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TOURISTIC DEMAND PROBLEM OF TURKISH REPUBLICS IN TURKISH TOURISM: SOLUTION SUGGESTIONS BY AHP METHOD

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Although Turkey has important values in terms of tourism, countries such as Russia, Germany, Iran and Ukraine account for a significant portion of tourism demand. However, the Turkish republics, which are an important market, do not have an important place in terms of tourist demand. The main purpose of the study is to reveal the reasons for the low tourism demand from the Turkic Republics. It is important to mutually increase the revenues obtained from tourism between Turkey and the Turkic Republics. In order to reveal the reasons for the low number of tourists from the Turkic Republics, a survey was conducted with 12 hotel managers from Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan via e-mail. However, the same survey was conducted face-to-face with two general hotel managers to get the opinions of Turkish hotel managers. As a research method, the method of analysis of hierarchy (AHP) was used, which is one of the most effective methods for determining and presenting expert opinions. In the findings analyzed with the Ahp method, it is stated that the main problem in low demand is "promotion". However, in order of priority, other problems were determined as income status, price, information before travel, transportation, physical distance, tourism centers, bias and service quality.
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SOCIAL SCIENCE DEVELOPMENT JOURNAL
SSDjournal
Open Access Refereed E-Journal & Refereed & Indexed
http://www.ssdjournal.org / journalssd@gmail.com
Article Arrival Date:
07
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4
.2022
Doi Number : http://dx.doi.org/10.31567/ssd.616
P
15
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0
5
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Vol 7 / Issue 31 / pp: 1-13
TÜRK CUMHRİYETLERİNİN TÜRKİYE TURİZMİNDEKİ TURİSTİK
TALEP SORUNU: AHP YÖNTEMİ İLE ÇÖZÜM ÖNERİLERİ
TOURISTIC DEMAND PROBLEM OF TURKISH REPUBLICS IN TURKISH
TOURISM: SOLUTION SUGGESTIONS BY AHP METHOD
Doç. Dr. Hakan AKYURT
Giresun Üniversitesi, Bulancak UYBYO, Turizm İşletmeciliği Bölümü,
hakan.akyurt@giresun.edu.tr
Giresun / Türkiye
ORCID: 0000-0002-6522-684X
ÖZET
Türkiye, turizm açısından önemli değerlere sahip olmakla birlikte, turistik talebin önemli bir
kısmını Rusya başta olmak üzere Almanya, İran ve Ukrayna gibi ülkeler oluşturmaktadır. Ancak,
önemli bir pazar olan Türk Cumhuriyetleri, turistik talep bakımından önemli bir yer
edinmemektedir. Çalışmanın temel amacı, Türk Cumhuriyetlerinden gelen turizm talebindeki
düşüklüğün nedenlerinin ortaya konmasıdır. Karşılıklı olarak Türkiye ile Türk Cumhuriyetleri
arasında turizmden elde edilen gelirlerin arttırılması önem arz etmektedir. Türk Cumhuriyetlerinden
gelen turist sayısının düşüklüğünün nedenlerinin ortaya konması bakımından, Türk
Cumhuriyetlerinden Tacikistan, Kazakistan, Azerbaycan, Türkmenistan, Kırgızistan ve
Özbekistan’dan toplam 12 otel müdürü ile e-posta yolu ile anket uygulanmıştır. Bununla birlikte,
Türkiye otel müdürlerinin görüşleri alınması bakımından 2 otel genel müdürü ile yüz yüze şekilde
aynı anket yapılmıştır. Çalışmada yöntem olarak, uzman görüşlerinin belirlenmesi ve ortaya
konmasında etkili yöntemlerden biri olan Analitik Hiyerarşi Süreci (Ahp) yöntemi kullanılmıştır.
