Thesis

Modelling of Call Admission Control in 3G Cellular Mobile Networks

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Abstract

Mobile terminals allow users to access services while on the move. This unique feature has driven the rapid growth in the mobile network industry, changing it from a new technology into a massive industry within less than two decades. In this thesis , we address admission control problems in a cellular wireless environment. The admission control is responsible for deciding whether an incoming call or connection can be accepted or not, which are based on the available codes. We provide an extensive survey of the existing admission control algorithms. The issues related to and the approaches for designing admission control in third generation(3G) cellular wireless networks are discussed. An admission control method considering the quality of service(QoS) requirements in wireless is presented along with an analytical traffic model for the Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems(UMTS). In 3G networks we have dynamic capacity that depends on the interference levels in the covered area and the number of active users. This implies that the distance of a mobile user from the base station, which is called Node B, is also an important factor because of the signal fading. The first part of this work is an algorithm written in C++ programming language that distributes users in different zones assuming that the cell area is divided into Z virtual zones, where Z depends on the number of users. In the rest of i this thesis we present a simulation model for the Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems(UMTS). For validation purposes, we have developed a much more detailed simulation of the system written in C language. The results of the mathematical model showed that, a product form equilibrium distribution holds in the case of two cells. Theses results are used to validate a simulation, and to show that the behaviour of the system is similar to that in the mathematical model. Once the product form of Jackson's Theorem is known to hold, then it is possible to go to a more advanced stage to analyze the 3G network, and to get the performance measures, which will help in making decisions at the design stage of a network. To be more realistic, we used traffic distributions in the simulator, where a user can generate world wide web sessions(www), file transfer sessions, and Emails. These followed recommendations in the ETSI standard and further demonstrated the feasibility of the model. ii

