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The sponge crabs of Western Australia and the Northwest Shelf with descriptions of new genera and species (Crustacea: Brachyura: Dromiidae)


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The Dromiidae of Western Australia are summarized primarily based on specimens from the collection of the Western Australian Museum and some additional material from the Australian Museum, Sydney. The genus Alainodromia McLay 1998, is recorded from Camden Sound, Australia, as a new species Alainodromia dambimangari sp. nov. New evidence suggests that the species of Alainodromia are very likely shell carriers that also have direct development. Five species of Cryptodromia are reported from Western Australia and a new genus, Baccadromia gen. nov., is erected for Dromia (Cryptodromia) bullifera Alcock, 1900. The genus Lamarckdromia Guinot & Tavares, 2003 is revised and now includes three species: L. beagle sp. nov., L. excavata (Stimpson, 1858) and L. globosa (Lamarck, 1818). Six species of Dromiidae are new to Australia: Baccadromia bullifera (Alcock, 1900), Cryptodromia amboinensis (De Man, 1888), C. pileifera Alcock, 1901, Epigodromia rotunda McLay, 1993, and Foredromia rostrata McLay, 2002. New records for Western Australia include: Cryptodromia hilgendorfi De Man, 1888, Epigodromia areolata (Ihle, 1913) and Lewindromia unidentata (Rüppell, 1830). A total of 31 species of dromiid crabs are now known from Western Australian coast with five species endemic to the state. There are more than 40 species of Dromiidae known from Australia of which about 40% are endemic.
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ISSN 1175-5326 (print edition)
ISSN 1175-5334 (online edition)
Accepted by S. Ahyong: 23 Mar. 2022; published: 28 Apr. 2022 301
Zootaxa 5129 (3): 301–355
Copyright © 2022 Magnolia Press Article
The sponge crabs of Western Australia and the Northwest Shelf with descriptions
of new genera and species (Crustacea: Brachyura: Dromiidae)
1Biological Sciences, Canterbury University, Christchurch 8004, New Zealand.
2Aquatic Zoology, Western Australia Museum, ID Welshpool DC WA 6986, Australia.;
*Corresponding author
Table of contents
Abstract .................................................................................................302
Introduction .............................................................................................302
Materials and methods .....................................................................................303
Systematic Account ........................................................................................303
Family Dromiidae de Haan, 1833 .............................................................................303
Subfamily Dromiinae de Haan, 1833 ..........................................................................303
Alainodromia McLay, 1998 ................................................................................303
Alainodromia dambimangari sp. nov. ..................................................................305
Austrodromidia McLay, 1993 ...............................................................................307
Austrodromidia australis (Rathbun, 1923) ...............................................................307
Austrodromidia insignis (Rathbun, 1923) ...............................................................309
Austrodromidia octodentata (Haswell, 1882) ............................................................ 309
Baccadromia gen. nov. ..................................................................................... 315
Baccadromia bullifera (Alcock, 1900) comb. nov. .........................................................316
Cryptodromia Stimpson, 1858 ...............................................................................318
Cryptodromia amboinensis De Man, 1888 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
Cryptodromia hilgendorfi De Man, 1888 ................................................................318
Cryptodromia pileifera (Alcock, 1900) .................................................................320
Cryptodromia tuberculata Stimpson, 1858 .............................................................. 322
Cryptodromia tumida Stimpson, 1858. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Desmodromia McLay, 2001 .................................................................................324
Desmodromia tranterae McLay, 2001 .................................................................. 324
Epigodromia McLay, 1993 ..................................................................................324
Epigodromia areolata (Ihle, 1913) .....................................................................324
Epigodromia rotunda McLay, 1993 ....................................................................328
Foredromia McLay, 2002 ..................................................................................329
Foredromia rostrata McLay, 2002 .....................................................................329
Fultodromia McLay, 1993 ..................................................................................329
Fultodromia nodipes (Guérin, 1832) ....................................................................329
Fultodromia spinifera (Montgomery, 1931) ..............................................................333
Lamarckdromia Guinot & Tavares, 2003 ......................................................................333
Lamarckdromia excavata (Stimpson, 1858) comb. nov. .....................................................333
Lamarckdromia globosa (Lamarck, 1818) ...............................................................336
Lamarckdromia beagle sp. nov. .......................................................................338
Lewindromia Guinot & Tavares, 2003 ...................................................................342
Lewindromia unidentata (Rüppell, 1830) ...............................................................342
Metadromia McLay, 2009 .................................................................................. 344
Metadromia wilsoni (Fulton & Grant, 1902) .............................................................344
Petalomera Stimpson, 1858 .................................................................................345
Petalomera pulchra Miers, 1884 ......................................................................345
Stimdromia McLay, 1993 ...................................................................................346
Stimdromia lamellata (Ortmann, 1894) .................................................................346
Stimdromia lateralis (Gray, 1831) ..................................................................... 349
Acknowledgements ........................................................................................350
References ...............................................................................................350
302 · Zootaxa 5129 (3) © 2022 Magnolia Press
The Dromiidae of Western Australia are summarized primarily based on specimens from the collection of the Western
Australian Museum and some additional material from the Australian Museum, Sydney. The genus Alainodromia
McLay 1998, is recorded from Camden Sound, Australia, as a new species Alainodromia dambimangari sp. nov. New
evidence suggests that the species of Alainodromia are very likely shell carriers that also have direct development. Five
species of Cryptodromia are reported from Western Australia and a new genus, Baccadromia gen. nov., is erected for
Dromia (Cryptodromia) bullifera Alcock, 1900. The genus Lamarckdromia Guinot & Tavares, 2003 is revised and now
includes three species: L. beagle sp. nov., L. excavata (Stimpson, 1858) and L. globosa (Lamarck, 1818). Six species
of Dromiidae are new to Australia: Baccadromia bullifera (Alcock, 1900), Cryptodromia amboinensis (De Man, 1888),
C. pileifera Alcock, 1901, Epigodromia rotunda McLay, 1993, and Foredromia rostrata McLay, 2002. New records for
Western Australia include: Cryptodromia hilgendorfi De Man, 1888, Epigodromia areolata (Ihle, 1913) and Lewindromia
unidentata (Rüppell, 1830). A total of 31 species of dromiid crabs are now known from Western Australian coast with
five species endemic to the state. There are more than 40 species of Dromiidae known from Australia of which about 40%
are endemic.
Key words: Australia marine biodiversity, sponge crabs, depth distribution. Indian Ocean, Indo-west Pacific, new genera,
new species, Podotremata
Early contributions to our knowledge of Australian dromiid crabs were made by Milne Edwards (1834–1840),
Stimpson (1858), Haswell (1882b), Miers (1884), Rathbun (1923a, 1924), Hale (1927), Montgomery (1931) and
Balss (1935). Much of the material reported by these authors came from several important expeditions: Voyage
of “Le Geographe” and “Le Naturaliste” commanded by Nicolas Baudin (1800–1803), United States Exploring
Expedition commanded by Charles Wilkes (1838–1842), Voyage of HMS “Alert” (1881–1882) commanded by
Richard Coppinger, the Hamburg Museum Expedition 1905 by Wilhelm Michaelsen and Robert Hartmeyer, Dr
Eric Mjoberg’s Swedish scientific expeditions to Australia 1910–1913 and the Percy Sladen Trust Expedition to the
Abrolhos Islands 1913 by William John Dakin.
Decapod Crustacea from the coast of Western Australia were reviewed by Morgan & Jones (1991) and Jones &
Morgan, (1993) for the International Marine Biological Workshops on the marine flora and fauna of Rottnest Island
and Esperance. O’Hara & Poore (2000) analysed the distribution of Southern Australian decapods.
Poore (2004) provided a very valuable guide to the identification of Southern Australian Dromiidae. Davie
(2002) provided a checklist of all dromiids known from Australia at that time. McLay & Ng (2007) revised Pet-
alomera and reported specimens of P. pulchra Miers, 1884 from Western Australia. Poore et al. (2008) reported
preliminary identifications of a large number of decapods collected by the FRV Southern Surveyor voyage from the
continental margin of southwestern and central Western Australia from Albany to Exmouth (see Poore et al. 2008:
fig. 1). They figure undescribed species of Epigodromia sp., Fultodromia sp. and Takedromia sp. collected off the
Western Australian coast during the Southern Surveyor voyage. The specimen identified as Epigodromia sp. is Fore-
dromia rostrata McLay, 2002 and is dealt with herein.
McLay & Hosie (2012) reported Desmodromia tranterae and Conchoecetes artificiosus, two shell carrying
crabs from Western Australia. A revision of Conchoecetes by McLay & Naruse (2019) shows that the previous Aus-
tralian records of Conchoecetes artificiosus should be known as C. conchifera (Haswell, 1882). This species is not
a synonym of C. artificiosus (Fabricius, 1798) as has long been assumed.
Borradaile (1900), when erecting Dromidiopsis, nominated the Australian species, Dromia australiensis Has-
well, 1882 as the type species. The brief description and lack of an illustration by Haswell (1882) lead to many mis-
identifications of specimens from outside Australia, believed to be the same, and difficulties in understanding which
other species belonged to Dromidiopsis. Lewinsohn (1984) showed that the only reliable records of D. australiensis
were from Australia and that this species was probably an endemic. Thus, it has been necessary to undertake a revi-
sion of Dromidiopsis and the related Lauridromia McLay, 1993 which has been done separately (McLay ms). In that
paper, Dromidiopsis lethrinusae (Takeda & Kurata, 1976), D. tridentata Borradaile, 1903, Lauridromia intermedia
(Laurie, 1906), and L. dehaani (Rathbun, 1923) are reported from Australia. Paradromia japonica (Henderson,
1888) was collected in 1911 from 15 m depth, 77 km west-south-west of Cape Jaubert, northern Western Australia
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and reported by Rathbun (1924), but we have not examined any further material of this species and so do not deal
with this species here.
