ArticlePDF Available

Papilio thoa nealces (LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONIDAE) host of Cotesia (HYMENOPTERA: BRACONIDAE) IN BOCAS DEL TORO, PANAMA.

Abstract and Figures

Cotesia sp (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is reported as parasitoid of Papilio thoas nealces (Le�pidoptera: Papilionidae). The host larva was collected in Piper friedrichsthalii shrub foliage, along the road, within the Palo Seco Forest Reserve, Bocas Del Toro Province, Republic of Panama.
Content may be subject to copyright.
SCIENTIA
Journal of Basic Science and Technology
(SJBST)
E-ISSN: 2710-7647
Scientia 2022, 32(1). 5155
enero-junio 2022
www.revistasvip.up.ac.pa/index.php/scientia
51
Nota Científica
Papilio thoas nealces (LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONIDAE)
hospedera de Cotesia (HYMENOPTERA: BRACONIDAE) EN
BOCAS DEL TORO, PANAMÁ.
Papilio thoa nealces (LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONIDAE) host of
Cotesia (HYMENOPTERA: BRACONIDAE) IN BOCAS DEL TORO, PANAMA.
Alonso Santos Murgas1*, Julio Gutiérrez Lanzas2, Gabriel Arauz3
1 Universidad de Panamá, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Exactas y Tecnología, Museo de Invertebrados G.B. Fairchild, República de Panamá,
Avenida Manuel Espinosa Batista, Campus Central, Ciudad de Panamá, Panamá; alonso.santos@up.ac.pa, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9339-
486X
2 Universidad de Panamá, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales Exactas y Tecnología, Escuela de Biología; Campus Central Octavio Méndez Pereira,
Av. Octavio Méndez Pereira, Panamá; julio99gutierrez99@gmail.com, https://orcid.org/0000-0002- 9460-1717
3 Universidad Autónoma de Chiriquí, David, Chiriquí, Panamá; g_arauz10@hotmail.com, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5600-6802
* Autor de Correspondencia: alonso.santos@up.ac.pa
Recibido: 03/22/2021 Aceptado: 12/16/2021
Editor temático: Manuel Solís (Universidad Federal de Viçosa, Brasil)
Resumen: Se reportan a Cotesia sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) como parasitoide de Papilio thoas nealces (Lepidoptera:
Papilionidae). La oruga hospedera fue colectada en el follaje sobre un arbusto de Piper friedrichsthalii, a orillas de la carretera,
dentro de la Reserva Forestal Palo Seco, provincia de Bocas Del Toro, República de Panamá.
Palabras Clave: parasitismo, oruga, Piper friedrichsthalii
Abstract: Cotesia sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is reported as parasitoid of Papilio thoas nealces (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). The
host caterpillar was collected in Piper friedrichsthalii shrub foliage, along the road, within the Palo Seco Forest Reserve, Bocas Del
Toro Province, Republic of Panama.
Keywords: parasitism, butterfly caterpillar, Piper friedrichsthalii
Introducción
El género Cotesia Cameron, 1891 es un grupo bastante común y diverso de avispas de la subfamilia
Microgastrinae, especializadas en parasitar orugas de polillas y mariposas (Whitfield et al., 2018). Aunque es un
género cosmopolita; su mayor riqueza se encuentra en las zonas templadas. De acuerdo a Crocket et al. (2014), existen
400 especies descritas con estimaciones de su diversidad que van desde 1500 (Mason, 1981) a 2500 especies (Van
Achterberg y Polaszek, 1996; Gupta et al., 2016).
