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Cyst size variability in invasive American Artemia franciscana Kellogg, 1906 (Branchiopoda: Anostraca) in Asia: a commercial approach

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Abstract and Figures

Artemia is the most common live food which is used in aquaculture worldwide. This study reports on biometrical variation of introduced American Artemia franciscana cyst from 24 non-native localities and two native habitats in Asia and USA, respectively. Results showed the largest diameter of untreated cyst, diameter of decapsulated cyst and thicker chorion ordinarily belong to invasive populations. Because of the small cysts, which have an effect on increasing quantity per unit weight and could be the cause of increased hatching efficiency, commercial productions of A. franciscana cyst from native sources should potentially be considered higher quality than productions from non-indigenous environments. Principal Component Analysis revealed that all cyst batches from San Francisco Bay were classified in one group and the most invasive populations could arrange in other separated group. Although, diameter of decapsulated cyst and chorion thickness showed a negative and significant correlation among invasive populations, there was no significant relationship within native populations. These observations contrast with biometrical patterns of parthenogenetic populations.
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Cyst size variability in invasive American Artemia franciscana Kellogg, 1906 (Branchiopoda:
Anostraca) in Asia: a commercial approach
BY
Xiao-Fang Wu1,5,7), Chun-Yang Shen2,7), Chun-Zheng Fu3), Ning Yang1,4) Wang Pei-Zheng5), Amin
Eimanifar6) and Alireza Asem1,4,8)
1) Hainan Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Tropical Marine Fishery Resources,
Hainan Tropical Ocean University, Sanya 572022, China.
2) Department of Biology, Chengde Medical University, Chengde 067000, Hebei Province, China.
3) Institute of Sericulture, Chengde Medical University, Chengde 067000, Hebei Province, China.
4) College of Fisheries and Life Sciences, Hainan Tropical Ocean University, Sanya 572000, China.
5) College of Ecology and Environment, Hainan Tropical Ocean University, Sanya, China.
6) Independent Senior Scientist, Industrial District, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20878, USA.
7) Equally contribution as first author
8) Corresponding author: asem.alireza@gmail.com
was not certified by peer review) is the author/funder. All rights reserved. No reuse allowed without permission.
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ABSTRACT
Artemia is the most common live food which is used in aquaculture worldwide. This study reports on
biometrical variation of introduced American Artemia franciscana cyst from 24 non-native localities
and two native habitats in Asia and USA, respectively. Results showed the largest diameter of
untreated cyst, diameter of decapsulated cyst and thicker chorion ordinarily belong to invasive
populations. Because of the small cysts, which have an effect on increasing quantity per unit weight
and could be the cause of increased hatching efficiency, commercial productions of A. franciscana cyst
from native sources should potentially be considered higher quality than productions from non-
indigenous environments. Principal Component Analysis revealed that all cyst batches from San
Francisco Bay were classified in one group and the most invasive populations could arrange in other
separated group. Although, diameter of decapsulated cyst and chorion thickness showed a negative and
significant correlation among invasive populations, there was no significant relationship within native
populations. These observations contrast with biometrical patterns of parthenogenetic populations.
Key words.— Brine shrimp; exotic populations, Cyst size, Biometrical variation, Regression
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INTRODUCTION
Different productions of brine shrimp Artemia including newly hatched nauplii and decapsulated
cysts, have been widely used in fishery and aquaculture industry (Sorgeloos et al., 2001). From 1980 to
1994, the annual consumption of Artemia cyst has rapidly increased from 60 tons to 2000 tons
(Bengtson et al., 1991; Triantaphyllidis et al., 1994). In the early of 21th century, aquaculture
development programs raised the harvesting wet Artemia cyst nearly 9000 tons from Great Salt Lake,
USA (Dhont & Sorgeloos, 2002) Van Stappen et al. (2020) have estimated that consumption of
Artemia cyst in China was 1000 tons in 2016.