Ahp yöntemi ile analiz edilen bulgularda, talep düşüklüğündeki temel sorunun “tanıtım” olduğu
belirtilmiştir. Bununla birlikte, diğer sorunların öncelik sırasına göre, gelir durumu, fiyat, seyahat
öncesi bilgi, ulaşım, fiziki uzaklık, turizm merkezleri, önyargı ve hizmet kalitesi olarak
belirlenmiştir.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Turizm, Türkiye turizm, Turistik talep, Türk Cumhuriyetleri, Ahp
ABSTRACT
Although Turkey has important values in terms of tourism, countries such as Russia, Germany, Iran
and Ukraine account for a significant portion of tourism demand. However, the Turkish republics,
which are an important market, do not have an important place in terms of tourist demand. The
main purpose of the study is to reveal the reasons for the low tourism demand from the Turkic
Republics. It is important to mutually increase the revenues obtained from tourism between Turkey
and the Turkic Republics. In order to reveal the reasons for the low number of tourists from the
Turkic Republics, a survey was conducted with 12 hotel managers from Tajikistan, Kazakhstan,
Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan via e-mail.
Social Science Development Journal 2022 May Volume: 7 Issue: 31 pp: 1-13
Doi Number : http://dx.doi.org/10.31567/ssd.616
http://www.ssdjournal.org Social Science Development Journal journalssd@gmail.com
2
However, the same survey was conducted face-to-face with two general hotel managers to get the
opinions of Turkish hotel managers. As a research method, the method of analysis of hierarchy
(AHP) was used, which is one of the most effective methods for determining and presenting expert
opinions. In the findings analyzed with the Ahp method, it is stated that the main problem in low
demand is "promotion". However, in order of priority, other problems were determined as income
status, price, information before travel, transportation, physical distance, tourism centers, bias and
service quality.
Keywords: Tourism, Tourism in Turkey, Tourism demand, Turk republics, Ahp.
1. INTRODUCTION
The tourism sector is one of the important sectors in terms of providing economic income and
employment. The increase in revenues from tourism provides significant benefits to the country's
economies and creates a sustainable employment opportunity. Since the tourism sector works in
cooperation with many other sectors, it also provides significant economic contributions to other
sectors. In this context, it is necessary to put forward a sustainable demand for the development of
tourism in Turkey. In order to ensure this situation, it is necessary to carry out publicity and
awareness studies in many different countries. Due to the fact that tourism is an important economic
element, it is necessary to make investments in this field in different countries.
It is seen that the demands in Turkey tourism are generally made by countries such as Germany,
Iran and Russia. Examining the pre-covid-19 processes at the stage of evaluating which countries
the tourists come from will reveal more realistic results. In this context, Russia, Iran, Germany and
Ukraine are the countries with the highest number of tourists as of 2019 (Türsab, 2022). Azerbaijan
and Uzbekistan are among the countries that send tourists to Turkey. However, considering the link
between Turkey and all other Turkic Republics, these figures are quite low. It is seen that the
tourism exchange between Turkey and the Turkic Republics is not mutually sufficient. It would not
be wrong to say that these countries, which have cultural and social ties, are in a very insufficient
cooperation in tourism.
The study was carried out with the aim of increasing the touristic demand of Turkish tourism and
reviving the tourism activities mutually with the Turkic republics. For this reason, the answer to the
question of why the tourism demand is insufficient is sought by taking the opinions of the experts
for the determination of the problems in tourism. In this context, the study reveals the opinions of
hotel managers of international chain hotel business in Turkey, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan,
Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. With this study, it has been tried to determine the
reasons for the low touristic demand between Turkey and the Turkic Republics. In the study, it is
aimed to help tourism academicians who will work on similar issues and to guide tourism managers
who want to increase touristic demand. Mutual increase in touristic demands is important in terms
of employment and economic contribution for all Turkic Republics. In the study, the main criteria
that cause low demand are listed in order of importance. In this way, it is aimed to bring movement
to the tourism sectors of Turkey and the Turkic Republics.
2. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
The contribution of the tourism sector, especially in recent years, has led countries to make
investments in this field and to introduce new touristic products. The tourism sector, which has
become more important especially for developing countries, contributes to both employment and
many different sectors with its direct foreign exchange generating effect. The work of people in
many different business lines outside the field of tourism provides job opportunities to people who
receive different educations. In addition, considering that the products in accommodation and
catering facilities are supplied from other sectors, it is possible to state that the contribution of the
tourism sector to other sectors is also very important.
