Effects of re-warm-up protocols on the physical performance of soccer players: A systematic review with meta-analysis

Abstract and Figures

ABSTRACT: This systematic review aimed to (1) identify and summarize studies that have examined the effects of re-warm-up (RWU) protocols on the physical performance of soccer players (vertical height jump and sprinting time) and (2) establish a meta-comparison between performing a re-warm-up and not performing one regarding the outcomes of the aforementioned outcomes. A systematic review of EBSCO, PubMed, Scielo, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science databases was performed on January 12th, 2021, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. From the 892 studies initially identified, four studies were reviewed, and three of these were included in the present meta-analysis. Compared to a control condition, there was a moderate effect of RWU on vertical height jump (ES = 0.66; p = 0.001; I2 = 0.0%). However, compared to a control condition, there was a trivial effect of RWU on linear sprint time (ES = 0.19; p = 0.440; I2 = 38.4%). The nature of RWU enhances the performance of players with an emphasis on actions requiring vertical jumps. Therefore, the results provide essential and crucial information that soccer coaching staff can use to improve the performance of their teams. The reduced number of studies available for meta-analysis may have magnified the impact of heterogeneity on linear sprint time findings. More high-quality studies, with homogeneous study designs, may help to clarify the potential benefits of RWU on linear sprint time.
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Biology of Sport, Vol. 40 No2, 2023 335
Francisco Tomás González Fernández et al. Effects of re-warm-up protocols on soccer players
In soccer, re-warm-up (RWU) may increase players’ readiness to
perform actions at different intensity levels[1] at the start of the
second half of amatch, thereby enhancing their athletic perfor-
mance[2]. Indeed, RWU strategies have demonstrated that soccer
players’ acute explosive performance improved during the rst min-
utes of the second half of the match[3–5].
Areview of the literature reveals that the physical performance
of soccer players decreases during the second half of the match[6].
Common examples of this evidence can be found in studies show-
ing poorer performances for different variables, such as the
Effects of re-warm-up protocols on the physical performance
of soccer players: Asystematic review with meta-analysis
AUTHORS: Francisco Tomás González Fernández1,2, Hugo Sarmento3, Álvaro Infantes-Paniagua4,
Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo5,6,7, Sixto González-Víllora4, Filipe Manuel Clemente8,9
1Department ofPhysicalActivity andSportSciences, PonticalUniversity ofComillas.CESAG, 07013Palma,
3University ofCoimbra,Research UnitforSport andPhysicalActivity.Facultyof SportSciencesand Physical
ofre-warm-up (RWU)protocols onthe physicalperformanceofsoccerplayers(verticaljumpheightandsprint
theoutcomes oftheaforementionedoutcomes.AsystematicreviewofEBSCO,PubMed,SciELO,SPORTDiscus,
forSystematicReviews andMeta-Analyses(PRISMA) guidelines.Fromthe 892studiesinitiallyidentied, four
studieswere reviewed,and threeofthesewereincludedinthepresentmeta-analysis.Comparedtoacontrol
condition,therewas amoderateeffect ofRWUon verticaljumpheight (ES=0.66;
=0.001; I2=0.0%).
However, comparedto acontrol condition,there wasa trivialeffectofRWUonlinearsprinttime(ES=0.19;
havemagniedthe impactofheterogeneity onlinearsprint timendings.More high-qualitystudies,with
CITATION: GonzálezFernándezFT,SarmentoH,Infantes-PaniaguaAetal.Effectsofre-warm-upprotocolson
thephysicalperformanceof soccerplayers:A systematicreviewwith meta-analysis.BiolSport.
number of high-intensity actions and the total distance covered in
the second half in comparison with the rst half[7,8]. Tradition-
ally, these effects have been linked to changes in muscle and core
temperatures[9] induced by passive half-time practice[10]. Nev-
ertheless, improvements in physical performance in the second
half have also been associated with RWU based on post-activa-
tion potentiation and supplementation with carbohydrate and caf-
feine[11]. Therefore, the direction of these physiological changes
depends on the active behaviours performed during the 15min-
utes of rest between halves[12].
Review Paper
Key words:
Sports training
Vertical heigh jump
Linear sprinting
Corresponding author:
Sixto González-Víllora
Faculty of Education of Albacete
Department of Physical
Education, Arts Education
and Music, University
of Castilla-La Mancha
02071 Albacete, Spain
Francisco Tomás González
Hugo Sarmento
Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo
Álvaro Infantes-Paniagua
Sixto González-Víllora
Filipe Manuel Clemente
Francisco Tomás González Fernández et al. Effects of re-warm-up protocols on soccer players
Design and protocol
The systematic review strategy was conducted according to Preferred
Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA)
guidelines[16]. The protocol was registered with the International
Platform of Registered Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Proto-
cols with the number 202110055 and DOI: 10.37766/inpla-
Eligibility criteria
The inclusion and exclusion criteria can be found in Table1accord-
ing to the PICOS approach[17].