Our report is based primarily on the dromiid collection in the Western Australian Museum. These specimens
were donated to the museum by many shoreline and SCUBA collectors as well as CSIRO collections made on
the vessels FRV Peron, FRV Soela, and FRV Sprightly, Division of Fisheries CSIRO; HMAS Diamantina). More
recently collections of dromiid specimens have been made during biodiversity surveys in northern Western Austra-
lia, owing largely to ongoing expansion by the mining and energy industries in the area e.g. Dampier Archipelago
(Hutchins & Gomez 2007), Kimberley region (Keesing et al. 2011, 2015; Hosie et al. 2015).
Materials and methods
Species’ descriptions follow an abbreviated pattern similar to that used by McLay (1993) and focus on features of
the carapace, orbits, female sternum and spermathecal apertures, pereopods and abdomen. We do not include details
of the male gonopods, which are remarkably uniform, consisting of a G1 that is a semi-rolled setose tube with a
blunt tip and a needle-shaped G2, which is usually longer than the G1. These gonopods have limited contact with the
female because they are too large to be inserted into the spermathecal aperture and contact is primarily by the tips
of the G2, which guide the G1 to the aperture along the path defined by the sternal grooves. They are simply a con-
duit for transferring sperm without internal female interaction and hence “one size fits all” (McLay, unpublished).
Thoracic limbs are referred to as cheliped (P1) and P2–P5 (second to fifth pereopods, sometimes called legs when
referring to their function in walking or carrying camouflage). Dimensions including carapace teeth are given as
carapace width × carapace length in millimetres (mm).
Institutional abbreviations used are as follows:
AM Australian Museum, Sydney;
NHM Natural History Museum, London;
CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation;
ZMH Zoologisches Institut and Zoologisches Museum, Hamburg;
NMV Museum Victoria, Melbourne;
MNHN Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris;
WAM Western Australia Museum, Perth.
Table 1 lists 31 species of dromiid crabs recorded from Western Australia of which seven have been dealt with
in other papers (McLay & Naruse 2019; McLay, unpublished). When it was necessary to revise genera or intro-
duce new species, some related non-Australian species were included. In total 27 species accounts are presented
here, most of which include illustrations. Table 1 also provides a summary of the bathymetric distribution of these
dromiid species.
Systematic Account
Family Dromiidae de Haan, 1833
Subfamily Dromiinae de Haan, 1833
Alainodromia McLay, 1998
Type Species. Alainodromia timorensis McLay, 1998.
Diagnosis. Carapace about as wide as long; surface weakly convex granulate and/or tuberculate; rostrum strongly
tridentate, projecting anteriorly; anterolateral teeth well developed, flattened, elevated, may be bifid; female sternal
grooves end separately, but close together between chelipeds or P2; cheliped without epipod; abdomen with six
304 · Zootaxa 5129 (3) © 2022 Magnolia Press
immobile segments, strongly ridged, tuberculate; chelipeds, P2 and P3 elongate, not massive;P4 and P5 reduced,
subchelate; P4 shortest P5 reaching second anterolateral tooth when extended anteriorly; both P4 and P5 dorsal and
in same horizontal plain.
TABLE 1. Dromiid crabs recorded from Western Australia.
Note: the depth range given is for all records of each species, including for Australia. Some species from Western Aus-
tralia are dealt with separately in papers listed below.
Species Depth Range (m) Davie
Poore et al.
Alainodromia dambimangari sp. nov.27–44 m x
Austrodromidia australis (Rathbun, 1923) 100–220 m x x
Austrodromidia insignis (Rathbun, 1923) 128–249 m x x x
Austrodromidia octodentata (Haswell, 1882) 0–88 m x x
Baccadromia bullifera (Alcock, 1900) comb. nov. 30–60 m x
Conchoecetes conchifera (Haswell, 1882) 5–44 m See McLay &
Naruse 2019
Cryptodromia amboinensis De Man, 1888 20–40 m x
Cryptodromia hilgendorfi De Man, 1888 0–88 m x
Cryptodromia pileifera Alcock, 1901 0–10 m x
Cryptodromia tuberculata Stimpson, 1858 0–10 m x x
Cryptodromia tumida Stimpson, 1858 0–97 m x x
Desmodromia tranterae McLay, 2001 0–15 m x x
Dromidiopsis australiensis (Haswell, 1882) 0–135 m x x (ms)
Dromidiopsis lethrinusae (Takeda & Kurata, 1976) 8–45 m x (ms)
Dromidiopsis tridentata Borradaile, 1903 Shallow depths,
limits uncertain
x (ms)
Epigodromia areolata (Ihle, 1913) 30–350 m x
Epigodromia rotunda McLay, 1993 82–235 m x
Foredromia rostrata McLay, 2002 5–200 m x x
Fultodromia nodipes (Guerin, 1832) 0–44 m x x x
Fultodromia spinifera (Montgomery, 1931) 8 – 55 m x x
Lamarckdromia excavata (Stimpson, 1858) comb. nov. 30–180 m x x
Lamarckdromia beagle sp. nov. Uncertain x
Lauridromia dehaani (Rathbun, 1923) 30–150 m x (ms)
Lauridromia intermedia (Laurie, 1906) 7–150 m x (ms)
Lewindromia unidentata (Rũppell, 1830) 0–100 m x
Metadromia wilsoni (Fulton & Grant, 1902) 0–520 m x x
Paradromia japonica (Henderson, 1888) 10–40 m x
Petalomera pulchra Miers, 1884 7–86 m x
Stimdromia lamellata (Ortmann, 1894) 10–120 m x x
Stimdromia lateralis (Gray, 1831) 0–95 m x x
Totals 14 4 (+ 2 unde-
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Alainodromia dambimangari sp. nov.
(Fig. 1A–E)
Type material. Holotype: WAM C69971, ovig. female 15.2 × 14.9 mm, Camden Sound, Western Australia, 47–49
m, 18°18’50.15”S, 124°06’45.05”E, 03-2015. Paratype: WAM C69970, male 9.3 × 10.2 mm, Eclipse Islands, West-
ern Australia, 42 m, 13°29’37.61”S, 125°51’06.88”E, 2-03-2016.
Other material Examined. WAM C69972, Camden Sound, Western Australia, 36 m, 18°26’55.47”S,
124°09’13.06”E, 20-03-2015: female 7.6 × 7.3 mm; WAM C71297, Camden Sound, Western Australia, 42 m,
18°24’23.11”S, 124°07’33.34”E: male 6.8 × 6.5 mm.
Etymology. The specific name for this new species acknowledges the Dambimangari, traditional owners of
Camden Sound, where the species was first discovered. It is a noun used in apposition.
Description. Carapace as wide as long or slightly wider, weakly convex, weak frontal groove, cardiac area well
defined, branchial groove marked; surface covered in low subacute scattered tubercles of different sizes with larger
tubercle roughly behind supraorbital tooth, surface between them smooth. Rostrum strongly tridentate; subacute
median tooth shorter than flattened lateral teeth but visible dorsally; supraorbital margin interrupted by strong blunt
tooth, postorbital tooth absent, suborbital tooth not visible dorsally. Anterolateral carapace margin armed with 2
prominent flattened teeth, second tooth bifid, smaller blunt posterolateral tooth behind branchial groove; postero-
lateral margin convergent, occasionally with several smaller blunt tubercles; posterior carapace margin sinuous.
Subhepatic area flat with pair of tubercles beneath anterolateral teeth and broken “saw-tooth”-like ridge extending
from buccal corner, epistome plate-like. Female sternal grooves ending apart but in close proximity on elevated
humps at either end of ridge lying between boundary between chelipeds and P2. When closed, telson lying directly
over (in ventral view) termini of sternal grooves.
Chelipeds and P2 and P3 elongate, not massive, sparse small rounded tubercles, dorsal distal borders of merus,
carpus and propodus produced as prominent blunt lobes. Inner margins of P2 and P3 dactyli armed with 3 or 4
evenly spaced stout spines. Cheliped fingers flattened, gaping, with 7 or 8 small teeth. P4 and P5 both dorsal, P4
shortest, P5 reaching almost to second anterolateral tooth when extended anteriorly. P4 and P5 dactylus short stout
acute bent into right-angle shape and twisted upwards at around 45°; opposed by single stout propodal spine.
Abdomen strongly ornamented and sculptured, segments immobile. Female segments with large blunt tubercles
tending to be arranged in pairs: medially with two adjacent pairs on first segment, becoming merged into single
ridge on posterior segments; laterally with pair, one behind the other, becoming larger posteriorly. Telson triangular,
tip rounded, basal width about twice length, centrally 2 pairs of small blunt tubercles, small angled ridge is sugges-
tive of uropods often present in dromiids but these are absent here.
Male abdomen ornamentation similar to that of females but tubercles much less prominent; telson trapezoidal
in shape, length slightly more than half basal width, tip truncate posterior corners end in subacute lobes. Abdomi-
nal locking mechanism consisting of lateral projections from margins of penultimate segment fitting in front of
tubercles on P2 coxae. Male G1 flattened, setose tube, G2 longer than G1, needle-like.
Remarks. The major differences between Alainodromia dambimangari sp. nov. and A. timorensis are as fol-
lows: lateral rostral teeth broader (less flattened in A. timorensis); median rostral tooth prominent (deflexed less
prominent); only second anterolateral tooth deeply bifid (both teeth bifid); frontal carapace surface covered in low
subacute scattered tubercles of different sizes with one larger tubercle roughly behind supraorbital tooth (surface
covered with scattered small tubercles but prominent row of five larger tubercles at level of first anterolateral tooth)
(Fig. 1).
McLay (1998) stated that the abdominal segments of the type male were “free”, but while there are sutures pres-
ent between them, there is very little flexibility and the abdomen as a whole only articulates with the thorax. When
specimens are preserved in formalin it can be difficult to determine whether inflexibility is a result of preservation
or a natural condition. The present material allows us to show that in both males and females, segment immobility
is the natural condition and that the abdomen has a largely fixed shape in both sexes articulating with the thorax. In
males, the abdomen is approximately linear, retained by the abdominal locking mechanism, whereas in females, it
is rounded, forming a brood chamber held closely against the sternum by musculature. The female abdomen does
not have abdominal locking mechanism. The plesiomorphic condition in decapods is to have all segments free, but
in Brachyura the ventrally folded abdomen requires some holding mechanism: segment immobility (resulting from
fusion or ankylosis) or a locking mechanism are alternatives. Partial ankylosis of abdominal segments is a feature
of species of Dromidiopsis Borradaile, 1900 and Lauridromia McLay, 1993.
