to disperse security guards and
passers-by. They kidnapped a lecturer and two students
from their residential quarters, according to local news
49 Global Upfront Newspaper (2021). ‘Kidnapped University of Abuja lecturers, children
rescued at Abaji, along Abuja-Lokoja expressway’. Accessed on;
children-rescued-at-abaji-along-abuja-lokoja-expressway/. 09-03-2022.
50 InforDaily Newspaper (2021). ‘Abductions, Kidnappings since January in Figures’.
Accessed on;
51 Ogunode, N.J., Jegede, Abubakar, M, and Martina, U. (2020). ‘Challenges Facing Non-
Academic Staff of Higher Institutions in Nigeria and the Way Forwards’. GBS, Vol,3(5),
pp.78 10.
Electronic copy available at:
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ISSN: 2756-5831 (ONLINE)
15 or
Nigeria has one of the highest rates of kidnap-for-ransom in the world and in
2018 there were hundreds of incidents throughout the country. InforDaily
Newspaper establishes that the highest number of kidnap cases in 2021 was 27
in February with 605 victims, followed by July with 23 cases and 327 victims,
while January 2022 had 21 cases numbering 284 victims.52 Those kidnapped
include; all categories of people, women, and children. The government on the
other hand seems to be unable to tide this menace; perpetrators are known and
often go scot-free. This in the final analysis pushed some academia out of the
country while others are looking for such opportunities to follow.
Insecurity and Brain Drain in the Nigerian Universities: An Analysis since
Professionals have been moving out of Nigeria daily since 1999. Among this
group are those in the health sector, businessmen, and the academia et cetera,
as a result of insecurity and other socio-economic and political factors they have
faced.53 In line with this fact Falola and Heaton avail that:
the Nigerian population in the United States of America
(USA) as of 2000 was over 164, 000 of whom 104, 000 were
Nigerian born... as of 2001, over 86,000 Nigerian-born
persons resided in the United Kingdom (UK) and should
have doubled that population by now. Equally important is
the influx of Nigerians into neibouring African countries
such as the Benin Republic, Ghana, Central Africa, and even
South Africa.54
Falola and Heaton underscored the rate of brain drain since the resurgence of
democratic governance in 1999 in the Nigerian state. There is gross migration
of brains at the expense of socio-economic development. For instance, while
there are clear indications that Nigeria has inadequate University lecturers to
man over 200 established universities (both private and public) in the country
as NEEDs Assessment Report of 2012 projects:
37,504 academic staff in 74 public universities in Nigeria.
Considering the number of staff vis-à-vis the student
population, the report revealed an unmanageable lecturer-
to-student ratio. For example, at the National Open
University, the academic staff-to-student ratio was 1:363, at
Lagos State University the ratio was 1:144, and at the
52 InforDaily Newspaper (2021). ‘Abductions, Kidnappings..’ p.1.
53 Abang, M. (2019, April 8). Nigeria’s Medical Brain Drain: Healthcare woes as Doctors
Flee. Health | Al Jazeera. Accessed on;
woes-as, 15-03-2022. Adegoke, B. Y. (2019, April 25). Does Nigeria have too many Doctors
to Worry About a “Brain Drain”? BBC News.
45473036. Accessed 13-03-2022.
54 Falola, T. and Heaton, M. (2008). A History of Nigeria, Cambridge University Press.
Electronic copy available at:
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ISSN: 2756-5831 (ONLINE)
16 or
University of Abuja, the ratio was 1:122. Kano State
University, which was 11 years old at the time of the needs
assessment period, had one professor and 25 lecturers with
Ph.D. degrees, while Kebbi State University had two
professors and five lecturers with doctorate degrees. These
statistics revealed wide disparities between Nigerian
universities and their counterparts in other parts of the
Sadly, with this situation, Nigerian academic dooms continue to migrate out of
the country for various reasons while insecurity seems to be the most serious
concern at present. The great death of lecturers in the Nigerian Universities
according to the International Organisation for Migration (IOM) is a result of
African nations losing 20,000 professionals on annual basis since 1990.56 As
noted somewhere else in this work, as a result of insecurity the UNIMAID alone
lose over 70 professors during the heat of Boko-Haram terrorism in Northern
Nigeria. This fact has been justified by the Vice-Chancellor of the University
Prof. Aliyu Shugaba an interview with Punch Newspaper, that:
Going by the American style, a senior lecturer is an assistant
professor, a reader is an associate professor and a full
professor is a professor. In some universities, they are all
referred to as professors, following the American style. In
our case, if you factor in the senior lecturers, there are more
than 70 (lecturers) who have left. If you include the younger
academics, who could not stand the heat of that moment and
left for other places, we will be talking about more than 100.