Since the 1950s, to support the developing aquaculture industry, the cyst of American Artemia
franciscana have been exported overseas from Great Salt Lake and San Francisco Bay in the USA
(Van Stappen, 2008; Eimanifar et al., 2014). Due to provide the live food demanded in fishery and
regarding to the adaptation ability of A. franciscana in the extreme environmental conditions, it has
been cultured in non-native habitats and man-made salterns which has caused the permanent
colonization in numerous geographical regions across Eurasia, Mediterranean regions (Amat et al.,
2005; Eimanifar et al., 2014, 2020; Scalone and Rabet, 2013; Saji et al., 2019; Shen et al., 2021;
Asem et al., 2021) and Australia (Asem et al., 2018).
Aquaculture industry is the basic and main reason of dispersal of American A. franciscana in
non-native habitats especially in Asia (Camara, 2020; Shen et al., 2021). Although genetic variation of
invasive A. franciscana has been well studied (Scalone and Rabet, 2013; Eimanifar et al., 2014, 2020;
Saji et al., 2019; Saad & Elsebaie, 2020; Asem et al., 2018, 2021), there is a lack of information on
biometrical variation of cyst in new environments. Beside of several biological factors including
nutrition and hatching percentage, the hatching efficiency (the number of nauplii which obtain with per
gram of dry cysts) is an important parameter in evaluation of cyst quality and its marketing (Sorgeloos
et al., 1978). Even if, physicochemical conditions can affect hatching percentage as well as hatching
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efficiency (Camargo et al., 2004; Sayg, 2004; Salma et al., 2012; El-Magsodi et al., 2016; Sharahi &
Zarei, 2016), Artemia cyst size has an impact on number of eggs in per unit weight which is an
impressive parameter on hatching efficiency regardless of hatching conditions (Asem et al., 2007,
2010).
The aim of this study was to investigate the variation of introduced American A. franciscana
cysts (resting eggs) in Asia. First, we compared biometrical variability within and between native and
exotic populations to understand alteration patterns of cyst size in non-indigenous environments.
Second, correlation of cyst size was analyzed with decapsulated (yolk sac and embryo) and chorion
(outer shell of egg) thickness to determine the relationships among biometrical characters. Gaining a
better apprehension of biometric characterization of Artemia cyst, could supply insight into the reasons
why different batches/populations with same hatching percentage, represent different hatching
efficiency.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Biometrical characterizations of invasive American A. franciscana cyst were studied in 24 localities
from Asia and two native habitats in USA (Great Salt Lake, UT and San Francisco Bay, CA) (table 1).
In each population, cysts were hydrated and decapsulated following Asem et al. 2007. Diameters
of untreated (fully cyst) and decapsulated cysts were measured using a Motic BA210 microscope
equipped with a MoticamX camera and software of Motic Images Plus 2.0v. Thickness of chorion layer
was determined by: chorion thickness = (Mean diameter of untreated cyst - Mean diameter of
decapsulated cyst)/. This value is reported without standard deviations (Vanhaecke & Sorgeloos, 1980;
Asem et al., 2010, 2014).
One-Way ANOVA (Tukey test, p > 0.05) was performed to analyze significant differences
among biometrical characters. Three parameters (diameter of untreated cysts, diameter of decapsulated
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cyst and chorion thickness) were employed for the clustering of populations using Principal
Component Analysis (PCA). The patterns of cyst variability were analyzed using linear regression and
Pearson's correlation between the biometrical parameters (p > 0.05). The computer program SPSS
was utilized for statistical analysis.
RESULTS
Cyst Biometry
Biometrical characters of A. franciscana cyst is summarized in table 1. According to the findings, the
biggest fully cyst of Artemia belongs to invasive population of YAG (267.90±19.15 µm) from China
that has significant differences with other remaining regions sample, excepting invasive population of
NAN (265.90±15.67 µm) and a batch of native population from GSL (262.50±13.04 µm). Among
invasive populations, DAG (235.90±14.34 µm) and WUZ (238.85±10.91 µm) yields the smallest size
of untreated cyst from China. Generally native populations (GSL and SFB) represent small fully cyst.