306 · Zootaxa 5129 (3) © 2022 Magnolia Press
FIGURE 1. Alainodromia dambimangari sp. nov.: A–C, ovigerous female holotype, 15.2 × 14.9 mm (part of left rostral tooth
missing) (WAM C69971): A, dorsal view; B, frontal view (note a tubiculous polychaete has attached to the left third maxilliped);
C, ventral view; F, dorsal view left P4 and P5. D–E, paratype male 9.3 × 10.2 mm (WAM C69970): D, dorsal view; E, ventral
SPONGE CRABS WESTERN AUSTRALIA Zootaxa 5129 (3) © 2022 Magnolia Press · 307
When describing Alainodromia timorensis McLay (1998) speculated that this species may carry pieces of
sponge, but both P4 and P5 are dorsal in this genus, unlike most other dromiid genera where P4 is directed ventrally
and P5 is sub-dorsal. In A. timorensis they both lie in the same horizontal plain so that their movements are only
anterior/posterior, linked to the weakly convex shape of the carapace. The dactyli are unusual in being short, stout
and bent into a right angle and oriented vertically at approximately 45° so that neither are directed ventrally as might
be found in a sponge-carrying dromiid. They show closest resemblance to the P4 and P5 of Desmodromia McLay,
2001, which is a bivalve shell-carrier also found in northwest Australia (see McLay & Hosie 2012). Desmodromia
has a more convex carapace and the P5 is subdorsal, whereas the P4 is directed ventrally and has been found with
cockle shells. However, the P4 and P5 dactyli of Alainodromia dambimangari sp. nov. are opposed by a small
propodal spine not found in Desmodromia. Both of these genera have distinctive lamellate anterolateral carapace
margins, which may be related to the use of shells for camouflage. These structures would increase the amount
of carapace surface in contact with the inner surface of the shell. The carapace of species of Alainodromia is only
weakly convex, so it may utilize more flattened shells.
The ovigerous female of A. dambimangari sp. nov. had approximately 100 large eggs of diameter 1.5 mm. The
small brood-large eggs strategy is a feature shared with Desmodromia tranterae whose females have been recorded
with ~ 20 eggs, 0.8–0.9 mm diameter. The difference in brood size is probably a reflection of female size, but egg
size of A. dambimangari is considerably larger, having 4.7 × the volume of those of Desmodromia tranterae. On
this basis A. dambimangari possibly has direct development and D. tranterae abbreviated development. Direct or
abbreviated development is apparently a feature of the Australian dromiid crab fauna (see McLay 1993; McLay et
al. 2001; Morgan 1987). The type female of A. dambimangari had a tubiculous polychaete, 3 mm diameter, attached
to the left third maxilliped suggesting that it may not have moulted recently.
The other species in the genus, Alainodromia timorensis has been collected from 27–44 m in the Timor Sea.
Distribution. Known only from northwestern Australia. Depth 36–49 m.
Austrodromidia McLay, 1993
Austrodromidia australis (Rathbun, 1923)
(Fig. 2A–E)
Dromidia australis Rathbun, 1923: 147, pl. 39 figs. 1–3, pl. 40 fig. 1.—Hale, 1927: 106, fig. 101.—Griffin, 1972: 52.
Austrodromidia australis.—McLay, 1993: 18.—Davie, 2002: 158.—Poore, 2004: 303, fig. 86a.—Guinot & Tavares, 2003: 50,
fig. 1c.
Type material. Holotype: AM P6200, ovigerous female, 29.0 × 27.3 mm, 96–128 km W from Eucla, Great Austra-
lian Bight, 146–223 m.
Other material Examined. Western Australia: WAM C25772, Dampier Archipelago, collected on SCUBA
by Clay Bryce, Woodside Dampier Expedition III, 1999, 20°21’00”S, 116°52’00”E: female 11.1 × 11.9 mm (large
asymmetric sponge cap); WAM C38324, Ningaloo Project, Exmouth Gulf, 22°S, 114.25°E, 1-10-1974, 18 m: fe-
male 12.3 × 12.8 mm.
Description. Carapace approximately as wide as long, sub-pentagonal in outline, gently convex, covered in soft
coarse tomentum; rostrum prominent, lateral teeth blunt, triangular, much longer than median tooth sited at a lower
level, scarcely visible dorsally; margin strongly concave on each side of strong sub-acute supraorbital tooth, post-
orbital tooth blunt prominent, strong suborbital tooth partially obscured by supraorbital tooth in dorsal view. Small
blunt subhepatic tooth partially visible dorsally. Anterolateral carapace margin armed with 3 evenly spaced teeth,
first much larger, blunt, directed anterolaterally, second and third subacute marking widest point. Posterolateral
tooth small behind weak branchial groove. Posterolateral carapace margins convergent to gently convex posterior
margin. Sub-hepatic area sloping towards buccal area, 1 tooth beneath first anterolateral tooth and smaller tubercle
near corner of buccal frame.
Chelipeds nodular; fingers gaping, occlusal teeth white; outer face of carpus armed with 2 small proximal tu-
bercles and a triangle of 3 strong blunt tubercles inferior pair strongest, superior margin armed with small tubercle
mid-way and inner distal margin armed with another at upper corner.
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FIGURE 2. Austrodromidia australis (Rathbun, 1923), female carrying sponge, 11.1 × 11.9 mm (WAM C25772): A, dorsal
view; B, dorsal view close up right anterolateral carapace margin; C, E, frontal view; D, frontal view right anterolateral carapace
margin and cheliped.
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P2 and P3 carpus and propodus with strong distal lobes, dactylus inner margin with 3 small spines. P4 much
shorter, strong curved dactyl opposed by single propodal spine. P5 sub-dorsal, flattened, reaching second anterolat-
eral tooth, strong curved dactyl opposed by 2 equal propodal spines with another 2 unequal spines on outer propodal
margin. Crista dentata on third maxillipeds consist of 9 or 10 small acute teeth.
Abdomen of female with uropods well developed, visible externally, telson margin strongly convex. Female
sternal grooves ending close together on transverse ridge just behind chelipeds.
Remarks. Distinctive features of A. australis are a strong projecting rostrum; strong supraorbital, postorbital
and suborbital teeth (in A. insignis the postorbital corner is bluntly rounded); the anterolateral margin is armed with
several strong teeth tending to decrease in size posteriorly (2 small blunt teeth evenly spaced in A. insignis).
Distribution. Southern Australia: New South Wales, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Austra-
lia. Depth 10–220 m.
Austrodromidia insignis (Rathbun, 1923)
(Fig. 3A–C)
Dromidia insignis Rathbun, 1923a: 149, pl. XL figs. 2, 3. —Hale, 1927: 107, fig. 102.
Austrodromidia insignis.—McLay, 1993: 185.—Davie, 2002: 159.—Poore et al., 2008: 37, text photo.
Not Austrodromidia insignis Poore, 2004: 303, fig. 86d (identity of illustrated specimen uncertain.).
Material examined. New South Wales: NHM 1879.8, Port Jackson (Sydney Harbour), 13 fathoms (23.8 m), pre-
sented by J. Brazier Esq, mature female 11.0 × 10.8 mm, carrying solitary ascidian cap.
Remarks. The carapace of A. insignis is domed, covered in short spatuliform tomentum (A. australis not so
strongly convex, covered in short coarse tomentum); the rostrum is tridentate, and the anterolateral margins of the
carapace may have 1 or 2 small teeth (strongly tridentate, anterolateral border armed with several strong teeth).
The CSIRO Database includes images of specimens taken from Western Australia: Kalbarri, 27.8°S, 113.31°E, 4-
12-2005, 96–98 m, specimen details not available; South Coast, 35.35°S, 118.3°E, 25-11-2005, 179 m, specimen
details not available; South Coast, 35.18°S, 118.65°E, 25-11-2005, 156 m, specimen details not available; South
Coast, off Bald Island, 35.27°S, 118.72°E, 25-11-2005, beam trawl, 97–98 m, specimen details not available. The
CSIRO photos of several freshly caught A. insignis show specimens with 10–12 large red-brown spots on carapace,
with the same colour highlighting the facial area and mouthparts and on the moveable finger of the chelipeds. Some
other specimens lacked these spots and were just the pale cream ground colour.
Distribution. Austrodromidia insignis is a Southern Australian endemic: New South Wales, South Australia,
Victoria and Western Australia. Depth 128–249 m.
Austrodromidia octodentata (Haswell, 1882)
(Figs. 4–7)
Dromia octodentata Haswell, 1882a: 755; 1882b: 140.—Fulton & Grant, 1906b: 20.—Baker, 1907: 179, pl. XXIII fig. 4.
Cryptodromia octodentata.—Rathbun, 1923a: 151, pl. 41.—Hale, 1925: 406, pls. 39, 40, text figs 1–5; 1927a [Handbook]: 107,
figs. 103–105; 1927b: 310.—Griffin, 1972: 53.
Austrodromidia octodentata.—McLay, 1993: 185.—Davie, 2002: 159.—Poore, 2004: 304, fig. 87e, pl. 17e.—Farrelly & Ahy-
ong, 2019: 72, fig. 139 (not fig. 138 = Stimdromia lateralis (Gray, 1831)).
Material examined. Western Australia: WAM C3464, Middleton Beach, (metal tag 15581): male 46.0 × 42.8 mm;
WAM C39957, Recherche Archipelago, Wickham Island, 34°02.95’S, 123°19.83’E to 34°02.50’S, 123°19.65’E,
58–57 m, 11-10-2007: male 72.0 × 62.8 mm; WAM C40544, Ningaloo Marine Park, off Mandu Sanctuary, 87.9–
81.2 m, 22°9’26”S, 113°48’02”E, 22°10’07”S, 113°48’19”E, 22-04-2006: female 6.8 × 6.9 mm; WAM C40672,
Ningaloo Marine Park, off Osprey Sanctuary, 58–57 m, 22°15’41”S, 113°49’04”E to 22°14’48”S, 113°48’29”E,
23-04-2006: male 10.1 × 10.0 mm; WAM C43229, Mandu Creek, 50.8 m, 22°3’40”S, 113°51’53”E to 22°3’40”S,
113°51’52”E, 4-08-2008: male 10.6 × 10.8 mm (sponge cap); WAM C43837, Montgomery Island, Kimberleys,
intertidal, 16°01.226”S, 124°0900.72”E, 23-10-2009: 2 females 2.8 × 3.1 mm, 3.5 × 3.8 mm; WAM C43838, Mont-
gomery Island, Kimberleys, hand collected, 15°58’00.877”S, 124°16’00.836”E, 22-10-2009: male 3.7 × 3.9 mm;
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WAM C6517 (metal tag shows “65-50”), trawled in the Great Australian Bight by Inspector of Fisheries, 7-06-1950:
male 91.3 × 74.9 mm (large dried specimen used for description).