Una de las especies mayormente estudiadas es Cotesia congregata (Say 1836), endoparasitoide gregario
ampliamente distribuido en el continente americano (Cave, 1995, Crocket et al., 2014), que parasita orugas de polillas
SCIENTIA
Journal of Basic Science and Technology
(SJBST)
E-ISSN: 2710-7647
Scientia 2022, 32(1). 5155
enero-junio 2022
www.revistasvip.up.ac.pa/index.php/scientia
52
como Acronicta sp. (Noctuidae) y Oryba kadeni (Sphingidae) (Aino et al., 2017), Zanola verago (Cramer, 1777)
(Apatelodidae), Dysschema sp. (Erebidae) (Santos et al., 2017), Halysidota tessellaris (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) (Ábrego
y Santos-Murgas, 2019), mientras Santos et al. (2020) mencionan a Manduca sexta (Sphingidae) como hospederos de
Cotesia flavipes (Cameron, 1891).
Figura 1. A) habitus de Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae), B) Larva parasitada de Papilio thoas nealces (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).
Fuente: elaboración propia.
Por su parte, las mariposas de la familia Papilionidae, con unas 560 especies descritas en todo el mundo, de las
cuales 129 se distribuyen desde Texas hasta Argentina, incluyendo las islas de Cuba, Jamaica, Haití y Puerto Rico
(Rothschild y Jordan, 1906; Tyler et al., 1994; Paim y Di Mare, 2002; Graça y Nunes-Gutjahr, 2014), son de las
Lepidoptera más conocidas y estudiadas (Gaston, 1991; Zakharov et al., 2004; Kawahara y Breinholt, 2014). Sin
embargo, a pesar de los importantes esfuerzos de investigación, la familia todavía presenta muchas dificultades
taxonómicas y muchos aspectos ecológicos y biológicos por descifrar, especialmente la interacción con sus enemigos
naturales.
Durante una gira en el bosque nuboso dentro de la Reserva Forestal Bosque Protector Palo Seco, Changuinola,
provincia de Bocas del Toro, Panamá, el 4 de septiembre 2021, el primer y segundo autor observaron y colectaron
una larva de Papilio thoas nealces (Rothschild & Jordan, 1906) sobre una rama de Piper friedrichsthalii C. DC.
(Piperaceae) observándose 15 capullos (pupas) adheridos a la región dorsal y pleural de la oruga (Figura 1 A y B).
La disposición de los capullos muestra un patrón individual, sin evidencia de adhesión entre ellos, ni presencia de
seda que los mantuviera unidos (Figura 2 C). La oruga parasitada se colocó en cámara de cría y pasados cuatro días
de su colecta, solo dos avispas emergieron de los 15 capullos recolectados, siendo identificadas como Cotesia sp.
(Figura 2 D). Tanto los parasitoides como la oruga hospedera se encuentran depositados en la colección de insectos
del Museo de Invertebrados G.B. Fairchild de la Universidad de Panamá (Voucher# MIUP-0401).
SCIENTIA
Journal of Basic Science and Technology
(SJBST)
E-ISSN: 2710-7647
Scientia 2022, 32(1). 5155
enero-junio 2022
www.revistasvip.up.ac.pa/index.php/scientia
53
El parasitismo observado en estadios inmaduros de P. thoas ha sido reportado en diversas investigaciones,
siendo el orden Hymenoptera y Diptera sus principales parasitoides (Silva et al., 1968, Arnaud Jr.; 1978; O’Hara y
Wood, 2004; Gil Santana y Marques, 2006; Maes, 2006, Zucchi et al., 2010; Graça y Nunes-Gutjahr, 2014); sin embargo,
solo se han reportado dos especies de Braconidae asociados a mariposas, C. congregata (Añino et al., 2017) y
Glyptapanteles sp. (Graça y Nunes-Gutjahr, 2014). No obstante, las evidentes diferencias morfológicas, así como la
forma y disposición de las pupas respecto a C. congregata y C. flavipes (Figura 2 A, B, D y E), nos lleva a suponer que
estos individuos corresponden a una nueva especie de Cotesia; de momento se deben realizar más recolectas en el
sitio, y determinar con un mayor número de muestras nuestra suposición; además de establecer aspectos relevantes
de su biología relacionada a P.thoas nealces.
Figura 2. Habitus de pupas: A) Cotesia sp., B) Cotesia congregata, C) Cotesia flavipes, Habitus de adultos: D) Cotesia sp.,
E) Cotesia congregata, F) Cotesia flavipes. Fuente: elaboración propia.