Two invasive populations, NOG and YAG reveal the largest diameter of decapsulated cysts
(255.40±15.66 and 250.55±15.83 µm, respectively). While among invasive populations, the smallest
decapsulated cyst belongs to ZHS (218.55±10.55 µm), overall the smallest decapsulated cyst are
observed in native population from SFB (from 207.7±11.1 to 216.40±12.00 µm).
The thinnest chorion layers are observed in one of native population of GSL batches (1.07 µm),
followed by invasive populations of NOG (2.20 µm) and MAH (2.70 µm) from Iran. The thickest
chorion layer belongs to TUT (12.23 µm) from India, followed by ZHS (11.58 µm) from China,
respectively.
Principal Component Analysis
Regarding to the PCA (Principal Component Analysis), the first and second components present
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64.18% and 35.66% of variability and totally the both components involve with 99.84% of separation.
In the first component, the means of untreated cyst (0.996) and the means of decapsulated cyst (0.921),
have the main influences in the classification of populations, respectively. The chorion thickness (0.956)
is an effective character in the second component. PCA shows two separated collections, a group
containing all batches of native population from SFB and four batches of GSL (Group A), and another
consists of 17 invasive populations (Group B). While 12 populations (five batches of native
populations from GSL and seven batches of invasive populations) show a widely distribution on PCA
plot without grouping (fig. 1).
Regression and Correlation
The equations of Linear Regression and Pearson's correlations are showed in figure 2. The results
confirm a positive and significant correlation between size of untreated and decapsulated cyst in both
native and invasive populations (r = 0.941, Sig. = 0.0001 and r = 0.969, Sig. = 0.0001, respectively).
On the other hand, there are no significant correlations between untreated cyst and chorion thickness.
While correlation between decapsulated cyst and chorion thickness is non-significant in native
populations (r = 0.041, Sig. = 0.883), invasive populations show negative and significant relationship (r
= 0.521, Sig. = 0.009).
DISCUSSION
The introduction of exotic species to the new habitats can reduce biodiversity and would eventually
reorganize the biological communities (Olden et al., 2004; Lodge et al., 2006). Though, almost 1% of
the introduced non-natives species become invasive (Williamson, 2006), colonization of exotic species
in the new environments have generated extensive economic damage and ecological effects (Pimentel
et al., 2005).
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Given the economic value of the brine shrimp Artemia in fishery and aquaculture, and regarding
to the biological potential and high production fitness of American A. franciscana, it has been
introduced in other continents especially in Asia, including China (Bohai Bay), Vietnam (Vinhchau)
and Iran (Nough catchment) (Le et al., 2019; Van Stappen et al., 2020; Eimanifar et al., 2020).
Numerous studies have been documented ecological effects of exotic A. franciscana which could
significantly diminish biodiversity of the native species of Artemia (Amat et al., 2007; Scalone &
Rabet, 2013; Asem et al., 2018; Eimanifar et al., 2020, Shen et al., 2021). The current survey advances
an opportunity, to our knowledge, to perceive cyst size variation of introduced A. franciscana in Asia
compared to its native populations in the USA.
Generally, A. franciscana has represented a wide range of variation in biometry of cyst.
Vanhaecke & Sorgeloos (1980) have reported Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA) has a larger cyst diameter
compared with San Francisco Bay (California, USA). A study on cyst diameters in the six localities
from Colombian Caribbean populations of A. franciscana have revealed their cysts characterization
were more similar to Great Salt Lake (Camargo et al., 2005). Castro et al. (2006) have reported an
extensive cyst variation for Chilean populations (220.5 to 241 m for untreated cyst and 5.4 to 7.9 m
for chorion thickness) and Mexican populations of A. franciscana (200.4 to 292.3 m for untreated cyst
and 2.11 to 10.78 m for chorion thickness). It has been concluded that intraspecific differentiation in
cyst size can be attributed to the seasonal fluctuations in ecological parameters and food availability
(Asem et al., 2010).