FIGURE 3. Austrodromidia insignis (Rathbun, 1923), female, 11.0 × 10.8 mm, Sydney Harbour (NHM 1879: 8): A, dorsal
view; B, ventral view; C, ventral view without abdomen, showing sternal grooves filled with sperm plaque.
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FIGURE 4. Austrodromidia octodentata (Haswell, 1882), male 10.6 × 10.8 mm (WAM C43229) carrying sponge cap: A, fron-
tal view; B, ventral view.
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FIGURE 5. Austrodromidia octodentata (Haswell, 1882): ontogenetic changes in carapace shape during growth. Letters mark
reference points: A, lateral rostral tooth; B, supraorbital tooth; C, post orbital tooth; D, last anterolateral tooth; E, posterolateral
tooth. (After Hale 1925: text-figs. 1–5).
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FIGURE 6. Austrodromidia octodentata (Haswell, 1882): A, dorsal view ovigerous female beneath Pecten medius Lamarck,
1819 shell; B, ventral view of ovigerous female in Pecten medius shell; C, ventral view of a female brooding 530 juvenile crabs,
which was carrying a large piece of sponge. (A–B, after Hale 1925: pl. 40A; C, after Hale 1925: pl. 39).
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FIGURE 7. Austrodromidia octodentata (Haswell, 1882), dried male, 91.3 × 74.9 mm (WAM C65-1950): A, dorsal view; B,
frontal view; C, ventral.
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Description (based on male, WAM C6517). Entire body and pereopods covered by short, sparse bristly tomen-
tum, somewhat denser on chelipeds and P2–3.
Carapace smooth after removal of tomentum, tumid, rising steeply behind rostrum and frontal margins, then
sloping gradually down to posterior margin; overall shape changing during ontogeny from approximately as wide
as long to much wider than long, ratio ~1.22 (see Remarks below); rostrum tridentate, strongly deflexed, all 3 teeth
similar short, sub-acute, median tooth on lower level; similar teeth on supra-orbital margin and at postorbital corner;
sub-orbital margin separated by narrow fissure from supra-orbital margin and bearing small tooth visible dorsally;
anterolateral margin with 5 similar evenly-spaced teeth beginning at level of sub-orbital tooth, curving posteriorly
towards widest point of carapace; deeply marked branchial notch just behind widest point of carapace, bluntly
rounded posterolateral tooth directed upwards, followed by strongly convergent margin to posterior carapace bor-
der; branchial groove deeply marked and connecting with deep cardiac grooves, encompassing area marked by pair
of depressions and short ridges; short, shallow frontal groove extending posteriorly from median rostral tooth and
pair of shallow depressions, separated by 2 small tubercles, behind first 2 anterolateral teeth.
Third maxillipeds operculate, crista dentata armed with 9 or 10 strong corneous spines.
Male chelipeds massive, merus trigonal, margins dentate; carpus surface smooth except for shallow groove on
outer surface, inner distal margin with stout subacute tooth with 2 similar teeth on distal margin above propodal
joint. Inner dorsal margin of propodus with 3 large sub-equal teeth, outer face smooth to finely granulate. Cheliped
fingers stout, slightly down-curved, occlusal margins armed with 9 or 10 well developed, white, sub-acute teeth
that interlock when closed leaving small basal gape. Occlusal teeth on right cheliped fingers larger than those on
left: teeth on pollex gradually becoming smaller proximally, dactyl teeth of similar size except for proximal 3, be-
ing more widely spaced and stronger. Occlusal armature forming “crusher” teeth, but similar on both right and left
cheliped (Fig 4).
P2–3 shorter than chelipeds, margins smooth, dactyli ending in brown, sharp, curved, corneous tips and inner
margins armed with 5 stout spines, decreasing in size proximally. P4 much shorter than P2–3, used for carrying
camouflage over carapace, sub-chelate with strongly curved dactylus opposed by 2 large spines on propodal margin
with 2 further spines on outer propodal margin at base of dactyl. P5 missing.
Male abdomen with 6 free segments and telson, surface smooth, strong, sculptured median ridge on last seg-
ments 2–6. Lateral margins of segment 6 deeply indented to accommodate well developed tubercles on coxae of first
walking legs providing abdominal locking mechanism. Telson triangular, posterior margin evenly rounded. Uropod
plates at articulation between telson and segment 6, not visible dorsally.
Remarks. Various incomplete descriptions of A. octodentata have been published (Haswell 1882; Baker 1907;
Rathbun 1923a; Hale 1925, 1927). These accounts are not all in agreement so we present a more detailed descrip-
tion based on the largest specimen available to us (WAM C6517, male, 91.3 × 74.9 mm). The morphology of A.
octodentata changes as it grows larger. Juveniles have a carapace width/length ratio of around 0.9, reaching 1.0 at
maturity and around 1.2 in the largest crabs (compare Figs 5 and 7 herein). During growth, the lateral margin of
the carapace becomes more convex, as a result of carapace widening and the number of teeth increases from 3 to 5.
The front (orbital-rostral area) becomes proportionally smaller and teeth (including the post-orbital tooth) become
more prominent (see Hale 1925: text figs. 1–5; Fig. 5). This species has large eggs (1.9 mm diam.) that give rise to
juvenile crabs, brooded by the female.
Distribution. Australian endemic: New South Wales, South Australia, Victoria and Western Australia; intertidal
to 209 m (Farrelly & Ahyong 2019).
Baccadromia gen. nov.
Type species. Dromia (Cryptodromia) bullifera Alcock, 1900.
Diagnosis. Carapace about as wide as long, roughly pentagonal in outline, moderately convex, smooth; coarsely
setose. Rostrum bearing strong acute, teeth; supraorbital margin armed with smaller tooth followed by strong post-
orbital tooth; anterolateral margin shoulder-like, armed with 1 or more strong teeth, converging gradually towards
posterior margin. Chelipeds well developed, lacking epipods, carpus and propodus with prominent erect tubercles.
Smooth rounded pearl-like tubercles, 1 on antennal article 2, 2 on sub-hepatic area and 1 on merus of third maxil-
liped. Female sternal grooves ending close together between chelipeds.
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Etymology. A combination of, “bacca”, a Latin translation of “pearl” and the generic name “Dromia”, hence
Baccadromia”. This is an allusion to the facial tubercles found on this crab. Gender feminine. (See Remarks below
which outlines the reasons for establishing a new genus.)
Baccadromia bullifera (Alcock, 1900) comb. nov.
(Figs. 8, 9)
FIGURE 8. Baccadromia bullifera (Alcock, 1900), male 7.7 × 8.2 mm (WAM C42521): A, dorsal view; B, frontal view; C,
ventral view. Note that the left rostral tooth is damaged and the right postorbital tooth is missing.
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FIGURE 9. Baccadromia bullifera (Alcock, 1900), male 7.7 × 8.2 mm (WAM C42521): A, facial details showing arrangement
of pearl-like tubercles; B, cheliped ventral view showing details of prominent tubercles; C, dorsal view of cheliped, rostrum and
anterolateral margin showing details.
Dromia (Cryptodromia) bullifera Alcock, 1900: 143.
Cryptodromia bullifera.—Alcock, 1901: 51, pl. 2 fig. 9.—Borradaile, 1903: 577.—Laurie, 1906: 352.—Lenz, 1910: 562.—Ihle,
1913: 40.—Sakai, 1936: 23, pl. 7, fig. 3: 1976: 36, text fig. 8.—Ward, 1941: 1.—Gordon, 1950: 206.—Kensley, 1970: 107,
text figs. 4a–c; 1981: 36.—Lewinsohn, 1977: 15, fig. 3; 1984: 111.—Guinot & Tavares, 2003: 57.
Cryptodromiopsis bullifera.—McLay, 1993: 189, fig. 17e.
Material examined. Western Australia: WAM C42521, Ningaloo Marine Park, off Osprey Reef, 40.5–40 m,
22°10’04”S, 113°50’39”E to 22°10.01”S, 113°50’40”E, 11-05-2006: male 7.7 × 8.2 mm (damaged).
Description. Carapace as wide as long, evenly convex, covered in short tomentum, margins fringed with longer
spatulate setae; branchial groove distinct but shallow; rostrum with 3 similar strong acute teeth, lateral teeth slightly
divergent, median tooth on lower level; frontal groove extending posteriorly separating 2 low mounds; small, acute
supraorbital tooth and strong postorbital and suborbital teeth visible dorsally; anterolateral margin distant from
postorbital corner, shoulder-like, marking widest point, with strong tooth followed by smaller tooth close by; 2 tiny
tubercles between postorbital corner and widest point, a little above the anterolateral margin; small posterolateral
tooth behind branchial groove; subhepatic area with 2 prominent rounded smooth pearl-like tubercles, with similar
tubercle on second antennal article; smaller tubercle on merus of third maxilliped. Edges of epistome shelf-like.
Chelipeds well developed, covered in coarse setae (as with other pereopods), 3 prominent erect tubercles on
carpus and similar distal tubercle on superior margin of propodus. Fingers white, gaping, occlusal margin with 6–7
small teeth.
P2–3 shorter than chelipeds, distal border of carpus produced, dactylus long curved, bearing 5 small spines
along inner margin. P4–5 legs slender, shorter than P2–3, P4 shortest, P5 subdorsal, dactylus short curved and op-
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posed by single propodal spine. Female sternal grooves ending close together on elevated platform between bases
of chelipeds.