Many people (lecturers) have left and many others have
died. One of our lecturers was bombed here, around 202
Housing Estate. Another, a doctor with the Faculty of
Education, was killed at Gwange. Others were killed either
on the campus or outside.57
The attacks on Bayero University Kano (BUK) in 2012, the bombings and
killings perpetrated by the Boko Haram: from the deadly attack on a Sunday
morning when worshippers were attending service within the university's
campus, according to S. Luga drove some Yoruba lecturers out of the
institution.58 Although, the southern axis of Nigerian Universities was not
spared from attacks and anxiety of the impending attacks hence 15 universities
in this area were notified of an invasion. The public relations officer at the
University of Benin, Harrison Osarenren, confirmed this notification sent
through an email address,, to the registrar. The
55 NEEDS. (2014). Needs Assessment in the Nigerian Education Sector International
Organization for Migration. Abuja, Nigeria.
56 International Organisation for Migratory, 2014.
57 Aliyu Shugaba in an interview with Punch Newspaper, 13th June 2021.
58 Oral interview with Solomon Luga, 13-03-2022.
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17 or
message convened that 'they aimed to eradicate western education in Nigeria.
This university has been shortlisted among 19 other universities. They warned
that these universities will soon experience a series of bomb blasts,’.59 Ogunode
and Ishaya also reported that on January 19, 2016, unidentified perpetrators
kidnapped the Director of the Centre for Continuing Education at Rivers State
University of Science and Technology in Port Harcourt. On May 3, 2016, seven
gunmen kidnapped a lecturer and two students in the residential quarters of
the University of Calabar, Cross River State.60
The high level of insecurity in Nigerian Universities has pushed a lot of
professors out of Nigerian soil. As noted by Prof. Biodun Ogunyemi (ASUU
President), Ethiopia 2006 has engaged the services of 200 professors in Nigeria.
While according to Olusegun Akinsanya, a former Nigerian Ambassador to
Ethiopia asserted that the figure was rather 600 professors. Apart from
Ethiopia, South Africa, Ghana, Egypt, et cetera have also engaged a sizeable
number of Nigerian professors.61 It is against this backdrop of understanding
that Ogunode, et al, says that today the USA, Germany, and the UK among other
advanced countries have engaged the best brains in their universities and this is
affecting the quality of teaching in the higher institutions in the country.62
Professor Joseph Stiglitz, 2001 Nobel Prize winner in Economics, who, while at
50 delivering a lecture at the first Dr. Pius Okadigbo’s memorial lecture series in
Enugu, Nigeria, said that there is a particular university in the U.S. that has over
25 Nigerian professors.63 He submitted that the above pointer is instructive for
any serious-minded government that wants to address the issue of brain drain.
Majors to Cheek Security Challenges in Nigeria
The issue of security is the primary responsibility of the government and as
such cannot be compromised in any nation. This is because for socio-economic
development, unity, peace, and tranquillity to prevail in any nation there must
be a comprehensive security roadmap. This is why advanced countries have
taken security measures of paramount importance. For example, the US
government invested more than 1triillion US$ in homeland security in the
aftermath of the 9/11 attacks in 2001. The 9/11 incident led to the
reorganisation of homeland security with a new mission to prevent, respond to,
and recover from terrorist attacks, and this is the largest reorganization in the
59 Okafor, C. U. and Okafor, J. A. (2011). Secret Cults in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria,
Nature, and Dangers and the Way Forward. Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 2,
No.1. pp. 22-26.
60 Ogunode, N.J. and Ishaya, S.A. (2016). ‘Effects of Brain-Drain on Higher Institutions’
Administration in Nigeria’. Pindus Journal Of Culture, Literature, and ELT, Vol. 8.
61 See Tribune online, 2020.
62 Ogunode, N.J., Ahmed L, Gregory, D, and Abubakar, L. (2020). ‘Administration of Public
Educational Institutions in Nigeria: Problem and Suggestion’. European Scholar Journal
(ESJ), Vol. 1 No.3, pp:1-11
63 Ogunode, N.J. and Ishaya, S.A. (2016). ‘Effects of Brain-Drain ...’ p.66.
Electronic copy available at:
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ISSN: 2756-5831 (ONLINE)
18 or
United States government since World War II.64 In 2020 alone the USA spend a
whooping of 750 billion $, China 237 billion $, Saudi Arabia 67.6 billion $, India
61 billion $, United Kingdom 55.1 billion $, Germany 50 billion $, Japan 49
billion $, Russia 48 billion $, South Korea 44 billion $ and France 41.5 billion $
on national defense. This budget in the USA is meant for the Department of
Defense, war spending, nuclear weapons spending, international military
assistance, and other Pentagon-related spending. The essence is to protect the
lives and property of the USA citizens. As a result of this defence budget is
properly managed to actualise the targets.