Information sources and search
Five electronic databases (EBSCO, PubMed, SciELO, SPORTDiscus,
and Web of Science) were explored for relevant publications prior to
29January 2022. The Web of Science database search was per-
formed restricting the search to the area of “sport sciences”. Keywords
and synonyms were entered in various combinations in the title,
abstract or keywords: (soccer OR football) AND (“re-warm-up” OR
“post-warm-up” OR “warm-up” OR “pre-activity” OR “post-activation
potentiation” OR “stretch*”) AND (“jump*” OR “sprint*” OR “change-
of-direction” OR “agility”).
The searches, the removal of duplicates, screening of titles and
abstracts, and analysis of the full texts in an independent way were
performed by two authors (FTGF and AIP). The inter-rater agreement
Player’s capability of keep high values of physical strength plays
an important role in the performance of soccer players in terms of
their maximal strength, jumping ability, and sprint performance[7,13]
and decrease over the course of amatch. In this sense, it is widely
known that efcient neuronal activation generates more applicated
weight reected in vertical jump height, and improves the change-
of-direction and linear sprinting performance in elite soccer play-
ers[14]. On the one hand, the higher level of fatigue generated dur-
ing the rst half and the team’s passive behaviour negatively impact
players’ sprint and jump performance at the beginning of the second
half. On the other hand, the implementation of RWU is positively re-
lated to an improvement in the performance at the beginning of the
second half[15].
Even though there is evidence supporting the inuence of acute
effects of RWU on the physical performance of soccer players, de-
scribed in asystematic review[4–6], little is known about its effect
on certain physical variables of the game, such as vertical jump
height, and sprint time. In fact, the most recent systematic review
in RWU (asfar as we know), centred the analysis in amyriad of per-
formance analyses without aquantitative synthesis in the form of
ameta-analysis[5]. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was
twofold: (i) to identify and summarize studies that have examined
the effects of RWU protocols on the physical performance of soccer
players (vertical jump height and sprint time) and (ii) to establish
ameta-comparison between performing and not performing an RWU
protocol regarding vertical jump height and sprint time.
TABLE 1. Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria
Population Soccer players of any age or sex with no injury or illness,
with normal vision, no partial/chronic injury or illness,
and no history of neuropsychological impairment.
Population other than soccer players or members of the
soccer player population with special conditions (e.g.,
injury, treatment, illness, diseases).
Intervention RWU protocols (always performed after an initial warm-
up) conducted under one of the two following possible
(i) after the warm-up and before the match.
(ii) between the halves of the match.
Warm-up protocols.
Comparator Passive control conditions. Intervention conditions other than passive conditions.
Outcome Vertical jump height, and sprint time Physiological or physical conditions not related to the
included outcomes.
Study design Counterbalanced cross-over design (randomized and non-
randomized can be included since none of them reveal
signicant differences in control conditions).
Study designs that do not allow within-subjects comparisons
for the two conditions (control and RWU).
Additional criteria Only original and full-text studies written in English. Studies written in any language other than English. Articles
other than original research (e.g., reviews, letters to editors,
trial registrations, proposals for protocols, editorials, book
chapters, and conference abstracts).
Biology of Sport, Vol. 40 No2, 2023 337
Francisco Tomás González Fernández et al. Effects of re-warm-up protocols on soccer players
was measured through Cohen’s kappa[17], which was found to be
good (kappa=0.70). Any discrepancy in the selection process was
solved by consensus with athird author (HS).
Data extraction
An ad-hoc Microsoft Excel sheet (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond,
WA, USA) was used to assess inclusion requirements in accordance
with the Cochrane Consumers and Communication Review Group’s
data extraction template[18]. The Excel sheet was used to assess
inclusion requirements and subsequently tested for all selected stud-
ies. The process was independently conducted by two authors (HSand
FTGF). Any disagreement regarding study eligibility was resolved in
adiscussion. Full text articles excluded, with reasons, were recorded.
All the records were stored in the sheet.
Data items
The outcomes chosen for this systematic review and meta-analysis
included vertical jump height (VJH) and sprint time (ST). The VJH
(measured in cm) was usually assessed during acountermovement
jump (CMJ) with or without arm swing. The linear ST (measured
in seconds) at different distances was also collected, without in-
cluding values of partial times. Additionally, the following data
items were extracted: (i) type of study design, number of participants
(n), age group (youth, adults or both), sex (men, women or both),
competitive level, moment of the season; (ii) characteristics of the
RWU protocol (duration and intensity); (iii) moment of the match
(after warm-up and between halves); (iv) characteristics of the
experimental approach to the problem, procedures and settings of
each study.