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In the last twenty years, tourism has also led to the development of tourism education, as it has
made important breakthroughs in the fields of guidance, accommodation, entertainment, travel and
food and beverage. Tourism education has been opened to high school, associate degree,
undergraduate, graduate and doctorate levels and has become widespread all over the world (Akyurt
and Ültay, 2021, 167). With the increase in tourism education, it has been possible to employ more
qualified personnel in employment opportunities and it has been ensured that people with direct
tourism education add value to the economy of the country. Thus, especially in Turkey, it was
possible to increase the quality of service and to make tourism important as a profession.
Touristic demand is expressed as the whole of the decisions made by the people participating in the
tourism movement, where they carry out travel and accommodation activities outside the area they
live, buy touristic products in these destinations, and make for all tourism activities (Olalı and
Timur, 1988, 195). It is important to determine which products or destinations are in demand in
tourism. Tourism demand is the factor that directly affects the shaping of tourism in terms of
countries. For this reason, it is necessary to determine the touristic demand and to determine what
the influencing factors are. Demand elements that emerge according to the preferences and
expectations of tourists are the determinants of international touristic demand (Crouch, 1994, 14).
The tourism sector, which has an important place in the country's economies, is important with the
income-generating effect it provides to many different sectors. For this reason, many studies are
conducted on which factors affect tourism demand. Despite the arguments and beliefs presented in
favor of tourism's significant effects on economic growth, there are few growth models that include
tourism as a sector and analyze the effects of changes in tourism growth on long-term economic
growth. Therefore, movements caused by the increase in the growth rate of international tourism
demand have serious effects on economic growth (Schubert et al., 2011, 379).
The effect of tourism in the country's economy generally occurs in three ways. First, the
presentation of goods and services used in the tourism sector contributes to the production of many
sectors. The most important economic factors in the product/service presentation in tourism are the
reduction of unit costs and the increase of the general efficiency of the enterprises. Secondly, the
spread of tourism throughout the country has a positive effect on the income distribution of the
people. The increase in income from tourism increases the level of welfare in the country. Third, it
helps to increase employment in different sectors. Since tourism will increase production not only
in its own sector but also in support sectors, it makes a serious contribution to the increase in
employment in the national economies (Croes, 2006, 456).
Due to the direct and indirect contributions of the tourism sector to the economic growth of
countries, it is necessary to increase the tourism demand and to create a sustainable tourism
structure. Especially, when evaluated in terms of underdeveloped and developing countries, it is
seen that the tourism sector is an important sector in terms of employment and production in the
national economies.
In the last two decades, Turkish tourism has made a significant breakthrough in terms of tourism
revenues and the number of tourists. Incentives given by the government regarding tourism have
increased, and a significant improvement has been observed in the number of touristic facilities
built with tourism investments. In addition to providing significant income from the tourism sector
in Turkey, it has started promotional activities in the field of tourism throughout the world. The
existence of culturally and historically important tourism resources, along with the addition of
natural areas to these resources, has enabled the discovery of touristic attractions. The contribution
of tourism to employment and the overall national economy has been better understood, especially
after the Covid epidemic that emerged in recent years. Due to the decrease in the number of tourists,
there has been a decrease in tourism revenues and tourism revenues have decreased at the same rate.
In this context, the Turkic Republics, which have a cultural unity, have become one of the most
important markets for Turkish tourism.
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However, when Turkey's tourism data are examined, it is seen that Turkey did not attract enough
touristic demand from the Turkic Republics even before the Covid epidemic. The tourism data of
the Turkic Republics for the last two years are given in Table-1.
Table 1: Number of Tourists from Turkic Republics (2019-2021 May)
Countries
Years
Rate of
Change
%
Rate of
Change
%
2019 2020 2021 May 2019/2020
2020/2021
Azerbaijan 213 379 123 415 72 790 -42,16 -41,02
Kazakhistan 68 478 44 786 42 734 -34,60 -4,58
Kyrgyzstan 38 872 22 202 21 931 -42,88 -1,22
Uzbekistan 66 792 47 469 61 183 -28,93 28,89
Tajikistan 14 009 10 313 11 545 -26,38 11,95
Turkmenistan
87 206 37 637 2 638 -56,84 -92,99
Source: Türsab. Turkey Tourism Statistics Report with Latest Data.
