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Age of Multiverse 19.28 Gyrs

Özgen Ersan (zgnrsn@gmail.com)

Abstract: A four-dimensional detailed geometric analysis (Light Coordinate System)

method is proposed to convert astronomical observation data into simultaneous values

and calculate the age of the universe. With this detailed method, the age of the

universe is determined as 19.28 +/- 0.50 Gyrs.

Key words: Light Kinematics; Simultaneity; Cosmological analysis; Relativity

Introduction: There is a consensus that the age of the universe is 13.8 billion years

[1]. However, the observation data on which this value is based are values deformed

due to the finite and limited speed of light. Considering simultaneous data is a

requirement of scientific integrity, and such a cosmological analysis is possible by

considering some assumptions.

Light Coordinate System (LCS) method [2]

Processing scientific analyzes in a common framework is the gold standard and

ensures equivalence / calibration of factors or physical quantities. In the case of light,

which is a universal reality, this common framework must be the outermost framework

capable of encompassing the relevant factors (Using the local environment or the world

as a reference frame is an anthropocentric attitude and an outdated mentality; current

paradigm prefers energy based science). The common frame of reference for

calculating the age of the universe is the all-encompassing space; since the values of

the astronomical parameters are obtained by the light, we may call this operation

framework as "Light Coordinate System". In this method, a defined photon's emission

point coordinates Pi (Xi; Yi; Zi; Ti) are marked in space or on LCS (LCS is not a

tangible, but a paper surface is functional for analysis). The identified (for example

numbered photon) photon moves away from this point with speed c. The light source

(for example, a celestial object) has passed through this point Pi at the time of Ti and

then will move away from this point Pi with the velocity Vu (Vu: the speed of the light

source relative to LCS).

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Age calculation mentality with Light Coordinate System (LCS) method and

accompanied by some acceptances:

1- Uniform expansion (big bang) model will be considered as basis.

2- Since the general positioning of celestial objects is independent of direction

(isotropic), the universe will be considered as a Multiverse -multi-cellular structure- like

a clustering of interwoven soap bubbles (Discussion section 1).

3- Each cell of the multiverse will be considered like the uniform expanding spherical

surface.

4- Four-dimensional geometric analysis will be performed for a single cell (the cell in

which the Milky Way galaxy is located) and considered the superclusters which are the

biggest structures that formed this cell.

5- Since the astronomical observation data is obtained from the earth/Milky way galaxy,

these data will be used assuming the Earth is supposed on the center of Virgo

supercluster. The effect of peculiar velocities will be evaluated within +/- tolerance/

margin of error.

6- The speed of light is a finite/limited value; is fixed in vacuum (~ 300 000 km/sec.).

The emitting point P (its starting coordinates) of a defined photon is marked on the

LCS. This photon moves away from this point P forever with its speed c. In other words:

the distance between the identified photon and Point P (marked on the LCS)

increases with the value c. The previous opinion in the sense that "the distance

between this photon and its source increases with the speed c" is wrong (Discussion

section 4) [4].

7- Current paradigm and accompanied locality attitude -by mechanics habit-, they

labels and uses the measured speeds of the objects by the meaning of "original

relative" according to the measuring place: This is valid for objects (that have mass).

In the essence of "original relative speeds" mass interaction works. Therefore, since it

has no measurable mass, it should not be expected that light or photon behave like a

massed object. Similarly, the Galilean principle of relativity (for inertial frame) and

Newton's third law about action and reaction are also valid between just massed

objects. If we consider/use these principles for light kinematics, we may diverge from

objectivity. The relativity of the photon to a moving body should be considered as

"hypothetical relativity" (e.g. as in the player-ball relationship; the velocities of the

player and the ball are “original relative” velocities according to the -common frame-

the ground; but the distance between the ball and the player increases with the total

vectorial value of these velocities).

8- Space (or LCS) is the common reference/processing frame for the moving celestial

bodies and test photon (light) in analysis, the universal velocity value (VU) according to

LCS will be used for the speed of the celestial body. The celestial body that released

the photon also moves away from the photon's emission point with the speed of VU.

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9- Since the speed of light is a finite value, an observer positioned on the spherical

surface (e.g. point A) cannot simultaneously see this spherical surface; he can see

deformed shape due to NVE1. When this problem is solved by analytical or graphical

method, an asymmetrical ellipsoidal surface form (like a water drop) is generated

(Figure 1) [3].

10- Observational data represent points on this asymmetric ellipsoidal surface (water

drop form). These points move away from the center of the sphere with the velocity

Vei. The velocity Vei of the observed objects is the universe expansion rate in ancient

time in accordance with the distance. However, the universe expansion rate of the

observer at the moment of observation is the current universe expansion velocity VeA.

11- The radial velocity of a supercluster (that defined by its redshift value) is vectorial

total2 of the projectional components of the observer's current universe expansion rate

and the supercluster's past universe expansion velocity (at past) on the photon's path

(figure 1) [3].

12- The radial velocity of the supercluster located at point L' in the apparent form of the

universe is only a projectional fraction of the universe expansion rate at the time of

observation (VeA.cos β)

13- It will be considered as 600 million years for pure energy to become particles

(partially transform into mass) and form galaxies by clumping. In this period, the

universe expansion rate will be considered very close to c. In practice, this speed was

accepted as c.