Methodological assessment
The included studies were assessed according to their methodologi-
cal quality with the Risk of Bias 2(RoB2) tool for RCTs[19]. We
conducted arisk of bias assessment using the RoB-2 tool for RCTs[20]
and the ROBINS-I for nonrandomized interventions[21]. These tools
allow one to assess the risk of bias (i.e., “low risk,” “some concerns,”
or “high risk”) of several dimensions, which vary according to the
study design (namely, bias arising from the randomization process,
bias due to deviations from intended interventions, bias due to miss-
ing outcome data, bias in measurement of the outcome, and bias in
selection of the reported result). Altogether an overall level of risk of
bias per study was computed. Risk of bias assessments were based
on the published articles. Two of the authors (FTGF and AIP) inde-
pendently screened and assessed the included articles. The inter-
rater agreement was very good (Cohen’s kappa=0.99). Discrepan-
cies were solved by consensus between the two authors.
Summary measures, synthesis of results, and publication bias
Although meta-analyses can be done with as few as two studies[22],
considering the fact that reduced sample sizes are common in the
sports science literature[23], meta-analysis was only conducted in
the present case when three or more studies were available for the
same outcome. Effect sizes (ES; Hedge’s g) for each outcome (i.e.,
linear sprint; vertical jump) in the experimental and control groups
were calculated using pre-intervention and post-intervention mean
and standard deviation (SD) for each outcome. Data were standard-
ized using post-intervention SD values. The random-effects model
was used to account for differences between studies that might im-
pact the intervention effect[24–25]. The ES values are presented
with 95% condence intervals (95% CIs). Calculated ES were inter-
preted using the following scale: < 0.2, trivial; 0.2–0.6,
small;>0.6–1.2, moderate;>1.2–2.0, large;>2.0_4.0, very
large;>4.0, extremely large[26]. In studies including more than
one intervention group, the sample size in the active control group
was proportionately divided to facilitate comparisons across multiple
groups[27] The impact of heterogeneity in the ndings was assessed
using the I2 statistic, with values of<25%, 25–75%, and>75%
representing low, moderate, and high levels of heterogeneity, respec-
tively. The risk of reporting bias was explored using Egger’s test[28],
with p <0.05implying bias. To adjust for risk of reporting bias,
asensitivity analysis was conducted using the trim and ll meth-
od[29], with L0 as the default estimator for the number of missing
studies[30]. All analyses were carried out using the Comprehensive
Meta-Analysis software (Version 2.0; Biostat, Englewood, NJ, USA).
Statistical signicance was set at p<0.05.
Study identification and selection
The search of databases identied atotal of 1309titles (PubMed
=267; Scopus=352; SPORTDiscus=327; Web of Science
=363). These studies were then exported to reference manager
software (EndNote X9, Clarivate Analytics, Philadelphia, PA, USA).
Duplicates (664references) were subsequently removed either
automatically or manually. The remaining 645articles were
screened for their relevance based on the information contained in
titles and abstracts and considering the selection and exclusion
criteria (seeTable1). This resulted in the removal of afurther
619studies. Following the screening procedure, 26articles were
selected for in depth reading and analysis. After reading full texts,
four studies were selected (Figure1).
Methodological quality
Table2shows the overall methodological quality assessment of the
cross-sectional studies. Two out of three studies were classied as
presenting high risk of bias studies, based on their overall RoB 2qual-
ity scale[9,31], and the other one was considered as having some
concerns[32], while another study was classied as showing serious
risk of bias in ROBINS-I[15]. Some issues were found regarding the
quality of the information reported on the randomization process, the
reporting of possible deviations from the intended interventions, the
treatment of missing outcome data, and the selection of the re-
ported result.
Francisco Tomás González Fernández et al. Effects of re-warm-up protocols on soccer players
FIG. 1. PRISMA ow diagram highlighting the selection process for studies.
TABLE 2. Methodological assessment of the included studies.
Study Outcome D1a D1b D2 D3 D4 D5 DS Overall
Edholm etal.[15]* All S L M L NI M M S
Fashioni, Langley & Page[31] All SC SC H L SC L H
Lovell etal.[32] All SC SC L L SC LSC
Mohr etal.[9] All SC SC H L SC H
Note. D1a: Randomization process; D1b: Timing of identication or recruitment of participants in acluster-randomized trial; D2:
Deviations from the intended interventions; D3: Missing outcome data; D4: Measurement of the outcome; D5: Selection of the reported
result; DS: Period and carryover effects. C: Critical; H: High risk; L: Low risk; M: Moderate; NI: No information; S: Serious; SC: Some
concerns. * Assessment from ROBINS-I: D1a: Bias due to confounding; D1b: Bias in selection of participants for the study; D2: Bias
in classication of interventions; D3: Bias due to deviations from intended interventions; D4: Bias due to missing data; D5: Bias in
measurement of outcomes; DS: Bias in selection of the reported result.
Biology of Sport, Vol. 40 No2, 2023 339
Francisco Tomás González Fernández et al. Effects of re-warm-up protocols on soccer players
Characteristics of individual studies
The characteristics of the included studies and details of the RWU
protocols can be found in Table3.