As can be seen in Table-1, the Covid epidemic has considerably reduced the number of tourists
from the Turkic Republics in Turkish tourism. However, according to Türsab data, Russia ranks
first among the countries sending tourists to Turkey in the first four months of 2021 with 4,694,422
tourists (Türsab, 2022). Considering the total number of tourists from the Turkic Republics in the
first four months of 2021, it is seen that the number of tourists from Russia could not be reached.
Considering that students from the Turkic Republics who continue their education in Turkey are
registered as tourists at the border entrance, it is possible to say that this number is much less.
According to the 2021 data of the Turkish Statistical Institute (TUIK), it is stated that the number of
tourists entering Turkey is 30,038,961 (Tuik, 2022). However, according to the statistics of the
Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism, the Turkish Republic with the highest number of tourists
in 2021 was Azerbaijan with 470.618 people (T.R. Ministry of Culture and Tourism, 2022). As can
be seen, even Azerbaijan, which is the Turkish Republic with the highest number of tourists
according to Tuik data, remained in very low numbers. While it is possible to meet this situation
normally with the effect of Covid in 2020, sufficient touristic demand cannot be drawn from the
Turkish Republics despite the increasing number of tourists in 2021. However, according to TUIK
data, it is stated that the top five countries in international travels from Turkey are Georgia,
Germany, Greece, Bulgaria and the United States. Among the Turkic Republics, only Azerbaijan
was able to find a place among the top ten countries (Tuik, 2022). This situation shows that the
demand for tourism between the Turkic Republics and Turkey is at very low levels. When we look
at the income that Turkey has obtained from tourism from other countries, there are problems in
tourism in the mutual exchanges of the Turkish Republics, which have cultural affiliation with each
other.
During the evaluation of tourism on the demand side, it is necessary to investigate and reveal the
factors affecting the demand. It is seen that criteria affecting tourism demand have been put forward
by many researchers, but generally similar criteria are effective on demand. In general, studies
indicate that economic, social, psychological and political factors are effective in tourism demand.
However, it is seen that sub-factors are much more effective in today's tourism demand, and the
factors affecting demand vary according to countries and regions. For this reason, the criteria that
constitute the basic criteria of the study and affect the tourism demand are considered as price,
information, promotion, physical distance, tourism centers, prejudice, transportation, income status
and service quality (Yarcan, 1998, 14).
Social Science Development Journal 2022 May Volume: 7 Issue: 31 pp: 1-13
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However, while it is stated that income and price levels are the leading factors affecting tourism
demand, there are some researchers who state that there are other effective demand variables such
as ethnic identity, demographic factors, transportation, physical elements, attraction centers (Çeken
et al. 2008:80; Önder et al. . 2009:1525; Chon 2010:835; Ketenci 2010:91).
It is known that touristic destinations contain many different factors and they are presented to
tourists with different touristic products or services. For this reason, it is important to create
motivational elements in order to attract tourists to destinations (Mercan and Kazancı, 2019, 115).
Motivational factors need to be created in order to provide touristic demand, and therefore, social
media and communication elements should be used effectively, especially in recent years. Failure to
establish correct and effective communication in tourism establishments will create an obstacle in
ensuring a sustainable touristic demand (Akyurt and Külekçi, 2022, 185).
There are many studies in the literature on tourism demand, and the studies are handled within the
countries of the researchers in the countries. In these studies, when the subject is considered in
terms of similarities, the study conducted by Yüce in 2016 emphasized the cooperation in the field
of tourism by using the similarity of tradition and identity. Zorlu (2018), in his study on tourism
cooperation in the Turkish world, states that the identity perception of the Turkish world is a
positive factor for tourism movements. In another study conducted by Alili and Kızılırmak in 2019,
they evaluated tourism in Turkey, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan in terms of
competitiveness. As a result of this study, Turkey was determined as moderately competitive, while
Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan countries were expressed as weak competitive in tourism.