Figure 1- Absolute and visible Universe Forms and radial velocity components

14- When the observer is positioned at the point A on a sphere surface, the velocity

of the other points moving away from A increases in direct proportion to the distance

(inclined graphic in the diagram) (figure 2); in the form of the visible universe (on the

form of water drop), the graph of the other points is curved upwards. The graph of the

1 NVE: Natural Visual Error (We can never see anything simultaneously)

2 It may become subtraction for nearby super clusters.

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actual observational data available is the same. This similarity is achieved for all age

values of the universe. The matching of the theoretical observational and real

observational data graphs validates the LCS method.

15- The astronomical data (radial velocities, distances, H0 values, etc.) for 8, 12, 16,

20, 24 Gyrs ages of the drop form (visible universe model) can be calculated

theoretically. These values are diagrammed and the current age of the universe T =

19.28 Gyrs is determined over the genuine observational values of some celestial

bodies (figure 3) [3].

Figure 2- The graphics of redshifts for absolute and apparent form according to their distances

16- The current values of theoretical astronomical data of the determined age value

can be calculated and compared with the real observational data of some

superclusters. The matching ones are the super clusters belonging to the universe cell

on which the Milky Way is located (discussion section 1).

17- When the theoretical H0 values of the water drop form are marked according to

their distances, a line graph with negative inclination is obtained [3]. Actual observation

data also varies between H0 = 80 - 56 km/sec/mpc and almost overlaps with the

theoretical H0 graphic in the same diagram. This result validates the LCS method.

18- It is understood that the real observational H0 values (H0 = 80 – 56 km/sec/mpc)

are formed as a result of the deformation of the spherical form, which is an absolute or

single value (HA = 43.7 km/sec/mpc). The HA, which is the single value for God's eye,

varies interval 80 and 56 for observers due to NVE.

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19- The HA values of the points belonging to the Absolute form of the universe (sphere

surface) are constant and its graph is horizontal line (HA = 43.7 km/sec/mpc for T =

19.28 Gyrs [3]). The graph of apparent universe H0 values (by distances) for the same

age is a line with a negative inclination. The probability that the observation location

(Earth) is not in the center of the super cluster, which is the calculation units, the effect

of peculiar velocities and similar factors in the age calculation has been roughly

preferred as +/- 0.50 Gyrs.

20- LCS method can provide control and revision opportunity for distances of some

celestial bodies calculated by other methods.

Figure 3 – Determining the age of the universe from the Redshift and Distance diagram

Discussion

1- Considering only the data supporting the hypothesis in scientific research

experiments is inappropriate and may be labeled as cheating. If the universe formed

as a result of the big bang was a single sphere or cake model, it would be inappropriate

to choose/prefer the data supporting the hypothesis. Since the universe model of this

study is determined as a multi-cell interwoven soap bubble, there is no problem in

preferring real observation data supporting the hypothesis. This status may even

confirm the multiverse intuition. In my opinion, the proposal of multiverse structuring

similar to the interwoven multicellular soap bubbles community can be used to explain

the collisions of some celestial bodies moving away from each other despite great

distances, the expanding cake-like allegory and in some regions partly condensations

(filament structuring).

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2- This analysis contains assumptions in the elementary sense. There can be a wide

variety of hypotheses on the same subject; in science, and new opinion is built on those

that are least rejected (for example, big bang hypothesis).

3- The special theory of relativity (SR) does not allow cosmological analysis; because,

real observational data have not simultaneity. SR claims that each celestial body has

different time tempos according to their own velocities. SR labeled and used the speed

of light as “original relative” according to its source or measuring place (generally

Earth). This cosmological analysis of LCS method proves that the c value of the speed

of light is “original relative” according to the just vacuum of space or LCS. When

celestial objects and other intermediate frames (source, train, stars etc.) are mentioned

for the relation with light/photon must be consider within concept of “hypothetical

relativity” [2].

4- In mechanics, the measured velocity of an object is labeled relative to the measuring

medium because there is mass interaction/transmission; using of the same opinion for

light is a habit from local mechanics experiments. Since light has no measurable mass,

it cannot be expected for light to behave like an object; a photon does not gain a speed

component from its source's speed; there is no dependency as in the relations between

objects such as cars and roads. The relationship between the light/photon and its

source is "hypothetical/pseudo relativity". The speed of light measuring device

(mirrored, round-trip dual-track and continuous photon stream) can only measure the

relative speed of light with respect to the vacuum of space. The measuring device does

not measure light's speed relative to its source or measuring medium; when this

nuance and the concept of "hypothetical relativity" are distinguished, special relativity

theory will not need to interfere with this cosmological analysis and age calculation [2]

[4].

Conclusion

This study (LCS method) offers a more detailed four-dimensional

geometric/cosmological analysis by considering more factors than other universe

age calculation methods. LCS method also allows the conversion of astronomical

observational data into values that contain simultaneity. The diagrams of the

“hypothetical observational” data are similar with the diagrams of the real

observational data; this result is important in terms of validating the LCS method.

The fact that an organism, which evolved on a planet formed at a point in infinitely

time and the vast universe, can comprehend his position in the universe and life,

can analyze the age and dimensions of the universe and determine judgments;

even, -although some different values- deserves high philosophical interpretations.