Three out of the four studies followed a cross-over de-
sign[15,31,32], and the other one was arandomized parallel-
groups study[9]. Regarding the participants, all studies were per-
formed with male soccer players[9,15,31,32]. The level of
participants was amateur in two studies[9,32], whereas one study
included semi-professional players[15], and the other one involved
professional players[31]. In addition, sample sizes varied from
10participants[15,32] to 22participants[31]. The parallel-group
study included 16participants (eight in each group)[9]. Lastly, con-
cerning the studies’ RWU protocols, all studies employed atradition-
al RWU during the 15-min resting period between match halves
while approaching the active RWU (7ʹ rest + 7ʹ jog + exercises at
135beats/min[9], 9ʹ rest + 5ʹ intermittent agility exercises[15],
7 rest + 7ʹ jog and calisthenics[31] and 12ʹ + 3ʹ RWU[32]).
Sprint time was measured in all studies[9,15,31,32], through
repeated sprint test, 30m[9], 10msprint[15,32], and 5m,
10mand 20msprint[31]. Non-signicant effects of RWU were
found on 30msprint[9]. In fact, positive effects of RWU were found
on 10msprint[15,32]. Last, 20msprint improved after RWU,
but non-signicant effects were found on 5mand 10m[31].
Vertical jump height was assessed with CMJ[15,31,32] and
squat jump (SJ)[31]. Signicant positive effects of RWU protocols
were found on CMJ[15,31,32] and SJ[31].
Effects of re-warm-up on vertical jump height
Three studies provided data for vertical jump height (pooled n=104).
Compared to acontrol condition, there was amoderate effect of RWU
TABLE 3. Characteristics of selected studies
Study Age (years)
Mean ± SD
size (
)Level / Sex RWU
characteristics Design Outcomes
Vertical jump height Sprint time
Mohr etal.[9]
27.0. ± 1.5 8 CG
8 EG
Male Soccer
competing in
the Danish 4th
Re Warm Up1:
15 rest (control)
Re Warm Up2: 7
rest + 7 jog +
exercises at
135beat/ min
Parallel groups
Re Warm Up2>Re
Warm Up
Test (Repeated sprint
test. 30m sprint)
Lovell etal.[32]
20 ± 1 10
male soccer
Re Warm Up1:
rest (control)
Re Warm Up2: 9
rest + 5
Intermittent Agility
Re Warm Up3: 9
rest+5 Whole
Body vibration at
Crossover design.
Re Warm Up2>Re
Warm Up 1
Test (CMJ)
Re Warm Up2>Re
Warm Up1
Test (10msprint)
etal. [15]
18–33 22
Re Warm Up1:
half-time break
Re Warm Up2: 7
rest + 7: jog and
Crossover design.
Re Warm Up2>Re
Warm Up1
Test (CMJ)
Re Warm Up2>Re
Warm Up1
d=−0.72− 2.02%
Test (10msprint)
Fashioni, Langley &
23 ± 4 10Male Amateur
Soccer Players
Control Trial:
15-min Half Time
Re Warm Up
Trial: 12min +
3min Re Warm
Cross-over design.
Re Warm Up
improvement in squat
(d=0.6; CON:
26.96 ± 5.00CM; RWU:
30.17 ± 5.13)
II) CMJ=(d=07;
CON: 28.15 ± 4.72CM;
RWU: 31.53 ± 5.43)
Test (CMJand AJ)
Re Warm Up
improvement in
20msprint times.
(d=0.6; CON:
3.42 ± 0.20S; RWU:
3.32 ± 0.12).
Test (5m, 10m and
20m sprint)
Francisco Tomás González Fernández et al. Effects of re-warm-up protocols on soccer players
Effects of RWU on vertical jump height
Traditionally, the countermovement jump (CMJ) has been explored
in different ways (SeeMorin etal., 2019 for more information[33]),
namely as aphysical quality associated with lower-limb power[34]
and as areadiness marker to detect the inuence of fatigue on neu-
romuscular properties[35]. In the case of soccer, CMJ has also been
conrmed as adeterminant of other qualities such as sprinting or
change of direction[36,37]. Since CMJ is dependent on the recruit-
ment of higher-order motor units, potentiation mechanisms, and/or
muscle activation[38,39], it can be expected that warming up plays
an important role in immediate performance maximization.
The meta-analysis presented in this systematic review revealed
moderate and signicant benecial effects of RWU protocols on CMJ.
These changes were identied using the p-value and effect size. How-
ever, in apractical scenario, it would be necessary to analyse the
raw data for the smallest worthwhile change. However, in this par-
ticular review, we did not have access to the raw data of included
articles, which justies the option for using the p-value and effect
size to sustain the evidence of the benecial effects of RWU on CMJ.