It has been confirmed that critical environmental conditions (salinity = 300 g/l in 2003) in Urmia
Lake could affect cyst characterizations of Artemia urmiana to have small size of untreated and
decapsulated diameter and thicker chorion layer (Asem et al., 2010). Sankian et al. (2011) have showed
that a newly Artemia nauplii hatched from wild cysts that have been harvested in optimum ecological
condition from Urmia Lake in 1998 (salinity = 180 g/l) had low mortality rate and higher RNA content
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than cyst sample in 2003 (see Asem et al., 2019). This finding could challenge that whether smaller
cysts should have high quality owing to high hatching efficiency. Although, there are multiple reports
of cyst size variation of different Artemia species/populations, due to the lack of comprehensive studies,
our knowledge about interspecific and intraspecific variation of Artemia cyst and its relationship with
environmental conditions is limited.
Asem & Sun (2014) characterized Chinese parthenogenetic Artemia (Crustacea: Anostraca) cysts
with different ploidy levels. The results have documented that all three biometrical parameters have
positive and significant correlations to each other. By contrast, in the current study there was no
significant correlation between diameter untreated cyst and chorion thickness in both native and
invasive population. Additionally, invasive populations of A. franciscana showed a negative correlation
between diameter of decapsulated cyst and chorion thickness, meanwhile parthenogenetic populations
have exhibited positive correlation that with increasing diameter of decapsulated cyst, chorion layer
was thicker.
With regard to our results, native populations (Great Salt Lake and San Francisca Bay) show
dissimilar biometrical patterns. Great Salt Lake batches represent a heterogeneity distribution pattern in
PCA, while San Francisca Bay batches are clustered in one group. The reason of this differentiation
might be referred to under control conditions in San Francisca Bay saltern(s) as man-made
constrictions, so that, Great Salt Lake has been frequently affected via seasonal fluctuations in biotic
and abiotic parameters. Although, actual origin of invasive A. franciscana populations in non-native
environments are unclear (Eimanifar et al., 2014, Asem et al., 2018; Shen et al., 2021), at least it has
been confirmed that Vinhchau population in Vietnam have been originated from San Francisco Bay (Le
et al., 2019). Even so, Vinhchau population has not been located in the same group with San Francisco
Bay which it could be attributed to effect of the environmental conditions. Significant biometrical
differentiation exists in the native population of San Francisca Bay (USA).
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In conclusion, biometrical characterizations of American A. franciscana cyst have exhibited
intraspecific variation. Environmental conditions with effect on adaptations to biotic and abiotic
parameters could be taken to be an important cause on cyst size variability. Despite of small cyst could
not be the only reason for its high quality, the importance of cyst size on hatching efficiency and
marketing should be consider. Interspecific and intraspecific variation and regression patterns of
Artemia cyst necessitate comprehensive studies on biological pathways to understand how bionic and
abiotic factors influence cyst size variability.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors thank Prof. Gilbert Van Stappen (Artemia Research Center, Ghent University, Belgium)
for preparing Artemia cyst samples for this study. This study has been supported by 2021 Hebei
Province introduced foreign intelligence project.
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JASPERS (Eds.). The brine shrimp Artemia. Vol. 3, Universa press, Wettern, Belgium, pp. 393–
405.
WILLIAMSON, M., 2006. Explaining and predicting the success of invading species at different stages of
invasion. Biological Invasions, 8: 1561–1568.
was not certified by peer review) is the author/funder. All rights reserved. No reuse allowed without permission.
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TABLE I
Biometric mean (±SD) of invasive and native populations of A. franciscana cysts from Asia and USA. Same letters in each
column show non-significant difference (n = 100, ANOVA, Tukey test, p > 0.05).