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Conference Paper
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Conference Paper
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This paper presents two new methods that use local information alone to predict the resource demands of and determine resource reservation levels for future handoff calls in multimedia wireless IP networks. The proposed methods model the instantaneous resource demand directly. This differs from most existing methods that derive the demands from modeling the factors that impact the demands. As a result, the proposed methods allow new and handoff calls to: (1) follow non-Poisson and/or nonstationary arrival processes; (2) have arbitrary per-call resource demands; and (3) have arbitrarily distributed call and channel holding times. The first method is based on the Wiener prediction theory and the second method is based on time series analysis. Our simulations show that they perform well even for non-Poisson and nonstationary handoff call arrivals, arbitrary per-call bandwidth demands, and nonexponentially distributed call and channel holding times. They generate closely comparable performance with an existing local method and an existing collaborative method that uses information about mobiles in neighboring cells, under assumptions for which these other methods are optimized. The proposed methods are much simpler to implement than most other existing methods with fewer capabilities
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With the proliferation of wireless network technologies, mobile users are expected to demand the same quality of service (QoS) available to fixed users. This paper presents a predictive and adaptive scheme to support timed-QoS guarantees in pico- and micro-cellular environments. The proposed scheme integrates the mobility model into the service model to achieve efficient network resource utilization and avoid severe network congestion. The mobility model uses a probabilistic approach to determine the most likely cluster to be visited by the mobile unit. The admission control is invoked when a new call arrives or an existing call performs a handoff to verify the feasibility of supporting the call. The performance of the proposed schemes is compared to the shadow cluster scheme. The performance of the proposed scheme under different traffic patterns is also presented
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We develop the notion of quality of service (QoS) for multimedia traffic in terms of maximum call dropping probabilities independent of system load and a predefined call blocking probability profile for the different traffic classes for wireless networks of arbitrary shape and dimension. We describe two distributed predictive admission control algorithms, independent multiclass one-step prediction (IMOSP-CS and IMOSP-RES), which provide each traffic class with a given call dropping probability and a desired call blocking probability profile. Both algorithms may be seen as extensions of the multimedia one-step prediction (MMOSPRED) algorithm previously reported, which uses prediction of the overload probability in the home and neighbor cells in deciding whether to admit new users into a multiclass cellular system. The two algorithms differ in their approach to handoff call admission. The first algorithm completely shares the bandwidth among the entering handoff users while the second implements a partition-based reservation scheme. In this paper, we additionally impose a call blocking criterion that ensures a system-imposed call priority independent of the traffic in the system and which adapts to changes in the offered load. In comparing these algorithms to each other, we focus on system throughput and class independence. Both algorithms provide appropriate throughput under both homogeneous and heterogeneous traffic loading conditions while maintaining steady call dropping probabilities for each traffic class
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Since code-division multiple-access (CDMA) capacity is interference limited, call admission control (CAC) must guarantee both a grade of service (GoS), i.e., the blocking rate, and a quality of service (QoS), i.e., the loss probability of communication quality. This paper describes the development of a new capacity design method based on these two concepts. Theoretical expressions for GoS and QoS as functions of traffic intensity and CAC thresholds are first derived from the traffic theory viewpoint, and then a design method using these expressions is presented. At that time, two strategies for CAC are assumed. One is based on the number of users, and the other is based on the interference level. Computer simulation results are presented that strongly support the proposed design method. Furthermore, numerical examples and a performance comparison of the two strategies considering various propagation parameters, nonuniform traffic distributions, and various transmission rates are shown
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The major focus of this paper is distributed call admission control in mobile/wireless networks, the purpose of which is to limit the call handoff dropping probability in loss systems or the cell overload probability in lossless systems. Handoff dropping or cell overload are consequences of congestion in wireless networks. Our call admission control algorithm takes into consideration the number of calls in adjacent cells, in addition to the number of calls in the cell where a new call request is made, in order to make a call admission decision. This is done by every base station in a distributed manner without the involvement of the network call processor. The admission condition is simple enough that the admission decision can be made in real time. Furthermore, we show that our distributed call admission control scheme limits the handoff dropping or the cell overload probability to a predefined level almost independent of load conditions. This is an important requirement of future wireless/mobile networks with quality-of-service (QoS) provisioning
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An architecture is presented for a high-speed cellular radio access network based on ATM transport technology. Central to this approach is a new concept known as the virtual connection tree which avoids the need to involve the network call processor for every cell handoff attempt. Such an approach can readily support a very high rate of handoffs, thereby enabling use of physically small radio cells to provide very high system capacity, but may occasionally cause the volume of traffic to be handled by one cell site to exceed that cell site's capacity. A simple analytical methodology is developed which can be used for admission control, the purpose of which is to limit the number of in-progress calls such that two new quality of service metrics (overload probability and average time in overload) can be kept suitably low. Finally, a general framework is presented for overall system organization and signaling
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This work presents an approach to the evaluation of the reverse link capacity of a code-division multiple access (CDMA) cellular voice system which employs power control and a variable rate vocoder based on voice activity. It is shown that the Erlang capacity of CDMA is many times that of conventional analog systems and several times that of other digital multiple access systems
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An improved series of bounds is presented for the other-cell interference in cellular power-controlled CDMA. The bounds are based on allowing control by one of a limited set of base stations. In particular, it is shown that the choice of cellular base station with least interference among the set of N<sub>c</sub>>1 nearest base stations yields much lower total mean interference from the mobile subscribers than the choice of only the single nearest base station
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A traffic model and analysis for cellular mobile radio telephone systems with handoff are described. Three schemes for call traffic handling are considered. One is nonprioritized and two are priority oriented. Fixed channel assignment is considered. In the nonprioritized scheme the base stations make no distinction between new call attempts and handoff attempts. Attempts which find all channels occupied are cleared. In the first priority scheme considered, a fixed number of channels in each cell are reserved exclusively for handoff calls. The second priority scheme employs a similar channel assignment strategy, but, additionally, the queueing of handoff attempts is allowed. Appropriate analytical models and criteria are developed and used to derive performance characteristics. These show, for example, blocking probability, forced termination probability, and fraction of new calls not completed, as functions of pertinent system parameters. General formulas are given and specific numerical results for nominal system parameters are presented.
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Call admission control (CAC) plays a significant role in providing the desired quality of service in wireless networks. Many CAC schemes have been proposed. Analytical results for some performance metrics such as call blocking probabilities are obtained under some specific assumptions. It is observed, however, that due to the mobility, some assumptions may not be valid, which is the case when the average values of channel holding times for new calls and handoff calls are not equal. We reexamine some of the analytical results for call blocking probabilities for some call admission control schemes under more general assumptions and provide some easier-to-compute approximate formulas