Although the protocols of exposure to RWU were generally based on
RAMP (raise, activate, mobilize, and potentiate), the effects were
on vertical jump height with no heterogeneity (ES=0.66; 95%
CI=0.28to 1.05; p=0.001; I2=0.0%; Egger’s test p=0.098;
Figure2). The weight used in each study in the analysis ranged from
18.8% to 42.5%.
Effects of re-warm-up on sprint time
Three studies provided data for linear sprint time (pooled n=104).
Compared to acontrol condition, there was atrivial effect of RWU
on linear sprint time with moderate heterogeneity (ES=0.19; 95%
CI=-0.30to 0.69; p=0.440; I2=38.4%; Egger’s test p=0.692;
Figure3). The relative weight of each study in the analysis ranged
from 21.8% to 34.0%.
The aim of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to determine
the effects of RWU protocols on the vertical jump height and sprint-
ing performance of soccer players. The meta-analysis revealed asig-
nicant and moderate benecial effect of RWU on players’ vertical
jump height, although no signicant benets were found in sprinting
FIG. 2. Forest plot of effects of re-warm-up on vertical jump height compared to acontrol condition.
FIG. 3. Forest plot of effects of re-warm-up on sprint time compared to acontrol condition.
Biology of Sport, Vol. 40 No2, 2023 341
Francisco Tomás González Fernández et al. Effects of re-warm-up protocols on soccer players
large enough to signify the importance of using RWU to preserve
players’ jumping performance immediately before the match re-start.
Although post-activation potentiation using heavy loads appears to
represent abetter neuromuscular stimulus for enhancing vertical
jump[40], the protocols consisting of running, dynamic stretching,
and straight sprinting[15,31]; intermittent agility exercises[32]; or
whole-body vibrations[32] had afavourable effect on the reduction
the decremental effects of rest on vertical jump performance.
It is reasonable to hypothesize that elevated muscle temperatures
improve the recruitment of motor units, possibly justifying the ben-
ecial effects of RWU[15]. Additionally, considering that meaning-
ful decreases in eccentric hamstring strength can be observed after
inactivity during half-time[32], are-activation before the second half
of amatch is also recommended to enhance vertical jump height,
which requires the potentiation of muscles to increase players’
Effects of RWU on sprint time
Sprinting is one of the most important high-intensity demands in
soccer. Although it rarely occurs during matches[41], this action is
crucial since it is related to decisive moments of matches that precede
goal-scoring opportunities[42]. Usually, sprints last 2–4sover dis-
tances shorter than 20m[43]. Since sprinting performance depends
on neuromuscular readiness and neural activation[44], the proper
physiological conditions (e.g., induced by warming up) should be
ensured[45]. Warming up is expected to immediately benet sprint-
ing performance, considering that it plays an important role in fully
activating the working musculature and recruiting motoneurons to
support the high magnitude of contractions[9,46]. Considering that
the half-time break presents along period of rest/inactivity, it can
induce adrop in muscle temperature (~1.5°C), thus negatively im-
pacting sprinting performance[9].
The meta-analysis conducted in the current systematic review re-
vealed atrivial and non-signicant benecial effect of RWU on sprint-
ing performance. Among the included studies, Lovell etal.[32] and
Edholm etal.[15] reported abenecial and signicant effect of RWU
strategies in comparison to control conditions. Lovell etal.[32] stat-
ed that temperature was higher in the RWU group, possibly contrib-
uting to the players’ muscle readiness for sprinting. However, neuro-
muscular facilitation caused by reex potentiation could be another
physiological cause of this benet of RWU[46]. In adifferent study,
the effects of RWU on sprinting performance were positive immedi-
ately after exposure, as well as ten and 15minutes after exposure.
Again, additional factors related to fatigue during the match could
have impacted the comparisons[43]. Therefore, the literature pro-
vides relevant information about the requirements for high level soc-
cer players and specic details to ensure the stability and solidity of
second-half performance.
Generally, the individual studies emphasize the benets of RWU
for mitigating the decline in sprinting performance induced by the
half-time rest period. Thus, from apractical point of view, coaches
can choose to use acombined approach such as jogging, skipping,
dynamic stretching, and straight sprinting[15,31], or implement
intermittent agility exercises[32], or use whole-body vibrations[32],
or even selected alternative strategies such as potentiation-post ac-
tivation based on lifting moderate-to-high loads[47] or short high
cycling efforts[48].
Study limitations, future research, and practical implications
This systematic review has some limitations. One is the small
number of included articles, which should be considered alimiting
factor regarding the generalization of evidence. For example, the
impact of heterogeneity (i.e., I2=0.0%) on the vertical jump height
results was low. In contrast, agreater impact of heterogeneity (i.e.,
I2=38.4%) affected the linear sprint time ndings. The limited
number of studies available for meta-analysis may have magnied
the impact of heterogeneity on linear sprint time ndings. More
high-quality studies, with homogeneous study designs, may help
to clarify the potential benets of RWU for linear sprint time. An-
other limitation is that only articles written in English were in-
cluded; thus, some relevant literature may have been excluded.