Coming back to Nigeria, the defence apparatuses are ill-equipped to handle
security challenges arising from poor budgeting, misappropriation, and
corruption. Other challenges with the defence apparatuses in Nigeria are
primordial politics, religious divide, ethnic chauvinism et cetera, all these
demonstrate leadership failure and this projects Nigeria as a failed state in the
comity of nations. The war against Boko-haram insurgence in the North-East,
banditry in the North-West, farmer-herders in the North-Central, militancy in
the South-South, and secessionists movement in the South-East all pointed to
the colossal failure of the Nigerian state to live up to her expectations. Against
this backdrop, the study suggests the re-organisation of the Nigerian defence
mechanism that has been deeply characterised by leadership failures,
ineptitude, corruption, and lack of accountability. For instance, 1999-2019 an
estimated total of 29.88 billion US$ has been spent on the Nigerian military.65
However, this huge amount of money has not been justified against the
backdrop of security maintenance in the Nigerian state. There are numerous
instances whereby Boko-haram and bandits attacked and killed scores of
military officers in their barracks. The incidences of the Giwa Barracks attack in
Maiduguri, Nigerian Army Base in Borno, and Mainok Camp in Borno among
numerous others cannot be forgotten too soon.66 This calls to mind some
unanswered questions. If the military barracks are not safe in Nigeria, who is
therefore safe? Is it the poor farmer on his farm? A petty trader in the market? A
poor civil and public servant? Or is it a lecturer with only writing and teaching
materials in his hands that is saved?
Secondly, the civil-military relation in Nigeria has to be strengthened to ensure
that there is a synergy between the military and the civilian population in the
provision of useful security information. The Nigerian security apparatuses can
only succeed in addressing the country's security problem if the civilians are
willing to corroborate with them. There are over 300 military bases in Nigeria
and uncountable cheek points. It has been observed that the conduct of security
personnel in and around military bases, and their projected operations, have
generated both positive and negative effects on the development and security of
host communities, from where they have attracted resistance and support from
64 Check, 14-03-
65 Check, out 14-03-2022.
66 Check,, 14-03-2022.
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19 or
the populations. Because of this singular reason, some useful security
information is often not delivered to Nigerian security for necessary action.
Thirdly, the security of the Nigerian Universities should be taken very seriously
by the government and various university administrators. This is because most
University campuses are not fenced all around, and there is also a lack of
modern security gadgets that could detect suicide bombers and other criminal
acts in these institutions. Therefore, lecturers and students are at the mercy of
bandits, militants, and cultists on the various university campuses. To crown all,
the unresolved issues that stimulated these security threats must be looked into
by the Nigerian state. The root causes of these problems lie in unemployment,
hunger, poverty, corruption, and prebendal politics. Unless the Nigerian state
must proffer proper solutions to these issues otherwise the war against
insecurity would continue to be a failure.
Concluding Remarks
Brain drain has disarticulated the organizational structures of some Nigerian
universities. The cankerworm has placed some of the Nigerian University's
academic departments in a state of chaos leading to decadence in students'
performance in the labour market. In some departments, the middle cadre of
lecturers migrated out of the country leaving the most senior and junior
lecturers behind. The senior lecturers will soon retire and the junior lecturers
who received little training are saddled with a lot of departmental
responsibility including heavy teaching, department administration, and even
university administration. In some cases, when the seniors leave, the
departments become leaderless. Many departments in the universities exist
without a professor. Many Nigerian scholars who travelled for their doctorate
abroad were employed by their host universities, and the chances that they will
come back to fill the vacuum left in Nigeria are very minimal.67 The justifiable
reasons for this are numerous spanning from poor payment, strikes, lack of
research funds et cetera. However, insecurity in the Nigerian state has also
significantly contributed to the brain drain in the Nigerian Universities in this
fourth republic.
67 Alexander C. Ugwukah, C.A. (2020). ‘The Changing Patterns of Migration and Brain-
Drain and Its Impact on Nigeria’s Development since Independence’. Department of
History and International Studies, Babcock University, Ilishan Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria.
Unpublished paper.
Electronic copy available at:
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Migrants from all sources of countries face the prospect of a potent backlash within the receiving countries, added with anti-immigrant sentiment and concerns about the offshoring of jobs. Policymakers around the world should seize emerging opportunities to expand the mutual gains that might be made through high-skill migration. Policymakers need to be better prepared to take creative steps for achieving objectives such as strengthening the capacity of source countries and nurturing knowledge spillovers from receiving countries to source countries. The first rule of migration studies is to visualize large error bars around virtually every statement. It is believed that the prospect of migration induces greater investment in skills and education within the source countries. Potential migrants believe that good preparation at home will increase their chances of making money associated with going abroad.
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