In a different study conducted by Ömer and Doru in 2019, the trade and tourism figures between
Turkey and the Turkic Republics were discussed. In the study, the number of tourists coming and
going from Turkey to the Turkic Republics between 2012-2017 is given. The study focused on data
on investment and trade.
As a result of the literature review related to the current study, it has been determined that there is
not exactly the same study on the conceptual framework and method with the current study. It has
been determined that the studies between the Turkish world and Turkey tourism have different
contents. When the approach and structural form of the current study subject are compared with the
structures of previous studies, it has been determined that there are significant differences.
However, no study could be found between Turkey and the countries of the Turkic world regarding
the research method used in the present study.
3. RESEARCH METHOD
In this section of the research, information about the objectives, universe and sample, validity and
reliability, analysis method of the research and findings are presented.
3.1. Purpose and Importance of the Research
The research was carried out to answer why the tourism demand between Turkey and the Turkic
world countries Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan is
low. The problems related to the low number of tourists between the culturally similar Turkic
Republics and Turkey have been tried to be revealed and solutions have been tried to be produced.
Since the incomes obtained from the tourism sector are very important for the countries, the
problematic of the research, why there is no cooperation on tourism constitutes. In this context, the
method part was created in line with the opinions and thoughts of the general managers of
international hotel businesses operating in these countries that make up the research universe. With
the results of this study, it is aimed to ensure cooperation between the countries of the Turkish
world on tourism, to mutually direct their citizens to tourism, to increase the number of tourists and
the income obtained from tourism. There is no doubt that it will make an important economic
contribution to all countries as a result of making tourism attractive among the citizens of the Turkic
world countries and touristic travels between these countries.
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3.2. Research Population and Sample
In the research sample, a survey was conducted with a total of 14 international chain hotel general
managers from 7 countries. These questionnaires were prepared and applied according to the
Analytical Hierarchy Method (AHP). In these countries, the number of international chain
enterprises and their general manager is naturally much higher than the number of samples.
However, according to AHP, which is the method of the research, even a single expert opinion is
sufficient to conduct analyzes and obtain results. The AHP method is an analysis technique made
with expert opinions, and even a single expert can represent the universe (Erdal and Korucuk, 2018,
107). Despite this situation, a total of 14 hotel managers from 7 different countries were reached in
the study and different expert opinions were obtained. It has been tried to obtain data from different
countries and different chain hotel businesses from the Turkic world countries as much as possible.
AHP, which is one of the multi-criteria decision-making methods that differs from other research
methods, aims to turn the opinions into consistent numerical data as a result of the findings obtained
based on the opinions of the experts. In the research analysis part, the operation of the AHP method
is discussed in detail.
3.3. Validity and Reliability of the Research
The basic criteria of the research were taken from the study conducted by Yarcan (1998). In this
study, the reasons for international tourism movements are revealed and research criteria are stated.
However, by considering the same criteria, it was used again in 2017 by Kış and Demir in their
studies examining the factors affecting the tourism demand of the province of Sinop, and the
reliability rate was determined as 95% (Kılıç and Demir, 2017, 80). The factors affecting the
tourism demand revealed by Yarcan are discussed in the literature by Terzi and Sarkım (1998),
Önder et al. (2009), Aydın et al. (2015), Aktürk and Gültekin (2021). It is seen that there are many
studies on the validity of the criteria used in the method part of this study. As can be seen in the
issues mentioned above, the validity and reliability of the criteria of the study have also been tested
in previous studies. Therefore, there is no problem with the validity and reliability of the current
study as it has been tested in previous studies. The criteria applied in the study were arranged
according to the AHP method and adapted to be answered by the hotel managers. In the study, 9
(nine) criteria were created for the opinions of the general managers of the international chain hotel
business regarding the tourism demand problems between Turkey and other Turkic Republics and
are given in Table 2.