However, the results found are promising regarding the implemen-
tation of RWU strategies in soccer players. Eventually, short,
moderate-to-high demanding activities should be ensured to max-
imize the increase in muscle temperature and neuromuscular ac-
tivation in the shortest time possible, thus saving some time for
the recovery during half-time[5].
Future research should consider determining the most adequate
and practicable RWU strategies for soccer players, namely by com-
paring post-activation performance enhancement strategies, RAMP,
whole-body vibration, or cycling. Duration of exposure and an anal-
ysis of this parameter’s impact on the rst minutes of the match
should also be integrated into future reports. Determining the inten-
sity and identifying thresholds should also be considered, namely for
individualizing these strategies. As aconsequence, more research is
needed on the effects of RWU, as the dose-response effects on indi-
vidual soccer players need to be better understood in order to achieve
the best possible performance.
As example, the time of RWU is critical. As suggested in astudy
conducted in twelve amateur players comparing the effects of a10-
and 20-minute regular warm-up[49], adetrimental effect of the lon-
ger period on the muscular power output was found, followed by ex-
cessive thermal discomfort and fatigue. Similar evidence was found
in astudy comparing 8-, 15- and 25-minute warm-up protocols, in
which only the condition of 8minutes ensured signicant improve-
ments in the acceleration ability of soccer players[50]. Thus, con-
sidering these examples, time-efcient and optimal RWU strategies
should be compared in crossover study designs. However, the sav-
ing of time should not compromise the effectiveness of RWU for im-
proving some protective factors such as stabilization, balance, or ex-
tremity symmetries. As an example, astudy using the regular warm-up
of FIFA11+ revealed the potential of this condition for improving
Francisco Tomás González Fernández et al. Effects of re-warm-up protocols on soccer players
unilateral jumping and dynamic balance and reducing lower limb ex-
tremity symmetries in female soccer players[51].
For now, it is possible to argue only that RWU strategies do not
cause negative effects in comparison to control conditions and that
they have afavourable effect on vertical jump height. For soccer
coaching staff, more evidence is needed on the cost-benet ratio of
implementing an RWU in their match routines, eventually consider-
ing the extent of benets to the rst high-intensity demands occur-
ring in the re-start of matches.
Apractical application of this review is the improvement of sub-
stitution decision-making in high-performance matches[52,53]. In
fact, if soccer coaching staff have information about the evidence of
RWU, they will be able to make much more effective player chang-
es according to the specic tactics with which they intend to change
the dynamics of amatch (e.g., which player to send out when their
team is trailing by one goal and there are 25minutes left in the
match). In this case, it would be appropriate to put players with high
jumping power on the pitch, as this could be benecial for nishing
or heading shots.
In turn, this review provides key information when it comes to
signing players and building abalanced squad, as the factors that
have been shown to be positive can be taken into account to select
the best players for atop-level team.
The most relevant contribution of this work is that there is asigni-
cant and moderate benecial effect of RWU on vertical jump height,
but not on sprinting performance, in soccer players. This information
is crucial for soccer coaching staff to improve the performance of
their teams. Given the small number of publications found, this re-
search line can be described as emerging, as more studies are need-
ed to consolidate the scientic evidence found.
Filipe Manuel Clemente: This work is funded by Fundação para
aCiência eTecnologia/ Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia eEnsino
Superior through national funds and when applicable co-funded EU
funds under the project UIDB/50008/2020. Also was supported by
the startup Football Connection (FOOC) (Marca Nº 4.073.379). No
other specic sources of funding were used to assist in the prepara-
tion of this article.
Conicts of interest/Competing interests
The authors declare that they have no conicts of interest relevant
to the content of this review.
FTGF gratefully acknowledges that is supported by Beca de Movilidad
Erasmus+ para recibir formación (PDI) Erasmus 2020–2021. AIP
(FPU16/00082) gratefully acknowledges that his collaboration in
this work was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Universities (grant
number: EST19/00498).
Authorship Contributions
FTGF, HS, AIP and FMC lead the project, established the protocol
and wrote and revised the original manuscript. RRC and SGV wrote
and revised the original manuscript.