Location1 Abb. Untreated
cyst (µm) Decapsulated
cyst (µm) Chorion
thickness (µm)
Invasive populations
Tanggu, China TTA 251.30±14.95
fg
233.90±14.70
fghi
8.70
Nanpu, China NAN 265.90±15.67
h
245.90±14.45
l
10.00
Yuantong, China YUA 245.60±12.21
cdefg
229.85±14.19
defgh
7.88
Zhan hua, China ZHS 241.70±11.94
bcd
218.55±10.55
ab
11.58
Wuzhidui, China WUZ 238.85±10.91
bc
229.45±13.44
defg
4.70
Bohai Bay, China BBA 247.63±14.38
defg
226.60±10.91
cde
10.51
Xinhu, China XIN 252.05±13.65
g
237.10±10.57
ij
7.48
Yanhua, China YANH 252.15±11.64
g
232.53±9.93
efghi
9.81
Haixing, China HAI 245.85±12.43
defg
228.65±13.52
cdef
8.60
Wudi, China WUD 244.75±12.72
cdef
227.25±10.60
cde
8.75
Beidaba, China BEID 247.45±12.03
defg
228.35±10.54
cdef
9.55
Leguantai, China LEG 249.70±15.95
efg
232.00±13.08
efghi
8.85
Dongying, China DOG 249.40±12.82
efg
228.2±13.06
cdef
10.60
Sikou, China SIK 251.30±14.15
fg
235.55±12.73
ghij
7.88
Yangkou, China YAG 267.90±19.15
h
250.55±15.83
ml
8.67
Da Gang, China DAG 235.90±14.34
ab
225.55±13.87
cd
5.18
Eryan, China ERY 249.95±14.24
fg
228.2±11.09
cdef
10.88
Vinhchau, Vietnam VCH 242.90±11.06
cde
222.65±8.92
abc
10.13
Sri Lanka SLA 241.50±11.23
abc
222.35±7.96
ab
9.58
Kelambakkam, India KEL 242.50±11.00
bcd
235.90±11.51
hij
3.30
Tuticorin, India TUT 249.65±10.67
efg
225.20±10.27
cd
12.23
Nough catchment, Iran NOG 251.00±13.96
fg
255.40±15.66
m
2.20
Mahshahr port, Iran MAH 246.00±14.34
defg
240.60±14.24
jk
2.70
Garmat Ali, Iraq GAA 241.05±11.13
bcd
224.00±8.67
bcd
8.53
Native populations
Great Salt Lake, USA
2
GSL 262.50±13.04
h
245.15±9.55
l
8.68
San Francisco Bay, USA
2
SFB 230.85±10.71
a
216.40±12.00
a
7.23
San Francisco Bay, USA
3
*
SFB
VS1
224.70±12.4 210.00±12.7 7.35
San Francisco Bay, USA
3
*
SFB
VS2
224.60±11.9 210.50±12.3 7.05
San Francisco Bay, USA
3
*
SFB
VS3
223.90±11.7 209.70±12.8 7.10
San Francisco Bay, USA
3
*
SFB
VS4
224.30±11.8 207.70±11.1 8.30
San Francisco Bay, USA
3
SFB
VS5
228.70±12.3 212.10±11.3 8.30
Great Salt Lake, USA
3
*
GSL
VS1
252.50±13.0 241.60±13.2 5.45
Great Salt Lake, USA
3
*
GSL
VS2
244.20±16.1 234.80±16.0 4.7
Great Salt Lake, USA
4
*
GSL
E1
230.99±11.32 213.69±11.16 8.65
Great Salt Lake, USA
4
*
GSL
E2
231.92±11.80 216.32±10.71 7.8
Great Salt Lake, USA
4
*
GSL
E3
216.17±9.15 214.03±10.01 1.07
Great Salt Lake, USA
4
*
GSL
E4
232.71±11.18 217.58±11.93 7.56
Great Salt Lake, USA
4
*
GSL
E5
233.06±9.83 217.65±10.90 7.7
Great Salt Lake, USA
4
*
GSL
E6
218.30±13.12 210.81±10.44 3.74
Note: 1) further information of studied localities are available in Eimanifar et al. (2014). 2) This study, 3) Vanhaecke and
Sorgeloos, 1980, 4) Eimanifar et al., 2015.
* These results of Vanhaecke and Sorgeloos (1980) and Eimanifar et al. (2015) have not been used for one-way ANOVA
analyses.
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Fig. 1. Scatterplot of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based on three biometrical characters of cysts.
was not certified by peer review) is the author/funder. All rights reserved. No reuse allowed without permission.