Table 2: AHP Scale Basic Criteria Table
Criteria Basic Criteria
1 Physical distance (K1)
2 Transportation (K2)
3 Price (K3)
4 Pre-trip information (K4)
5 Tourism centers (K5)
6 Income status (K6)
7 Service quality (K7)
8 Promotion (K8)
9 Prejudice (K9)
3.4. Analysis of the Research
The study was conducted using the Analytical Hierarchy Process Method, which is one of the
Multi-Criteria Decision Making Methods. This method was developed by a scientist named Thomas
L. Saaty in 1980 and it is aimed to be used in solving problems.
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Ahp provides advantages in terms of the decision-making method it offers to managers, and
provides significant benefits in terms of testing the main and sub-criteria with its use in different
areas (Uludağ and Doğan, 2016, 17). The AHP method is used in decision-making processes to
reveal the opinions of experts in multifaceted situations. It is the presentation of a hierarchical
model that aims to show the connections between the objectives, criteria and alternatives of the
problems (Uğur and Sarıoğlu Uğur, 2019, 264). This method is used for decision makers to rank
alternatives, create pairwise comparisons and choose the best among them. Ahp is among the
preferred methods because it is understandable when solving complex and multidimensional
problems. With this method, it is possible to create an important roadmap in the research and
development studies of managers (Doğan, 2020, 233). It analyzes the criteria in order of priority
among the criteria predetermined by the researchers in terms of their importance levels (Yiğit and
Demirtaş, 2020, 308).
The steps applied in the AHP method are listed below:
Stage 1: Establishing the Hierarchical Structure: First, a hierarchy-based structure is created
for the solution of the problem. This structure continues with the selection of appropriate criteria
after the main purpose of the study is determined. It is possible that there are multiple criteria or
sub-criteria related to the applied research (Tulga et al., 2016, 193).
Stage 2: Determination of ordering by priorities: In this step, the pairwise comparisons
matrix is revealed. The matrix aims to compare the criteria with each other (Erdal and Korucuk,
2018, 105). Developed by Saaty (1980), a scale is created between 1 and 9 according to the degree
of importance. A value of 1 is marked when it is of equal importance, and a value of 9 if it is of
extreme importance. This situation is given in Table 3.
Table 3: AHP Scale Importance level Table
Importance
level
Definition
Description
1 Equally important Two criteria of equal importance
3 Moderately important When one criterion is slightly more important
than the other
5 Strongly important When one criterion is more important than
another
7 Very strongly important When one criterion is too much over the other
9 Absolute importance When one criterion is excessively greater than
another
2, 4, 6, 8 Intermediate values Intermediate values of the severity levels
determined above
3.Stage: Eigenvector Determination: Column vectors are used to determine the percent
importance distributions of the criteria. B column vector of type "n x n" is made. The following
equation 1 is used in the calculation of B column vectors (Saaty, 1994, 21).
Equation 1
The n number of B column vectors are arranged in matrix format and matrix C is obtained.
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With the C matrix, the percent importance distributions indicating the importance values between
the criteria are determined. Equation 2 is used to obtain this result, and the arithmetic average of all
row components is taken. The W column vector specified as the Priority Vector is obtained.
Equation 2
Step 4: Calculating the Consistency Ratio: In order to calculate the Consistency Ratio (CR)
obtained, the eigenvalue vector and the maximum eigenvalues must be calculated in each matrix.
Next, the consistency indicator CI must be calculated. The basis of the CR calculation is the
comparison of the number of criteria and a coefficient called the Base Value (). During the
calculation of , the D column vector is found as a result of the matrix multiplication of the
comparison matrix A and the priority vector W.
The quotient of each result of the D column vector and the W column vector is the base value (E) of
the evaluation criterion. The arithmetic mean of the obtained values is obtained by Equation 4 and
reveals the basic value () for comparison.
Equation 3
Equation 4
After calculating the ” value, the Indicator of Consistency (CI) is found by Equation 5.
Equation 5
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In the last step, CI is divided by the standard correction value accepted as the Random Indicator
(RI) and the CR value is obtained with the help of Equation 6.