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ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Full-text available
Background and Objectives: The passive nature of rest breaks in sport could reduce athletes’ performance and even increase their risk of injury. Re-warm-up activities could help avoid these problems, but there is a lack of research on their efficacy. This systematic review aimed at analyzing the results of those randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that provided information on the effects of re-warm-up strategies. Materials and Methods: Four electronic databases (Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and SPORTDiscus) were searched from their inception to January 2021, for RCTs on the effects of re-warm-up activities on sports performance. Interventions had to be implemented just after an exercise period or sports competition. Studies that proposed activities that were difficult to replicate in the sport context or performed in a hot environment were excluded. Data were synthesized following PRISMA guidelines, while the risk of bias was assessed following the recommendations of the Cochrane Collaboration. Results: A total of 14 studies (178 participants) reporting data on acute or short-term effects were analyzed. The main outcomes were grouped into four broad areas: physiological measures, conditional abilities, perceptual skills, and sport efficiency measures. The results obtained indicated that passive rest decreases physiological function in athletes, while re-warm-up activities could help to improve athletes’ conditional abilities and sporting efficiency, despite showing higher fatigue levels in comparison with passive rest. The re-warm-up exercise showed to be more effective than passive rest to improve match activities and passing ability. Conclusions: Performing re-warm-up activities is a valuable strategy to avoid reducing sports performance during prolonged breaks. However, given that the methodological quality of the studies was not high, these relationships need to be further explored in official or simulated competitions.
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Structuring warm-up (WU) in hot climate conditions before high-intensity efforts is still drawing the attention of researchers and practitioners. The present study investigates the effect of two WU durations (i.e.10 min: WU10 and 20 min: WU20) in a hot climate (~31°C), on thermal comfort, muscular power output and fatigue after a repeated-sprint test (RSA) in soccer players. Twelve amateur soccer players (age = 21.13 ± 1.8 years; height = 172.5 ± 4.6 cm and weight = 70.8 ± 5.1 kg) participated in a cross-over randomized study, and they underwent a soccer-specific RSA test, after two WU durations and on different days. Peak power (PP), mean power (MP) and the fatigue index (FI) were calculated and analysed. Likewise, thermal comfort/discomfort (TC), tympanic temperature (Ttym) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded at rest, after WU and after RSA. The ANOVA showed a significant increase in MP after WU10 in comparison to WU20 by 1.9%, while PP remained similar between the two durations. A significant decline in muscular power in WU20 compared to WU10 appeared from the 5th sprinting repetition and continued to the end of the RSA. The WU20, compared to the WU10, produced higher RPE at post-WU (p < 0.001) and post-RSA (p = 0.018), and higher thermal discomfort sensation in both post-WU (p = 0.022) and post-RSA (p = 0.007) point of measures. Larger increases in Ttym were recorded after WU20 compared to WU10. WU10 in a hot climate (~31°C) best assists mean power output during soccer RSA, but not peak power. Extending the WU duration up to 20 min in a hot climate was revealed to be detrimental for muscular power output, inducing excessive thermal discomfort and fatigue. Therefore, it is important that trainers and soccer players carefully consider WU duration prior to competitions and training sessions in a hot climate, to optimize physiological responses.
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The aim of this study was to assess the influence of a half-time (HT) re-warm up (RWU) strategy on measures of performance and the physical and perceptual response to soccer-specific activity. Ten male soccer players completed a control (CON) and RWU trial, in which participants completed 60 min (4 x 15-min periods with a 15-min HT interspersing the third and fourth periods) of a soccer-specific exercise protocol. The CON trial comprised a passive 15-min HT, whilst the RWU trial comprised a passive 12-min period, followed by a 3-min RWU. The RWU elicited an improvement in 20 m sprint times (d= 0.6; CON: 3.42 ± 0.20 s; RWU: 3.32 ± 0.12 s), and both squat (d= 0.6; CON: 26.96 ± 5.00 cm; RWU: 30.17 ± 5.13 cm) and countermovement jump height (d= 0.7; CON: 28.15 ± 4.72 cm; RWU: 31.53 ± 5.43 cm) following the RWU and during the initial stages of the second half. No significant changes were identified for 5 m or 10 m sprint performance, perceived muscle soreness, or PlayerLoadTM. Ratings of perceived exertion were however higher (~2 a.u) following the RWU. These data support the use of a HT RWU intervention to elicit acute changes in performance.
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Publication bias is a type of systematic error when synthesizing evidence that cannot represent the underlying truth. Clinical studies with favorable results are more likely published and thus exaggerate the synthesized evidence in meta-analyses. The trim-and-fill method is a popular tool to detect and adjust for publication bias. Simulation studies have been performed to assess this method, but they may not fully represent realistic settings about publication bias. Based on real-world meta-analyses, this article provides practical guidelines and recommendations for using the trim-and-fill method. We used a worked illustrative example to demonstrate the idea of the trim-and-fill method, and we reviewed three estimators (R0, L0, and Q0) for imputing missing studies. A resampling method was proposed to calculate P values for all 3 estimators. We also summarized available meta-analysis software programs for implementing the trim-and-fill method. Moreover, we applied the method to 29,932 meta-analyses from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and empirically evaluated its overall performance. We carefully explored potential issues occurred in our analysis. The estimators L0 and Q0 detected at least one missing study in more meta-analyses than R0, while Q0 often imputed more missing studies than L0. After adding imputed missing studies, the significance of heterogeneity and overall effect sizes changed in many meta-analyses. All estimators generally converged fast. However, L0 and Q0 failed to converge in a few meta-analyses that contained studies with identical effect sizes. Also, P values produced by different estimators could yield different conclusions of publication bias significance. Outliers and the pre-specified direction of missing studies could have influential impact on the trim-and-fill results. Meta-analysts are recommended to perform the trim-and-fill method with great caution when using meta-analysis software programs. Some default settings (e.g., the choice of estimators and the direction of missing studies) in the programs may not be optimal for a certain meta-analysis; they should be determined on a case-by-case basis. Sensitivity analyses are encouraged to examine effects of different estimators and outlying studies. Also, the trim-and-fill estimator should be routinely reported in meta-analyses, because the results depend highly on it.