Contribución de los Autores: Conceptualización, A. Santos Murgas; J. Gutiérrez Lanzas y G. Arauz; metodología,
A. Santos Murgas; J. Gutiérrez Lanzas y G. Arauz; validación de especímenes, A. Santos Murgas; J. Gutiérrez Lanzas
y G. Arauz; análisis formal, A. Santos Murgas; J. Gutiérrez Lanzas y G. Arauz; investigación, A. Santos Murgas; J.
Gutiérrez Lanzas y G. Arauz; recursos, A. Santos Murgas; curación de datos, A. Santos Murgas; redacción
preparación del borrador original, A. Santos Murgas; J. Gutiérrez Lanzas y G. Arauz; redacción revisión y edición,
A. Santos Murgas; J. Gutiérrez Lanzas y G. Arauz; visualización, A. Santos Murgas; supervisión, A. Santos Murgas;
administración de proyectos, A. Santos Murgas; adquisición de financiación, A. Santos Murgas. Todos los autores
han leído y aceptado la versión publicada del manuscrito.
Financiamiento: Esta investigación fue financiada en un 50% por el Dr. Albert Thurman y La Universidad de Florida
y del Centro de McGuire para Lepidoptera & Biodiversidad del Museo de Historia Natural de Florida.
SCIENTIA
Journal of Basic Science and Technology
(SJBST)
E-ISSN: 2710-7647
Scientia 2022, 32(1). 5155
enero-junio 2022
www.revistasvip.up.ac.pa/index.php/scientia
54
Agradecimientos: Los autores agradecen a Orlando Ortiz (Universidad de Panamá) por la identificación de Piper
friedrichsthalii
Conflictos de Intereses: Los autores declaran no tener ningún conflicto de intereses.
Referencias
Abrego L., J. y Santos-Murgas, A. (2019). Ocurrencia de multiparasitismo sobre la larva de Halysidota tessellaris
(Lepidoptera: Erebidae) en Panam. Tecnociencia, 21(2): 511.
Añino-Ramos, Y. J., Santos-Murgas, A. y Padilla-Zamora, A. C. (2017). Parasitismo gregario de Cotesia congregata
(Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) en dos nuevos hospederos. Revista Biodiversidad Neotropical, 7 (1): 4851.
Arnaud J.R., P.H., 1978. A host-parasite catalog of North American Tachinidae (Diptera): 1860. United States
Department of Agriculture, Washington.
Cave, R. (1995). Manual para el reconocimiento de parasitoides de plagas agrícolas en América Central. Tegucigalpa:
Editorial Zamorano.
Crockett C.D, Lucky A., Liburd O.E. y Kester K.M. (2014). A parasitoid wasp Cotesia congregata (Say) (Insecta:
Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Consultado el 3 de enero de 2022. https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/IN/IN104200.pdf
Gaston, K.J. (1991). The magnitude of global insect species richness. Conservation Biology, 5(3): 283296.
Gil Santana, H.R. y Marques, O.M. (2006). Parasitoidismo de Glyptapanteles sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) sobre
Heraclides thoas brasiliensis (Rotchschild & Jordan) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Magistra, 18(1): 5253.
Graça, M. B. C. S. y Nunes-Gutjahr, A.L. (2014). Immature stages of Heraclides thoas thoas (Linnaeus, 1771)
(Lepidoptera: Papilionidae): biology and morphology. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Naturais
9(3): 519531.
Kawahara, A.Y. y Breinholt, J.W. (2014). Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies
and moths. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281(1788). doi: 10.1098/rspb.2014.0970
Maes, J.M. (2006). Paipilionidae (Lepidoptera) de Nicaragua. Revista Nicaraguense de Entomologia, Suplemento 3:
1241.