Equation 6
There is a CR value in order to ensure that the answers given in the studies conducted with the AHP
method are consistent and that the questionnaire is problem-free. A CR value less than 0.1 indicates
that the study is reliable. If the CR value is greater than 0.10, it indicates that there is a calculation
error in the AHP method or that the respondents who participated in the survey gave inconsistent
answers. If the CR value is above the determined limits, the analyzes should be repeated (Karaatlı
and Davras 190). The CR value represents the numerical data in which the reliability of the research
is determined for the studies conducted with the Ahp method.
3.5. Findings
First, the pairwise comparison matrix of the criteria was created, then the geometric averages of the
obtained data were taken and the findings were reached with the “Super decision V 3.2” program.
The pairwise comparisons matrix of the study is shown in Table 4.
Table 4: Pairwise Comparisons Matrix Table
Physical
distance
Transportation
Price
Pre-trip
information
Tourism
centers
Income
status
Service
quality
Promotion
Prejudice
Physical
distance
1,00
2,70
1,07
2,16
0,91
1,35
0,18
0,95
0,20
Transportation
0,21
1,00
0,28
0,56
0,38
0,32
0,17
0,60
0,19
Price
1,63
2,43
1,00
3,97
1,72
4,51
0,26
2,05
0,31
Pre-trip
information
0,32
1,79
0,25
1,00
0,53
0,34
0,11
0,64
0,17
Tourism
centers
1,62
2,65
0,58
1,89
1,00
1,98
0,17
2,00
0,19
Income status
4,74
3,13
3,33
5,90
2,52
1,00
0,30
1,25
0,18
Service quality
0,22
0,20
0,23
0,05
0,34
5,80
1,00
1,66
0,32
Promotion
5,05
5,66
3,72
8,55
3,50
0,80
0,35
1,00
5,42
Prejudice
0,94
0,20
0,27
0,70
0,38
0,38
0,18
0,31
1,00
By using the binary decision matrix, the criteria weights in Table 5 were found as a result of
dividing each cell by its column total.
Table 5: Weight Values of Criteria Result Table
Physical
distance
(K1)
Transportation
(K2)
Price
(K3)
Pre-trip
information
(K4)
Tourism
centers
(K5)
Income
status
(K6)
Service
quality
(K7)
Promotion
(K8)
Prejudice
(K9)
Weighting
0,0989 0,2124 0,3169
0,2328 0,0925 0,3712 0,0217 0,4780 0,0511
CR value= 0, ,0657
Social Science Development Journal 2022 May Volume: 7 Issue: 31 pp: 1-13
Doi Number : http://dx.doi.org/10.31567/ssd.616
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10
According to these results, the findings related to the problems arising in tourism have been
completed. Which factors were listed in order of importance and the answer to the research problem
was reached. The criteria specified by the managers of the international chain hotel business are
given in Table 6 according to the degree of importance.
Table 6: Ranking Table of Criteria by Importance
Criteria
Weight
Ratio
1 Promotion (0,4780)
2 Income status (0,3712)
3 Price (0,3169)
4 Pre-trip information (0,2328)
5 Transportation (0,2124)
6 Physical distance (0,0989)
7 Tourism centers (0,0925)
8 Prejudice (0,0511)
9 Service quality (0,0217)
In line with the data obtained from Table 6, the most important criterion was "promotion". After
this criterion, the criteria of "income status, price, information before travel, transportation, physical
distance, tourism centers, prejudice and service quality" are listed in order of importance.
DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS
With the increasing importance of the tourism sector in the country's economy, studies are being
carried out on different methods and new tourism markets in tourism. In this context, tourism
activities between Turkey and other Turkic Republics are important. However, as can be seen in the
tourism data, the tourism activity among the Turkic Republics and thus the revenues from tourism
remain at very low levels. The low number of tourists among these countries with cultural ties
naturally leads to a low mutual income from tourism.
With the study, the reasons for the low tourism demand among the countries of the Turkish world
were tried to be revealed by the managers of international chain hotels. In line with the data
obtained as a result of the analyzes, it has been revealed that the most important reason for low
demand is publicity. Since it is out of question that citizens in the Turkish world do not have
information about each other, the result of the lack of publicity is that there is little cooperation in
the field of tourism with each other in these countries. Considering that there are many people
traveling for educational purposes in Turkey and other Turkic Republics, it is possible to state that
promotion is only about tourism destinations and their attractiveness, and tourism is not supported
among these countries.