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Fig. 2. Correlation among biometric characters in native and invasive populations of A. franciscana cyst. (Red and black
colors have been used for native and invasive populations, respectively). A) Regression between diameters of untreated cyst
and decapsulated cyst; B) Regression between diameter of untreated cyst and chorion thickness; C) Regression between
diameter of decapsulated cyst and chorion thickness.
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Up to date, the true phylogenetic relationships among the Artemia species are under debate. In this study, some morphometric and molecular (Inter-simple sequence repeats, ISSR) variations were analyzed to evaluate the biodiversity among some Egyptian Artemia species comparatively with other brine shrimps (A. parthenogenetica, A. salina and A. franciscana). The highest and lowest Wilks' lambda values were calculated for the Length of furca and the abdominal length. The cluster analysis based on the Artemia morphological variations was an agreement with the re-constructed dendrogram based on ISSR markers. The ISSR variations were comparatively analyzed with the Artemia species Cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) sequence variations. Based on the COI consensus sequences, the distance value between A. salina and A. parthenogenetica was higher than the distance value between A. salina and A. franciscana. The ISSR could be an effective method in Artemia molecular characterization and evolutionary studies. The results could be helpful in the conservation of the evaluated Artemia species. The combination of more informative molecular markers with the selected morphometric characters should be carried out to understand the true evolutionary variations in the Artemia resources.
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This paper reports on biometrical variation of parthenogenetic Artemia cysts from 12 saline lakes and salterns of China. The results showed that the largest diameter of untreated and decapsulated cysts of the studied populations belong to Aqqikkol Lake (325.4 ± 13.7 μm; 301.4 ± 14.2 μm, respectively) and the smallest from Xiaotan Saltern (258.7 ± 10.8 μm) and Gaodao Saltern (244.3 ± 15.5 μm). The thickest and the thinnest chorion layers are from Yinggehai Saltern (12.2 μm) and Aibi Lake (3.5 μm), respectively. Our results confirm that the studied biometrical parameters (the diameters of untreated and decapsulated cysts as well as chorion thickness) present a significant correlations (p < 0.05) and also that the populations at very high-altitude locations have the biggest cysts. However, the regression analysis showed that the correlations between altitude and biometrical parameters of cysts were not significant. The relationship between degree of ploidy and cyst size is not clear, so size is more likely due to the combined effect of ploidy degree, physico-chemical conditions, food availability and population-specific parameters. The present results also suggest that the high standard deviations (SD) and coefficients of variation (CV) in cysts of Barkol population may be related to their complex ploidy composition (2n: 27.4%; 3n: 4.9%; 4n: 37.8% and 5n: 29.9%). Cluster analysis and principal components analysis do not reveal correlation between biogeographical distribution and cyst biometrics.
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Biotic homogenization, the gradual replacement of native biotas by locally expanding non-natives, is a global process that diminishes floral and faunal distinctions among regions. Although patterns of homogenization have been well studied, their specific ecological and evolutionary consequences remain unexplored. We argue that our current perspective on biotic homogenization should be expanded beyond a simple recognition of species diversity loss, towards a synthesis of higher order effects. Here, we explore three distinct forms of homogenization (genetic, taxonomic and functional), and discuss their immediate and future impacts on ecological and evolutionary processes. Our goal is to initiate future research that investigates the broader conservation implications of homogenization and to promote a proactive style of adaptive management that engages the human component of the anthropogenic blender that is currently mixing the biota on Earth.