Mason, W.R.M. (1981). The polyphyletic nature of Apanteles Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): A phylogeny and
reclassification of Microgastrinae. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada, 115: 1147. doi:
10.4039/entm113115f
O’Hara, J.E. y Wood, D.M. (2004). Catalogue of the Tachinidae (Diptera) of America North of Mexico. Associated
Publishers (Memoirs on Entomology, 18), Madison.
Paim, A.C. y Di Mare, R.A. (2002). Ecologia de Papilionidae. I: Parâmetros biológicos e demográficos de Parides
agavus (Papilioninae: Troidini) no sul do Brasil. Biociências, 10(2): 3348.
Rothschild, L.W. y Jordan, K. (1906). A revision of the American papilios. Novitates Zoologicae, 13(3): 411745.
Santos, M. A.; Garibaldo-Rudas, A.; Añino, Y.; Carranza, R. y Guardia, R. (2017). Apatelodidae y Erebidae (Insecta:
Lepidoptera) como hospederos de Cotesia congregata (Say, 1836) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Revista Nicaragüense
de Entomología, 135: 110.
Santos-Murgas, A., Osorio-Arenas, M.A., Lanuza-Garay A. y Barría F. (2020). Multiparasitismo de Lespesia
archippivora (Riley) (Diptera: Tachinidae) y Cotesia flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) sobre estadios
larvales de Manduca sexta (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Revista Nicaragüense de Entomología, 206: 122.
Silva, A. G. A., Gonçalves, C.R., Galvão, D. M., Gonçalves, A. J. L., Gomes, J., Silva, M. N. y Simoni, L. (1968).
Quarto catálogo dos insetos que vivem nas plantas do Brasil: seus parasitos e predadores, 2(1): 1622.
Tyler, H. A., K. S. Brown, J. R. y K.H. Wilson (1994). Swallowtail butterflies of the Americas: a study in biological
dynamics, ecological diversity, biosystematics, and conservation. Scientific Publishers, Gainesville.
Van Achterberg C. y Polaszek, A. (1996). The parasites of cereal stem borers (Lepidoptera: Cossidae, Crambidae,
Noctuidae, Pyralidae) in Africa, belonging to the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea). Zoologische
Verhandelingen 304: 1123.
SCIENTIA
Journal of Basic Science and Technology
(SJBST)
E-ISSN: 2710-7647
Scientia 2022, 32(1). 5155
enero-junio 2022
www.revistasvip.up.ac.pa/index.php/scientia
55
Whitfield, J.B., Austin, A.D. y Fernandez-Triana, J.L. (2018). Systematics, biology and evolution of microgastrine
parasitoid wasps. Annual Review of Entomology, 63: 389406. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ento-020117-043405
Zakharov, E.V., Caterino, M.S., Sperling, F.A. (2004). Molecular phylogeny, historical biogeography, and
divergence time estimates for swallowtail butterflies of the genus Papilio (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Systematic
Biology, 53(2): 193215. doi: 10.1080/10635150490423403.
Zucchi, R. A., Querino, R.B. y Monteiro, R.C. (2010). Diversity and hosts of Trichogramma in the New World, with
emphasis in South America. En Cônsoli, F.L., Parra, J.R.P y Zucchi, R.A. (Eds.), Egg parasitoids in agroecosystems
with emphasis on Trichogramma (pp: 219236). Springer, Dordrecht.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Multiparasitism of Lespesia archippivora (Riley) (Diptera: Tachinidae) and Cotesia flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in larval stages of Manduca sexta (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) In nature, when an insect is attacked by two species of parasitoids simultaneously, frequently a state of competition occurs between them. In many cases of multiparasitism, a species has an intrinsic superiority over its opponent and invariably destroys it; however, in others little documented, both parasitoids can coexist under certain conditions that allow such relationship. The goal of this research is to record a case of multiparasitism in larval stages of the Tomato Hornworm (Manduca sexta) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) under laboratory conditions. This work was carried out in the community of Puerto Caimito, Province of Panamá Oeste. Seven caterpillars were located; one of them showed evidence of parasitism in its last larval stage, as presence of braconid pupae outside the integument, and tachinid fly larva outside the body of their host. Two species of parasitoids emerged from them: Cotesia flavipes (Braconidae), a gregarious parasitoid wasp, and Lespesia archippivora (Tachinidae), a solitary endoparasitoids. With these observations, we conclude a successful multiparasitism involve different conditions who delimit coexistence between both parasitoid species. This opens up infinite possibilities for the development of studies that allow us to elucidate the true success of multiparasitism and its pest control applicability in Panama.