However, the fact that the most important criteria after the promotion are "income status and price"
means that people in these countries are mutually concerned about tourism activities. It would not
be a wrong inference to state that the cooperation between the countries of the Turkic world for
trade and education purposes is not sufficient in tourism. In addition, one of the most striking
results in the data obtained in the study is that managers do not have concerns about service quality
and bias. Therefore, it is considered by the managers that it will not have a negative impact on
touristic demand. It is possible to state that the cultural bond between countries breaks the prejudice
and it can be stated that the service quality standards of tourism enterprises in these countries are at
a sufficient level.
As a result of the literature review within the scope of the study, no study was found that was
conducted with the same method and addressed the importance of the subject in a similar way.
Social Science Development Journal 2022 May Volume: 7 Issue: 31 pp: 1-13
Doi Number : http://dx.doi.org/10.31567/ssd.616
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11
However, it has been determined that there are studies on the Turkic Republics that examine the
tourism demand and deal with different subjects. In the study of Yüce (2016) on cooperation in the
Turkish world in tourism, the effects of traditions on tourism were examined. The result that the
perception of tradition in tourism will increase the tourism demand is also stated in the current
study, but there is no similarity in terms of method and handling of the subject. When the study
results are evaluated, it is seen that the tradition similarity is different from the current study
criteria. In a different study, Zorlu (2018) states that Turkish identity is an effective demand factor
in tourism, and there is no similarity with the current study in terms of factors affecting touristic
demand. However, there are common aspects in terms of the study universe and the treatment of
tourism. In another study, the tourism competitiveness of the Turkic Republics was discussed by
Alili and Kızılırmak (2019). Although the study is different in terms of subject and method, there
are similarities in terms of tourism subject and research universe. Another study dealing with
tourism in the Turkish world was conducted by Ömer and Doru (2019). In this study, trade and
tourism data are presented. There is no common aspect of the study other than the similarity in
terms of the universe. When the literature is examined, it has been determined that there is no study
that has similarity with the current study in terms of method, result and scope of the subject.
As a result of the data obtained from the study and the relevant literature review, the following
suggestions are presented regarding the low demand for tourism among the countries of the Turkic
world:
It would be appropriate for the governments of the Turkic world countries to mutually
support touristic travels and to use encouraging motivation elements,
Tourism attraction centers in the countries of the Turkic world need to be promoted more,
It would be appropriate for country governments to cooperate in the field of tourism and to
carry out activities that guide their citizens to the Turkish Republics in their travels abroad,
The application of price discounts and incentives between the Turkic Republics will increase
the touristic demand,
Travel agencies should be given incentives for tourism activities between these countries,
Legal facilities should be provided to enable intermediary institutions to work in cooperation
between the countries of the Turkic world,
In order to increase the interest in tourism among the Turkic Republics, promotions should
be made in which cultural relations and traditions will be presented,
It would be appropriate for state administrations to offer tourism incentives, discounts and
promotional practices to their citizens in return for spending their holidays in the Turkic Republics,
Citizens in these countries should be reached by making special tours, trips and programs
between the Turkic Republics,
By using social media platforms effectively, continuous and detailed promotional activities
should be carried out regarding tourism products and attraction centers in the countries of the
Turkic world,
Tourism fairs and organizations should be organized among the countries of the Turkic
world, and effective public relations activities should be carried out between these countries.
Since the importance of the tourism sector is increasing day by day, it is necessary to introduce new
touristic products and to find new tourism markets. The countries of the Turkish world have to be
an important tourism market for each other in terms of traditions and cultural proximity. The
increase in the demands of tourism among these countries will lead to an increase in employment
and income from tourism in the countries. Turkey and other Turkic Republics should create a
tourism market among themselves and implement activities that encourage their citizens in tourism.
Measures should be taken to prevent the low number of tourists and methods should be developed
to increase tourism demand.
Social Science Development Journal 2022 May Volume: 7 Issue: 31 pp: 1-13
Doi Number : http://dx.doi.org/10.31567/ssd.616
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12
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