Male abdomen held in place by uropods between bases of first pair of walking legs, third to fifth segments with
3 median tubercles and flattened lateral tubercle on each side. Telson wider than long, apex rounded.
Remarks. The small female specimen reported by McLay (1993) had sternal grooves ending close together on
an elevated platform between the bases of the chelipeds. In species of Cryptodromia Stimpson, 1858, the sternal
grooves are shorter, ending apart between the bases of P2. The main features used for establishing Baccadromia
gen. nov. are the longer sternal grooves ending close together as well as the unusual facial ornamentation. Our male
specimen has a damaged left rostral tooth and the right postorbital tooth is broken off, but otherwise intact. The
distinctive features of this crab include the rather long and acute nature of the rostral teeth as well as the tubercles
on the chelipeds and the pearl-like tubercles that adorn its “face”. These characteristic rounded tubercles are to be
found on the sub-hepatic area, on the basal article of the antenna and on the merus of the third maxilliped. Together
each group of four is reminiscent of a constellation of stars mirrored about the median plane. Their pearl-like shape
is a reminder of the large pearl-like tubercles found on the fourth abdominal segment of the dynomenid, Acantho-
dromia spp.
Distribution. Red Sea, East Africa, Madagascar, South Nilanda Atoll, Maldives Archipelago, Cinque Island
(Andaman Sea) (type locality), Philippines, Japan, Chesterfield Ids. The specimen from Ningaloo Marine Park, off
Osprey Reef, Western Australia, represents a new record for Australia. Baccadromia bullifera is a widespread Indo-
West Pacific shallow water species recorded mostly from depths of 30–60 m.
Cryptodromia Stimpson, 1858
Cryptodromia amboinensis De Man, 1888
(Fig. 10A–C)
Cryptodromia amboinensis De Man, 1888: 406, pl. 18, fig 4.—Ihle, 1913: 34.
Dromia (Cryptodromia) demanii Alcock, 1900: 144.
Cryptodromia demanii.—Alcock, 1901: 52.—Laurie, 1906: 352.—Ihle, 1913: 33.—Buitendijk, 1939: 225, pl. 7 fig. 1.
Cryptodromia amboinensis.—McLay, 1993: 203, fig. 18c; 2001a: 88 (key); 2001b: 829 (key).—McLay & Ng, 2005: 3.
Material examined. Western Australia: WAM- C13524, Suomi Island, Easter Group, Abrolhos Islands, R.
George, 22-08-1977: female 11.6 × 10.5 mm (sponge cap); WAM C13560, Kendrew Island, NWA, 20°29’00”S,
116°32’00”E, under rock, coll. L. M. Marsh, 26-10-1972: ovig female 10.5 × 9.1 mm (sponge cap).
Remarks. A detailed description of C. amboinensis is given by McLay (1993) including the distinctive ar-
rangement of teeth and tubercles on the anterolateral margin and sub-hepatic area of the carapace, respectively. The
carapace is smooth, evenly convex and usually hidden under a sponge or ascidian cap.
Distribution. Sri Lanka, Mergui Archipelago (Myanmar), Amboina (Indonesia), Philippine Ids and New Cale-
donia. This is a new record for Australia. Depth 20–40 m.
Cryptodromia hilgendorfi De Man, 1888
Cryptodromia hilgendorfi De Man, 1888: 404, pl. 18, fig 3.—Buitendijk, 1939: 224.—Campbell & Stephenson, 1970: 245,
fig. 3.—Lewinsohn, 1977: 13, fig. 2; 1984: 109.—McLay, 1982: 317; 1983: 17; 1993: 205, fig. 18 d; 1998: 347.—Davie,
2002: 160.
Material examined. Western Australia: WAM C13528, Wyadup Rocks, Yallingup, 33°39’00”S, 115°01’00”E,
under granite boulders, intertidal, coll. B R Wilson, 1-01-1971: female 5.1 × 4.9 mm (sponge cap); WAM C13545,
Lacepede Island, Rowley Shoals Expedition, 16°52’00’S, 112°08’00”E, reef flat, 29-07-1982: male 5.4 × 5.1 mm,
female 5.5 × 5.1 mm, ovig female 5.8 × 5.5 mm; WAM C13564, Good Friday Bay, Abrolhos Islands, dredged,
27–36 m, CSIRO, 11-03-1963: male 5.4 × 5.3 mm.
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FIGURE 10. Cryptodromia amboinensis De Man, 1888, ovigerous female with sponge cap, 10.5 × 9.1 mm (WAM 119-83): A,
dorsal view; B. frontal view; C. ventral view.
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Remarks. Cryptodromia hilgendorfi was described and figured by McLay (1993). This species was reported by
Campbell & Stephenson (1970) from Moreton Bay, Queensland, where it was the subject of a detailed study about
its population biology, settlement and use of sponges and ascidians for concealment (McLay 1982, 1983). Crypto-
dromia hilgendorfi remains the only dromiid whose reproductive biology and growth pattern have been investigated
to date.
Distribution. Indo-West Pacific including Red Sea to Funafuti Atoll, Philippine Ids, New Caledonia and
Queensland. The present material is the first to be reported from Western Australia. Depth range for the species is
intertidal to 88 m
Cryptodromia pileifera (Alcock, 1900)
(Figs. 11, 12)
Dromia (Cryptodromia) tuberculata var. pileifera Alcock, 1900: 141.
Cryptodromia tuberculata var. pileifera.—Ihle, 1913: 36, 20 (list).—Buitendijk, 1939: 225; 1949: 60.—Daniel & Premkumar,
1968: 240.
Cryptodromia pileifera.—Alcock, 1901: 49, pl. 2: fig. 7.—Tan et al., 1986:111. —McLay 2001b: 828 (key).—McLay & Ng,
2005: 9, fig. 3.
Cryptodromia tuberculata.—McLay, 1993: 198.—Lim et al., 1994: 126 [not Cryptodromia tuberculata Stimpson, 1858].
FIGURE 11. Cryptodromia pileifera Alcock, 1901, male with sponge cap, 12.0 × 11.0 mm (WAM 92-83): A, dorsal view; B,
frontal view; C, ventral view, D, frontal view.
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FIGURE 12. Cryptodromia pileifera Alcock, 1901, male 12.0 × 11.0 mm (WAM 92-83): A, lateral view; B, lateral-frontal view;
C, fronto-lateral view.
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Material examined. Western Australia: WAM C13522, Cheyne Beach, under granite boulders, intertidal, coll. B.
R. Wilson, 11-05-1963: juv. 4.5 × 3.6 mm, male 10.4 × 8.9 mm; WAM C1534, Shark Bay, intertidal, 25°25’00”S,
113°35’00”E, September, 1960: 3 males 7.7 × 7.0 mm (with ascidian cap), 9.3 × 8.0 mm (with sponge caps), 12.0
× 11.0 mm (with sponge cap); WAM C13541, Port Gregory, 28°12’00”S, 114°15’00”E, coll. B. R. Wilson, under
stones and corals, lagoon, 31-12-1962: female 6.9 × 6.4 mm (with sponge cap); WAM C3992, Bathurst Point,
Rottnest Island, coll. L. Glauert, 5-11-1930: 3 males 4.2 × 3.2 mm, 6.0 × 5.1 mm, 11.7 × 10.1 mm; WAM C14669,
Doubtful Island Bay, coll. P. Barret-Lennard, 15-01-1975: males 16.0 × 13.8 mm. Queensland: WAM C13540,
Heron Island, Queensland, 23°27’00”S, 151°55’00”E, coll. R. W. George, 24-05-1961: female 9.2 × 8.8 mm (with
sponge cap).
Remarks. This species is very similar to Cryptodromia tuberculata (Fig. 13). Alcock (1900) proposed C. pileif-
era a sub-species of C. tuberculata, but in 1901 treated as a separate species. Comparison shows that in C. pileifera
there are four evenly spaced anterolateral carapace teeth, with the last pair weaker (three teeth second and third
separated by an edentate convex margin in C. tuberculata), the supraorbital margin is concave and weakly eave-like
(supraorbital margin concave strongly eave-like), and the cheliped fingers are narrow, curved, gape slot-like (fingers
stout, straighter, gape triangular). Both of these species have comparatively large eggs and C. pileifera only has a
single larval stage (Tan et al. 1986). Cryptodromia tuberculata has even larger eggs (> 1.2 mm diameter) and so may
well have an even shorter larval phase. Clutch size is correspondingly smaller, often with fewer than 10 eggs.
Distribution. India, Singapore, Southeast Asia, and Philippines. The present material is a new record for Aus-
tralia. Cryptodromia pileifera has been collected intertidally and from shallow sub-tidal depths.
Cryptodromia tuberculata Stimpson, 1858
(Fig. 13A–C)
Cryptodromia tuberculata Stimpson, 1858: 239.—Ihle 1913: 119.—Balss, 1935: 115.—Buitendijk 1939: 225.—Sakai 1976: 13,
figs. 3a, b.—McLay 1993: 199 (key); 2001b: 838.—Davie, 2002: 160.—McLay & Ng 2005: 7, fig. 2.—Yeh et al. 2006: 70,
figs 1A–B.—Ahyong et al., 2009: 38, figs. 13, 14a–b.
Material examined. Western Australia: WAM C13505, Fremantle, 32°03’00”S, 115°44’00”E, coll. R. W. George,
02-03-1962: female 7.5 × 6.9 mm; WAM C13530, Point Peron, ~1 m, coll. N. H. B., 28-06-1958: male 6.7 × 6.3
mm; WAM C11733, Goss Passage, Beacon Island, exposed reef, coll. M. A. Liddall, 23-04-1974: male 14.3 × 12.9
mm; WAM C15527, Bunker Bay, coll. Wilson & Disley, 8-12-1965: male 9.1 × 8.6 mm, ovig female 12.0 × 10.6
Remarks. Cryptodromia tuberculata is very similar to C. pileifera (see comparison above).