Article
Full-text available
It is a report to Cotesia congregata (Say, 1836) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Lespesia archippivora (Riley, 1871) (Diptera: Tachinidae) as parasitoids of the Halysidota tessellaris (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae). The host larva was collected in a remnant of forest in the surroundings of the community of Gamboa (Soberania National Park), province of Colon, Republic of Panama.
Article
Full-text available
The braconid parasitoid wasp subfamily Microgastrinae is perhaps the most species-rich subfamily of animals on Earth. Despite their small size, they are familiar to agriculturalists and field ecologists alike as one of the principal groups of natural enemies of caterpillars feeding on plants. Their abundance and nearly ubiquitous terrestrial distribution, their intricate interactions with host insects, and their historical association with mutualistic polydnaviruses have all contributed to Microgastrinae becoming a key group of organisms for studying parasitism, parasitoid genomics, and mating biology. However, these rich sources of data have not yet led to a robust genus-level classification of the group, and some taxonomic confusion persists as a result. We present the current status of understanding of the general biology, taxonomic history, diversity, geographical patterns, host relationships, and phylogeny of Microgastrinae as a stimulus and foundation for further study. Current progress in elucidating the biology and taxonomy of this important group is rapid and promises a revolution in the classification of these wasps in the near future. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Entomology Volume 63 is January 7, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Reporting two species of lepidoptera as two new hosts of Cotesia congregata in Panamá. Methodology: Lepidoptera larvae were collected in a gregarious manner in Darién National Park; these larvae were placed in foster chambers for the emergence of adult parasitoids. In addition, a larva collect-ed in Donoso, Panamá was obtained and larvae were identified through photographs. Results: The new records as hosts of C. congregata were: Acronicta sp., and Oryba kadeni, both moths of the family Noc-tuidae and Sphingidae respectively. Conclusion: with these two new reports, we know about 18 species used as hosts of this braconido.
Article
This species of Cotesia has been widely used as a model system in insect physiology. It has also been used to examine insect learning in host-parasitoid-plant interactions. It is an important natural enemy of the tobacco hornworm, a detrimental pest species that feeds on many plants in the Solanaceae (tobacco, pepper, tomato, etc.) family. This 5-page fact sheet was written by Christopher D. Crockett, Andrea Lucky, Oscar E. Liburd, and Karen M. Kester, and published by the UF Department of Entomology and Nematology, July 2014. EENY598/IN1042: A Parasitoid Wasp Cotesia congregata (Say) (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Braconidae) (ufl.edu)
Article
Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly-moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order.
Article
For the insect groups for which figures are available, estimates of global total numbers of species are typically less than ten times the numbers of described species. Although minimum global estimates are more readily constructed than upper estimates, these figures uniformly fail to support assertions that there are 30 million or more species of insects. A figure of less than ten million seems more tenable, and one of around five million feasible. The contribution of canopy specialists to global richness may be less than often suggested. A higher proportion of species than commonly entertained may have moderate to large geographic ranges. The number of groups failing to increase in richness in the tropics may have been underestimated. -from Author
Chapter
The diversity and hosts of Trichogramma in the New World, with emphasis in South America, is presented. All the 94 Trichogramma species recorded in the Americas and their habitats were listed. Sixty species are recorded in North America, 22 in Central America and 41 in South America. Also, a list of the South American species with their respective host insects, distribution and associated plants was updated. In South America, Brazil is the country with the highest number of native species known. Trichogramma species are mainly associated to lepidopterous economically important, mostly in the family Noctuidae.