Volume 3 – Issue 3 [March 2022] P a g e | 30
Article ID: AEN-2022-03-05-008
Gorgon Nut: A Crop of Immense Nutritive Potential
Shikha Jain1*, Bhargav Kiran2 and Riya Barthwal3
1Ph.D. Research Scholar, Division of Fruits and Horticulture, ICAR- Indian Agricultural Research
Institute, New Delhi
2Division of Vegetable Science, ICAR- Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi
3Department of Food Science and Technology, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and
Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand – 263153
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Gorgon nut (Euryale ferox), also known as Black Diamond, Fox nut or makhana, belongs to
the family Nymphaeaceae. It is an aquatic crop having high nutritional values. It is also known as
the "meal of God" in India, where it is commonly served as "prasad" during religious rituals. India
grows about 70-80 % of the global produce of gorgon nut. It is mainly cultivated in Bihar and certain
eastern states like Assam and some parts of Bengal. Bihar accounts for roughly 80 % of India's
makhana production. Its market cost is around ₹ 200-500 / kg depending upon the quality,
availability and season etc.
Nutritive value of makhana
Makhana seeds have been claimed to have therapeutic characteristics, and they are commonly
employed in Ayurvedic and Chinese preparations for the treatment of a range of ailments, including
renal failure, chronic diarrhoea, excessive leucorrhea and spleen hypofunction. Makhana seeds are
widely used in India for a variety of purposes, including processed seeds as quick food due to their
high nutritional value, as well as medicinal, industrial, and religious purposes. Makhana has a high-
quality, easily digestible protein content of 11.16 %, the least amount of fat, and a high-quality
carbohydrate content of 75.04 %, and is therefore the healthiest. It is also a good source of dietary
fibre and helps to decrease cholesterol levels in the blood.
It is also high in vital amino acids, including glutamic acid, arginine, leucine, valine and
aspartic acid (Singh et al., 2018). Furthermore, it has nutritional value, is a potent tonic for postnatal
weakness, and is an expectorant and heart stimulant. It strengthens the heart and is especially
effective in cases of anaemia (Das et al., 2006). Makhana has a vital component that helps the spleen
and kidneys function properly. It has a low salt and high potassium content, which lowers blood
pressure, and a very low monosaturated fat content, which keeps blood sugar levels from rising.
Makhana Makhana Halwa
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Uses of makhana
Makhana kheer, makhana vermicelli, makhana halwa, and other delectable and rich sweet
dishes are made with popped makhana (Jha and Prasad, 2003). It's found in puddings and milk-based
desserts. When makhana is used to prepare dal makhani and vegetable curries for flavour and
thickening, they become delectable. Makhana raita is also more flavorful and easier to stomach.
Makhana's medicinal benefits have been thoroughly documented in ancient Indian and Chinese
Pops are eaten as snacks in the following forms: sweetened (called Makhana paagal), kheer,
halwa, dal makhni, kofta, dum aloo, and fried form (mostly used by those who perform the ritual
fasts, by frying makhana in ghee and adding rock salt to the same). Palak makhana, makhana curry,
makhana pulao, nutty makhana curry, matar phool makhana, choco makhana, makhana chops, and
other makhana dishes.
Makhana is a highly appreciated aquatic product due to its abundant carbohydrate and protein
content. Makhana's biological and agronomical characteristics make it a viable alternative crop for
sustainable agricultural systems for marginal farmers. It could be considered as a feasible alternative
product in areas where natural water bodies, such as lakes and ponds, are few. It is used to make a
variety of delectable and filling dessert meals. The edible sections of the seeds contain moisture,
protein, fat, carbohydrates, mineral matter, iron, ascorbic acid, and phenol, according to makhana's
nutritional studies. The amino acid index of this item is higher than that of other staple foods,
indicating its superior nutritional value. In terms of medicine, it is critical to have a treatment for a
variety of human disorders, including culinary, digestive, renal, and reproductive issues. The whole
plant is used as a treatment for rheumatism, polyurea, spermatorrhoea, parturition and bile disorders.
Because of their minimal fat content, the puffs are easily digested and beneficial to human health.
Das, S., Der, P., Raychaudhary, U., Maulike, N. and Das, D.K. 2006.The effect of Euryale ferox
Salisb.(Makhana), an herb of aquatic origin on myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury.
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 289(12): 55-63.
Jha, S.N. and Prasad, S. 2003. Post-harvest technology of gorgon nut. In: Mishra, R.K. Jha,
Vidyanath and Dharai, P.V. (eds.) Makhana, ICAR, New Delhi, pp. 194-214.
Singh, D.K., Singh, I.S., Kumar, U., Kumar, A. and Bhatt, B.P. 2018. The traditional wisdom of the
mallah community regarding makhana production and processing in north Bihar. Indian J.
Extn.Edun., 5(2): 76–82.