Distribution. Japan, South China Sea, Philippines, Singapore, Indonesia, and Western Australia (previously
reported from Western Australia by Balss 1935). Cryptodromia tuberculata has been collected intertidally and sub-
Cryptodromia tumida Stimpson, 1858
Cryptodromia tumida Stimpson, 1858: 240; 1907: 175.—Ortmann, 1892: 544.—De Man, 1902: 688.—Ihle, 1913: 37, text figs
11–17.—Montgomery, 1931: 413, pl. 29 figs 4, 4a.—Sakai, 1976: 13, text figs 4a–c.—McLay, 1993: 199 (key).—Davie,
2002: 160.—Poore, 2004: 304.
Material examined. Western Australia: WAM C13552, NW of Bluff Point, Geraldton, 97 m, CSIRO stat 204,
27°18’S, 113°16’E, 9-10-1963, dredged, with sponge, starfish: female 9.3 × 9.5 mm (damaged).
Remarks. The carapace is about as wide as long, smooth, strongly domed, and abruptly convex behind frontal
margin which resembles C. tuberculata; the rostral and anterolateral teeth are blunt. Cryptodromia tumida has been
reported by Montgomery (1931) from shore collections on the Abrolhos Islands.
Distribution. Japan, Indonesia, New Guinea and Western Australia; intertidal down to 97 m.
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FIGURE 13. Cryptodromia tuberculata Stimpson, 1858, male with sponge cap, 14.3 × 12.9 mm (WAM C 11733): A, dorsal
view; B, frontal view, with sponge cap; C, ventral view.
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Desmodromia McLay, 2001
Desmodromia tranterae McLay, 2001
(Fig. 14A–B)
Desmodromia tranterae McLay, 2001c: 3, figs. 2a–d, 3b.—Davie, 2002: 161.—McLay & Hosie, 2012: 184, fig. 1.
Material examined. Western Australia: WAM C25544, Dampier Archipelago, Angel Island, dive 8.5 m,
20°27.96’S, 116°49.69’E, 29-10-1998, many sponges and soft corals on pavement, coarse shelly sediment, faviid
and Turbinaria coral: male 7.9 × 8.5 mm. WAM C25771, Dampier Archipelago, north coast of Goodwyn Island,
collected by hand, intertidal, 20°32’S, 116°32.7’E, 31-08-1999, wide intertidal limestone platform with algal turf,
large pools, some loose rocks, “much red and green” (?algae): male 10.2 × 9.8 mm, cockle shell carried Vasticar-
dium vertebratum (Jonas, 1844) (= Acrosterigma reeveanum (Dunker, 1852)) (Family Cardiidae). [Some details of
these records previously reported by McLay & Hosie 2012.]
Diagnosis. Carapace about as wide as long or slightly wider than long, subpentagonal, surface flattened or
slightly convex, smooth or finely granulated. Rostrum tridentate, supraorbital margin and anterolateral teeth flat-
tened and eave-like. Chelipeds of similar size to P2, without epipod. Chelipeds and other pereopods armed with
long, thin, crest-like ridges. Female sternal sutures ending apart between bases of first walking legs. P4 and P5
reduced, no propodal spines opposing dactyli. All abdominal segments freely movable. Uropods well developed,
visible externally and used in abdominal locking mechanism. (After McLay 2001).
Distribution. Desmodromia tranterae carries bivalve shells using its last two pairs of legs in a manner similar
to Hypoconcha and Conchoecetes. These prehensile limbs are used by all the species in these genera to carry cam-
ouflage, each in their own way.
The holotype of D. tranterae was dredged (14.7 m) off Ninety Mile Beach, between Broome and Wallal in the
Kimberley region. The present specimens were collected from the intertidal to 8.5 m on the same coast around 500
km to the south. Desmodromia griffini McLay, 2001 is known from 10 m depth in Darwin Harbour suggesting that
this genus is restricted to shallow waters, from the intertidal zone to 15 m, off northwestern Australia.
Epigodromia McLay, 1993
Epigodromia areolata (Ihle, 1913)
(Figs. 15, 16)
Cryptodromia areolata Ihle, 1913: 47, pl. 2 figs 10–11.—Sakai, 1965: 8, pl. 3 fig 4; 1976: 17, pl. 4 fig 2.—Campbell, 1971:
29.—Serene & Lohavanijaya, 1973: 18, fig 5–7, pl. IIA.
Epigodromia areolata.—McLay, 1993: 217, fig. 19e–f; 1998: 347.—Davie, 2002: 163.
Type material. Holotype: male 10.0 × 10.0 mm approx. (repository not known, not examined), from the south coast
of Timor, Indonesia, 112 m, Siboga Station 289 (see Ihle 1913: 47).
Material examined. Western Australia: WAM C17367, SW of Cervantes, 30°35.50’S, 114°35.00’E, 110
m, 23-03-1972: ovig. female 8.2 × 8.1 mm; WAM C17621, Rottnest Island, 32°02.00’S, 115°22’E, 44 m: ovig.
female 18.8 × 18.6 mm; WAM C17349, Geraldton, 31°43’S, 115°6.80’E, 106 m, 22-03-1972: ovig. female 12.0
× 11.0 mm; WAM C40544, Ningaloo Marine Park, off Mandu Sanctuary, 87.9–81.2 m, 22°9’26”S, 113°48’02”E,
22°10’07”S, 113°48’19”E, 22-04-2006: female 7.7 × 7.5 mm. Queensland: WAM C50514, ?Queensland, 164 m,
coll. W. Goode, 1965: female 10.6 × 10.7 mm, male 16.0 × 14.0 mm.
Remarks. A notable feature of Epigodromia areolata is the sexual dimorphism. Males have much more pro-
nounced ornamentation of the carapace and chelipeds than in females, and the chelipeds are much larger (Figs. 15,
16). The present specimens represent new records for Western Australia and the Indian Ocean coast of Australia,
having been previously reported from Cape Moreton, Queensland (Campbell 1971).
Distribution. Japan, South China Sea, Timor (type locality), New Caledonia and Australia. Depth 30–350 m.
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FIGURE 14. Desmodromia tranterae McLay 2001, male, 10.2 × 9.8 mm: A, dorsal view; B, frontal view, grasping hinge line
of cockle shell (Vasticardium vertebratum (Jonas, 1844)) (after McLay & Hosie 2012).
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FIGURE 15. Epigodromia areolata (Ihle, 1913), ovigerous female, 10.6 × 10.7 mm (WAM-C50514): A, dorsal view; B, frontal
view; C, ventral view.
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FIGURE 16. Epigodromia areolata (Ihle, 1913), male, 16.0 × 14.0 mm (WAM-C50514): A, dorsal view; B, frontal view; C,
ventral view.
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Epigodromia rotunda McLay, 1993
(Fig. 17 A–D)
Epigodromia rotunda McLay, 1993: figs. 11a–h, 18–f.—Komatsu, 2011: 226, fig. 2B.
Type material. Holotype: MNHN-IU-2008-11223, female 4.2 × 4.8 mm, New Caledonia, 220–235 m.
Other material examined. Western Australia: WAM C13518/C13542, NW Bluff Point, 97 m, CSIRO stat
204, 27°18’S, 113°16’E, 9-10-1963, dredged, with sponge and starfish: 3 males 6.1 × 5.5 mm, 6.1 × 5.8 mm, 7.6 ×
7.4 mm, 8.8 × 7.8 mm, 8.8 × 8.5 mm; WAM C13525, west of Jervois Bay, 82 m, FRV Sprightly stat 41, 30°16’S,
114°39’E, 19-11-1976: female 5.6 × 5.3 mm; WAM C13539, NW Bluff Point, Geraldton, 126 m, CSIRO stat 131,
22-8-1963: 3 males 5.8 × 5.5 mm, 8.4 × 7.3 mm, 8.4 × 7.5 mm, 3 females 6.1 × 5.7 mm, 7.0 × 6.6 mm, 7.2 × 6.9
mm, 1ovig. female 7.7 × 7.1 mm.
Remarks. First reported from New Caledonia, E. rotunda was subsequently recorded from the Ogasawara
Islands, Japan, by Komatsu (2011), and now known from Australia.
Distribution. New Caledonia and Ogasawara, Japan and now from Western Australia and the Indian Ocean;
82–235 m.
FIGURE 17. Epigodromia rotunda McLay, 1993, male 8.8 × 8.5 mm (WAM 101-83): A, dorsal view; B, ventral view; C, lateral
view; D, frontal view.
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Foredromia McLay, 2002
Foredromia rostrata McLay, 2002
(Fig. 18)
Foredromia rostrata McLay, 2002: 506, figs. 1A–H, 2A–F, 3A–B.
Epigodromia sp. MoV5473.—Poore et al., 2008: 37, photo and caption.
FIGURE 18. Foredromia rostrata McLay, 2002, male, dorsal view (after Poore et al. 2008).
Material examined. Western Australia. NMV J55609, off Albany, 35°33’S 118°34’E, 212–213 m, coll. R.S. Wil-
son, beam trawl, 23-11-2005: 4 females 4.2 × 3.8 mm, 4.3 × 3.9 mm, 4.0 × 4.1 mm, 5.0 × 4.5 mm, 5.2 × 4.6 mm;
NMV J556094, off Karatha, 20°20’S 115°14’E, 100 m, Sherman sled, 11-6-2007: male 3.9 × 3.5 mm .
Diagnosis. Carapace sub-quadrangular, longer than wide, surface minutely granulate, rostrum tridentate, me-
dian tooth very small, lateral teeth large flattened; anterolateral margin convex, armed with 3 closely spaced blunt
teeth, branchial notch distinct, no posterolateral tooth. Chelipeds and walking legs granulate and tubercular. P4–5
not tuberculate, sub-dorsal and sub-chelate. (See McLay 2002 for full description)
Remarks. Foredromia rostrata has only been recorded from Singapore and nearby Indonesia in shallow water.
The new records from northern and southern Western Australia reported here greatly extend the depth range from
38 m down to more than 200 m. These four small specimens are smaller than the largest known (male 6.0 × 6.2 mm)
(McLay 2002).
Distribution. Previously reported from the southern islands of Singapore and Indonesia (5°48’S 106°12.5’E);
5–38 m.
Fultodromia McLay, 1993
Fultodromia nodipes (Guérin, 1832)
(Figs. 19–21)
Dromia nodipes Guérin, 1832: 11, pl. 14, fig. 1.—Milne Edwards, 1837: 177.—Brocchi, 1877: 106, pl. 15 figs. 65–67.—Cleva
et al., 2007: 242.