Thesis
The brine shrimp Artemia is a small crustacean occurring worldwide in hypersaline biotopes. Its cysts, produced in stressful environmental conditions, can be stored for several years; the emerging larva is a convenient substitute for the natural plankton diet of fish and shrimp larvae and is an indispensable live food item in marine finfish and shellfish hatchery operations worldwide, thanks to its availability, nutritional quality, and easy use. According to present knowledge the genus Artemia groups a few bisexual species and numerous parthenogenetic forms. This research work contributes to the knowledge of the biodiversity of the genus Artemia in Central and Eastern Asia. Firstly the existing literature on Artemia sites in this area is reviewed, with focus on Southwest Siberia (Russia) and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (P.R. China), and anthropogenic threats to Artemia biodiversity in the area are sketched. This work further reports on a field survey conducted in salt lakes in Southwest Siberia and presents data on their topography, abiotic conditions, primary production and Artemia population dynamics. Data are presented on a study of Artemia samples from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Laboratory culture tests showed these samples to contain mixtures of parthenogenetic and bisexual individuals. PCR-RFLP analysis of individual cysts using a 1500 bp mtDNA I fragment and digestion with four restriction endonucleases revealed that the 13 populations analysed could be classified in three distinct groups, each with its characteristic set of haplotypes. This work also presents a study assessing how the original parthenogenetic populations from the Bohai Bay, China, an area with intensive aquaculture activities, has evolved since 1989, using PCR-RFLP analysis These findings are discussed in the light of similar observations elsewhere in the world, and of possible bioconservation measures. Next this work describes tests to assess the usefulness of the PCR-DGGE technique as a tool for rapid and dependable screening of the species/strain composition of an Artemia sample, by analysing both artificial and natural samples of mixed species status. Finally, the overall results of this work are discussed in the framework of its objectives, and in the light of natural or man-generated heterogeneity of Artemia samples, and its repercussions for data interpretation. The importance of the isolation of representative biological study material from nature is emphasized, and the possible implications of analysing cysts or active life stages.
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he brine shrimp Artemia is a primitive crustacean that tolerates the widest ranges of high salinities. Survival under extreme (osmotic) conditions is possible because Artemia has special adaptations against environmental stresses. Heat shock proteins are a class of functionally related proteins which their expression is increased when cells are exposed to strong stresses. Although the HSP90s constitute one of the widely studied and multifunctional stress proteins in cells, but little genetic information in aquatic invertebrate, especially in the Artemia, was found about. To evaluate the expression of Hsp90 in this genus, four Artemia populations from Iran (three bisexual and one parthenogenetic Artemia) were exposed to high salinities. The cysts of bisexual Artemia urmiana were obtained from Lake Urmia (harvested in 1998, 2000 and 2003). The cysts of the parthenogenetic Artemia population were harvested from the Lagoons at vicinity of Lake Urmia. The nauplli reared to maturity at high salinity 175g.l -1 and the growth, survival and expression of Hsp90 in adult survived Artemia was determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and RT-PCR. Using RT-PCR, we explored an up regulation of Hsp90 gene especially among the populations which had better growth performance (p<0.05). The data was confirmed by SDS-Page gel electrophoresis and total RNA extraction. This data suggests the existing of two coding regions for Hsp90 in Artemia where a dose-dependent expression pattern in α subunit in response to high salinity stress was found.
Characterization of parthenogenetic Artemia populations from Camaltı (Izmir, Turkey) was not certified by peer review) is the author/funder. All rights reserved. No reuse allowed without permission
  • Y Sayg
SAYG Y., 2004. Characterization of parthenogenetic Artemia populations from Camaltı (Izmir, Turkey) was not certified by peer review) is the author/funder. All rights reserved. No reuse allowed without permission.
Mutual effect of light and turbidity on hatching of Artemia franciscana cysts
  • A R S Sharahi
  • Zarei
SHARAHI, A. R. & S. ZAREI, 2016. Mutual effect of light and turbidity on hatching of Artemia franciscana cysts. International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies, 3(2): 03-06.
was not certified by peer review) is the author/funder. All rights reserved. No reuse allowed without permission. The copyright holder for this preprint (which this version posted
  • Gajardo
GAJARDO, 2020. Review on integrated production of the brine shrimp Artemia in solar salt ponds. Reviews in Aquaculture, 12(2): 1054-1071. DOI: 10.1111/raq.12371. was not certified by peer review) is the author/funder. All rights reserved. No reuse allowed without permission. The copyright holder for this preprint (which this version posted May 8, 2022. ; https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.05.07.491002 doi: bioRxiv preprint