Purpose: Dozens of variables can be derived from the countermovement jump (CMJ). However, this does not guarantee an increase in useful information because many of the variables are highly correlated. Furthermore, practitioners should seek to find the simplest solution to performance testing and reporting challenges. The purpose of this investigation was to show how to apply dimensionality reduction to CMJ data with a view to offer practitioners solutions to aid applications in high-performance settings. Methods: The data were collected from 3 cohorts using 3 different devices. Dimensionality reduction was undertaken on the extracted variables by way of principal component analysis and maximum likelihood factor analysis. Results: Over 90% of the variance in each CMJ data set could be explained in 3 or 4 principal components. Similarly, 2 to 3 factors could successfully explain the CMJ. Conclusions: The application of dimensional reduction through principal component analysis and factor analysis allowed for the identification of key variables that strongly contributed to distinct aspects of jump performance. Practitioners and scientists can consider the information derived from these procedures in several ways to streamline the transfer of CMJ test information.
Current soccer scientific literature is scarce with regard to examining the technical performance of substitute players. Purpose: This study aimed to analyze the physical and technical performance of substitute players versus those who completed the entire match or were replaced and also examine the performance of substitutes across different playing positions. Method: The sample was composed of 6,631 match observations from 431 professional soccer players competing in the German Bundesliga during the season 2018–2019. These observations were divided into three groups: entire match (n = 3,807), replaced (n = 1,412), and substitutes (n = 1,412). Linear mixed models were adjusted to compare the performance of the three groups independently of playing position and separately for each position (central defenders, fullbacks, central midfielders, wide midfielders, and attackers). Results: Substitute players showed higher total distance covered (effect sizes [ES]: 0.99–1.06), number of sprints (ES: 0.60–0.64), and number of fast runs (ES: 0.83–0.91) relative to playing time than replaced and entire match players. The differences in technical performance between groups varied according to playing position. Substitute central defenders showed less possession (ES: 0.39–0.41), touches (ES: 0.47–0.57), and passes (ES: 0.54–0.59) but higher defensive performance (ES: 0.51–0.54) than replaced and entire match players. Substitutes in midfield and attack positions displayed more possession (ES: 0.22–0.47), touches (ES: 0.27–0.37), and shots (ES: 0.22–0.28) than replaced and entire match players. Conclusion: This study has shown that substitutes are able to improve the performance of the players who completed the entire match or were replaced in both physical and some technical variables depending on playing position.
PurposeThe aim of the study was to establish the optimum variable resistance (VR) intensity for loaded countermovement jump (LCMJ) to induce post-activation potentiation (PAP).Methods Eleven male athletes (age 23 ± 2.3 years, height 1.77 ± 0.05 m, body mass 73.7 ± 9.0 kg) attended one familiarization and four testing sessions. Subjects performed their own pre-competition warm up before performing two countermovement jumps (CMJ) for baseline measure. Subsequently, they performed 2 × 3 unloaded (UCMJ) or loaded CMJ (LCMJ) with one of the three VR intensities, Orange (6.7 ± 0.6 kg), Red (14.0 ± 0.9 kg) and Blue (24.0 ± 1.4 kg), in random order, before performing two more CMJ for post-test measure. Each testing session was separated by at least 48 h.ResultsThere was significant increase in jump height in all conditions (P < 0.05), but no significant difference in change in jump height between conditions (P > 0.05). There were small to moderate effect when comparing Orange and the other conditions. Peak force and velocity increased in Red (P < 0.05) and Orange (P < 0.05), respectively. Change in jump height was significantly correlated to change in peak velocity (r = 0.46, P = 0.002) and peak power (r = 0.46, P = 0.002).Conclusion The findings of the study showed that UCMJ and LCMJ were effective in improving jump height acutely, and an intensity level of about 10% body weight contributed by VR seems to be the optimum resistance level.
Assessment of risk of bias is regarded as an essential component of a systematic review on the effects of an intervention. The most commonly used tool for randomised trials is the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. We updated the tool to respond to developments in understanding how bias arises in randomised trials, and to address user feedback on and limitations of the original tool.