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Cryptodromia depressa Baker, 1906: 180, pl. 25 figs, 1, 1a, 1b.
Dromidiopsis michaelseni Balss, 1935: 113, text figs 1–3.
Petalomera depressa.—Hale, 1927: 112, fig. 110.
Fultodromia nodipes.—McLay, 1993: 162.—Davie, 2002: 164.—Cleva et al., 2007: 242.—Poore, 2004: 306, fig. 85a.—Poore
et al., 2008: 37, text photo.
Type material. Lectotype: MNHN-B15, female 22.5 × 23.0 mm, precise locality uncertain but probably Western
Australia (see Cleva et al. 2007).
FIGURE 19. Dromia nodipes Guerin, 1832, lectotype female, 22.5 × 23.0 mm (MNHN-B15): A, dorsal view; B, ventral view
of frontal area.
Other material examined. Western Australia: ZMH K11578, Cockburn Sound, 14.5–18 m, Hamburg Mu-
seum Expedition to South West Australia, 1905: 1 female 22.6 × 23.8 mm (lectotype of Dromidiopsis michaelseni
Balss, 1935); ZMH K11577, Shark Bay, Freycinet Estuary, 7–11 m, Hamburg Museum Expedition to South West
Australia, 1905: female 16.0 × 17.0 mm (paralectotype of Dromidiopsis michaelseni Balss, 1935); WAM C13496,
Cockburn Sound, 32°10.85’S, 115°45.2’E, coll. L. Marsh on FRV Flinders, 27-09-1973: female 19.0 × 20.3 mm;
WAM C13497, Cockburn Sound, 32°09.6’S, 115°45’E, coll. L. Marsh, 27-09-1973: male 18.1 × 18.6 mm (sponge
cap); WAM C13498, Cockburn Sound, Central Basin,, stat. 17, L. Marsh on FRV Flinders, 6-11-1974: male 9.2 ×
10.0 mm (sponge cap); WAM C13499, Point Cloates, Ningaloo Expedition, 22°37’S, 113°38’E, 2–6 m, box dredge,
sand, sponge, dead shell, 30-08-1968: female 16.0 × 16.2 mm (sponge cap); WAM C13515, Woodman’s Point,
Garden Island, trawled M. H. Shepherd, 18 m, 17-03-1971: 5 males 14.0 × 15.0 mm, 15.3 × 16.1 mm (sponge cap),
16.0 × 17.0 mm, 18.0 × 19.5 mm, 20.0 × 21.5 mm (compound ascidian cap), 3 females 12.5 × 13.5 mm (compound
ascidian cap), 14.5 × 15.4 mm (sponge cap), 19.0 × 20.1 mm (sponge cap), 2 ovig. females 16.8 × 18.4 mm, 18.0 ×
19.0 mm (compound ascidian cap); WAM C13519,Cockburn Sound, Jervois Groyne, under stones, intertidal, coll.
G. W. Kendrick, 20-10-1963: male 10.3 × 10.8 mm; WAM C13529, Cockburn Sound, Jervois Groyne, amongst
Posidonia, 1-01-1958: male 9.0 × 9.5 mm; WAM C13533 - Cockburn Sound, North end, coll. L. Marsh, 29-11-
1972: male 9.0 × 10.0 mm (sponge cap); WAM C13536, South Freemantle Power House, trawled, 16-12-1959: fe-
male 9.8 × 10.1 mm (sponge cap, ?Suberites sp.), male 20.5 × 21.0 mm (sponge cap ?Suberites sp.); WAM C13536,
Cockburn Sound, stat. 55, 2-12-1959: female 10.5 × 11.0 mm (sponge cap ?Suberites sp.); WAM C13538, Garden
Island, 32°8.60’S, 115°41.55’E, 6-06-1980: male 16.1 × 17.2 mm (sponge cap); WAM C13549, near Albany, EP15,
10 m, coll. R.W.G., 3-03-1982: female 13.2 × 14.0 mm; WAM C13559, Cockburn Sound, W of Kuimana, dredged,
coll. P. Cawthorn, 30-07-1961: female 14.6 × 15.3 mm; WAM C13562, Woodman’s Point, Cockburn Sound, coll.
B. R. Wilson, 13-02-1972: ovig. female 19.5 × 20.3 mm, male 25.5 × 26.3 mm; WAM C13562 (part), Cliff Head,
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35 km SW, 29°40’S, 114°42’E, 44 m, 17-11-1976: female 13.4 × 14.1 mm; WAM C40011, Jervois Bay, Cock-
burn Sound, 32°10.80`S 115°45.15`E, coll. A. Sampey, WA Cockburn SCC Subtidal Biodiversity Project Survey,
13-12-2007: male 9.8 × 10.0 mm; WAM C55525, Shark Bay, 25°33.62`S 113°13.12`E, 19 m, coll. S. Morrison,
27-9-2003: male 9.6 × 9.9 mm; WAM C59671, 3 km W of Poivre Reef, Pilbara Shelf, 20°58’52”S 115°16’11”E,
coll. E. Morello et al., CSIRO Pilbara Survey, 17-06-2013: male 10.8 × 11.1 mm: WAM C69966, Lynher Bank,
15°48’14.10”S, 22°22’03.78”E, coll. J. Fromont & J. Ritchie, WAMSI Survey 4 Lynher Bank, 01-11-2016: female
18.8 × 19.1 mm.
FIGURE 20. Dromidiopsis michaelseni Balss, 1935, lectotype female, 22.5 × 22.5 mm (K11578): A, dorsal view; B, ventral
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FIGURE 21. Fultodromia nodipes (Guerin, 1832), male 20.0 × 21.5 mm (WAM 73-83): A, dorsal view; B, frontal view with
sponge cap; C, ventral view; D, details of frontal area.
Description. Carapace as wide as long, covered by short tomentum, moderately convex, branchial and cardiac
grooves distinct. Anterior half of carapace sparsely covered by low rounded tubercles, irregular in distribution and
density. Rostral, orbital and anterolateral teeth are distinctive in being blunt and flattened. Some teeth also few low
rounded granules. Rostrum tridentate, lateral teeth prominent, median tooth much smaller, strongly deflexed and
barely visible dorsally. Short frontal groove extends backward from median tooth. Supraorbital and post-orbital
teeth strong. Suborbital margin has 2 blunt teeth, larger tooth easily visible dorsally between supra- and postorbital
teeth. Subhepatic area with scattered low rounded tubercles, largest visible dorsally between postorbital and first
anterolateral teeth. Outer face of third maxillipeds also tuberculate. Anterolateral carapace margin convex, with 3
teeth decreasing in size posteriorly; smaller subacute posterolateral tooth marks branchial groove.
Chelipeds and first 2 pairs of legs thickly covered with short coarse setae and tubercles similar to carapace.
Cheliped fingers gaping armed with 6 or 7 teeth only last 3 interlocking. First and second legs slightly shorter than
cheliped, inner margins of dactyli with 4 spines increasing in size distally. Fourth and fifth legs sub-dorsal, shorter,
third pair shortest; dactylus of fourth leg with 2 strong propodal spines opposing and 3 spines on outer margin at
base of dactyl; dactylus of third leg opposed by 2 strong spines with 2 spines on outer margin.
Surface of abdominal segments tuberculate, freely moveable, abdomen fringed with longer setae; uropod plates
visible externally locking in front of tubercles on coxae of first legs in males; posterior margin of telson concave
in males, convex in females. Female sternal sutures 7/8 convergent ending apart on low rounded transverse ridge
between chelipeds.
Remarks. Examination of the lectotype of “Dromidiopsis michaelseni Balss, 1935” shows that it is referable to
Dromia nodipes Lamarck, 1818”, confirming the opinion of McLay (1993). The figure of D. michaelseni provided
by Balss (1935: fig. 1) is not a very accurate representation of the holotype specimen collected by the Hamburg
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Museum Expedition. While the figured CW/CL ratio is similar to the lectotype, the outline of the carapace is much
distorted by anterior half being narrowed and the posterior half widened as though the crab was viewed from a pos-
terior perspective, thereby stretching the front. However, the size and arrangement of the anterolateral teeth match
the lectotype. This has led to identification problems, perhaps explaining why Balss’ species has never been reported
Hale’s (1927: fig. 110) labelled “Petalomera depressa Baker, 1907) shows a specimen of Fultodromia nodipes
(Lamarck, 1818). McLay (1993: p1. 62) included Cryptodromia depressa Baker, 1907 in Fultodromia, as a syn-
onym of F. nodipes,
Distribution. Known only from Western Australia; intertidal to 44 m.
Fultodromia spinifera (Montgomery, 1931)
Cryptodromia tumida spinifera Montgomery, 1931:413, pl. 29, figs 3, 3a, 3b;
Fultodromia spinifera —McLay, 1993: 162; —Davie, 2002: 165; —Poore, 2004: 306.
Type material. Holotype: NHM 8461, female 14.0 × 14.0 mm, Broome, Western Australia.
Other material examined. WAM C13510, New Year Island, dredged, 55 m, coll. W. Goode November 1962:
male 10.8 × 12.1 mm; WAM C13513, Montebello Islands, SW Hermite Island, dredged, 8 m, FRV Soela, 12-12-
1979: female 12.0 × 12.4 mm, with ascidian cap.
Remarks. Fultodromia spinifera was originally described by Montgomery (1931) from a female collected at
Broome by the 1913 Percy Sladen Trust Expedition, as Cryptodromia tumida var. spinifera Montgomery, 1931, and
elevated to full specific status by McLay (1993).
Distribution. Known only from Western Australia; 8–55 m.
Lamarckdromia Guinot & Tavares, 2003
Remarks. McLay (1993) revised the genus Dromidiopsis Borradaile, 1900 to include Dromia globosa Lamarck,
1818, and five other species. The lectotype of Dromia globosa (MNHN B22033) consists of the dried remains of
a male, CL = 21.1 mm, of unknown provenance. The recognizable fragments fit most closely with specimens la-
belled Dromidia excavata Stimpson, 1858 (MNHN B22041) from Sydney Harbour and were therefore believed to
be synonyms. Guinot & Tavares (2003) argued that D. globosa did not belong in Dromidiopsis and erected a new
genus, Lamarckdromia, for this species. The key features of Lamarckdromia are: all male abdominal segments free
(last two fused in Dromidiopsis), uropods concealed (versus uropods conspicuous), apertures of sternal grooves end
between P2 (versus apertures end between P1) and uropods not used in the abdominal locking mechanism (versus
uropods used to retain abdomen). The conclusion that Lamarckdromia globosa is a senior synonym of Dromidia
excavata was reasonable at the time, given the fragmentary nature of the dried material, and because there was ap-
parently only one Australian species. However, closer inspection of Australian material shows that there are two
species, Dromidia excavata Stimpson, 1858 and a new species described herein as Lamarckdromia beagle sp. nov.
It is not possible to say which, if any, of these two species might be synonymous with Dromia globosa so we con-
clude that in the absence of more intact specimens of this species it is best to resurrect the name Dromidia excavata
and conclude that there are three species in Lamarckdromia. Morphological features of the species are compared
in 2.
Lamarckdromia excavata (Stimpson, 1858) comb. nov.
(Figs. 22, 23)
Dromidia excavata Stimpson, 1858, 239.
Dromia ciliata Henderson, 1888: 3, pl. 1 fig 1–1c.
Dromia excavata.—Haswell, 1882: 140.
Dromidiopsis excavata.—Rathbun, 1923a: 146, pl. 38.—Hale, 1927: 110, fig. 106; 1941: 281, figs. 15–16.
Dromidiopsis globosa.—McLay, 1993: 135.—Davie, 2002: 163.
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Lamarckdromia globosa.—Guinot & Tavares, 2003: 70, fig. 10A–D.—Poore, 2004: 306, figs. 85b, 86c, pl. 18a, b.—Ng et al.,
2008: 34 (list).
Material examined. Western Australia: WAM C6340, Point Peron, 3-06-1947, coll. C. Orten: male 52.5 × 48.2
mm (sponge cap); WAM C17533, W of Shoal Point, 73 m, 28°99’00”S, 113°51’00”E, coll. FRV Diamantina, 73
m, 5-12-1970: female 34.0 × 30.0 mm. WAM C20822, west end of Rottnest Island, February 1991: male 41.8 ×
35.7 mm; WAM C43589, Denmark Beach, washed ashore, 2009: damaged female 31.8 × 29.2 mm; WAM C51135,
Woodside Kimberley Survey 2012, stn. 1001K12, 15 Oct, 2012, subtidal: female 13.8 × 14.7 mm, carrying a sponge
Cinachyrella tenuiiviolacea; AM G5306, Western Australia, male 43.4 × 39.7 mm; AM P8224, Western Australia,
female 40.1 × 38.0 mm (dry). Bass Strait: AM E1339, Bass Strait, ovig. female 35.7 × 36.5 mm, 150 eggs, diameter
1.9 mm (specimen reported by Rathbun, 1923).
FIGURE 22. Lamarckdromia excavata (Stimpson, 1858) comb. nov. A–C, female 34.0 × 30.0 mm (WAM C17533): A, view
showing fringe along front of carapace; B, frontal view; C, ventral view. D–F, male, 41.8 × 35.7 mm (WAM C20822): D, view
showing fringe along front of carapace; E, frontal view with sponge cap; F, ventral view.
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FIGURE 23. Lamarckdromia excavata (Stimpson, 1858) comb. nov., male, 52.5 × 48.2 mm (WAM C6340): A, dorsal view
right half of carapace; B, dorso-frontal view of carapace and cheliped; C, frontal view cheliped and hepatic area of carapace; D,
fronto-dorsal view of carapace and cheliped.
Description, Carapace width similar to carapace length in small specimens, ranging up to approx. 1.1 × cl in
adults. Surface smooth, strongly convex, covered by short setae with fringe of longer setae across anterior margin.
Frontal area steeply vaulted, short median groove from rostrum separates pair of gentle epigastric swellings; frontal
fringe following edge of vault. Branchial groove deeply marked; mid-way on anterior side with pair of deep pits;
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groove connecting with deep lateral cardiac groove; anterior cardiac border marked by shallow lunate groove; intes-
tinal area, posterior to cardiac area, deeply sculptured with ridges arranged in face-like manner; posterior carapace
margin deeply concave. Rostrum tridentate, teeth well developed, sub-acute, similar size, lateral teeth directed
horizontally, median tooth on lower level, slightly deflexed. Supraorbital tooth small blunt, postorbital tooth similar,
suborbital margin with prominent blunt tooth visible dorsally between supra- and postorbital teeth. Anterolateral
carapace margin obtuse, slightly convex followed by concave section ending at widest point, shoulder-like without
distinct tooth; sub-hepatic area deeply excavated, slightly visible dorsally, lower margin prominent, obtuse, curv-
ing upward to meet shoulder. Posterior to widest point, carapace margin convex, interrupted by branchial groove
without tooth.
Cheliped (P1) well developed, densely covered by short setae, surface mostly smooth, superior distal corner
of carpus armed with acute spine; propodus inflated, smooth except for row of 6 or 7 large sub-acute tubercles dis-
tributed along inner superior border ; fingers down-curved, gaping, armed with 6 or 7 occlusal teeth, hollowed out
internally, interlocking at tips.
P2 and P3 densely covered by short setae, smaller than P1, dactylus armed with 3 or 4 short spines ventrally;
P4 and P5 reduced, P4 shortest, P5 sub-dorsal, both sub-chelate. Short curved dactyli opposed by stout spine with
3 or 4 short distal propodal spines on outer margin; P5 with small proximal spine on the outer margin of dactyl.
Crista dentata on third maxillipeds armed with 12 or 13 small stout spines. Female sternal grooves 7/8 convergent,
terminating as spermathecal apertures on small swelling between coxae of P2. Structural details of male and female
sterna and abdominal retaining mechanism as figured by Guinot and Tavares (2003: fig. 10A–D; male 24 × 25 mm,
female 25 × 25 mm, MNHN-B22041, as “L. globosa”).
Telson posterior margin convex, uropods vestigial, hidden ventrally in joint between telson and abdominal
segment 6. Terga of male abdominal segments sculptured, with deep concavities on each side. Male G1 stout, semi-
rolled tube, tip setose; G2 styliform, much longer than G1.
Remarks. Since revision of Dromidiopsis by McLay (1993) Dromidia excavata Stimpson, 1858 from Sydney
Harbour (Port Jackson) has been known as Dromidiopsis globosa (Lamarck, 1818). Haswell (1882) had suggested
that the “closest ally” of Dromia excavata was Dromia globosa Lamarck, 1818. The descriptions given by the
authors of these species were brief, but De Man (1887: pl. 18 fig. 1A, B) provided an illustration of a presumed
lectotype (MNHN-B22033, male damaged, locality unknown). Milne Edwards (1837) gives the size as CL = 21.1
mm. However, close comparison of our L. excavata specimens with De Man’s figure of the type in Paris (see below)
show that they differ from L. globosa and are not synonymous as had been assumed. While the overall conformation
of the anterior half of the carapace of L. globosa (the part illustrated by De Man, 1887) is similar, the sub-hepatic
area is much more exposed in dorsal view and there is a strong anterolateral tooth near the widest point, a feature
not shared by either of the Australian species dealt with herein (see 2). De Man’s figure of L. globosa also shows
the right cheliped with 3 or 4 distinct tubercles along the dorsal margin of the propodus and a distinct tubercle on
the superior distal corner of the carpus. Both of these characters are found in D. excavata but not in L. beagle sp.
nov. Therefore, we conclude that there are three species of Lamarckdromia: L. beagle sp. nov., L. excavata and L.
globosa, but only the first two are known to occur around Australia. The distribution of L. globosa is unknown. Hale
(1927) said that in live L. excavata the carapace setae are pink.
Distribution. Australian endemic: New South Wales, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Austra-
lia. Depth 30–180 m.
Lamarckdromia globosa (Lamarck, 1818)
(Fig. 24A–E)
Dromia globosa Lamarck, 1818: 481.—Milne Edwards, 1837: 177.—De Man 1887: 396, footnote, pl. 18, fig. 1A, B.
Lamarckdromia globosa.—Guinot & Tavares, 2003: 70 (in part).
Type material. Lectotype: MNHN-B22033, male, CL 21.1 mm, damaged, dry, locality unknown.
Description. Carapace globose, smooth, finely punctate, covered by short tomentum of thick plumose setae,
rostrum tridentate, teeth similar median tooth slightly longer; supraorbital margin armed with pointed tooth, subor-
bital margin triangular, with slightly protruding tooth. Anterolateral carapace margin armed with prominent pointed
tooth at widest point, below sub-orbital level, dividing it into and anterior concave part (hepatic region) and convex
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posterior section (branchial region). Hepatic region concave with blunt ventral lobe, at level of buccal frame corner,
connected by concave margin to the anterolateral tooth. Branchial region interrupted by indistinct tooth at branchial
groove margin continuing almost directly posteriorly (apparently not convergent towards the middle). Pair of “epi-
gastric” (frontal) lobes protruding slightly, separated by weak frontal groove and branchial groove present.
Milne Edwards (1837) described legs as large and very short; those of last pair almost as large as third pair. Dor-
sal margin of cheliped propodus with 3 or 4 small blunt proximal tubercles, with perhaps couple of smaller granules
beside, remaining surface smooth; margins of movable and fixed fingers dentate, length of fingers approximately
same as palm.
Remarks. Complete description of the type, as far as possible, is included here because it has not been written
before. Only a few recognizable dry fragments of the type specimen remain, but a composite description can be
made from the observations of those who examined it in its more intact state (Lamarck 1818; Milne Edwards 1837;
De Man 1887: pl. 18, fig. 1A, B) and our own observations of the fragments. Figure 24A–E includes De Man’s
drawings and photographs of the male lectotype. The drawings accurately depict the recognizable fragments of the
type and depict the same two intact pieces that we found and photographed (Fig. 24A–C). There are no figures of the
intact animal, which may imply that when De Man examined the crab, it was already fragmented. Milne Edwards
(1837) mentions the branchial grooves, but does not describe them, and he does not describe any other carapace
features such as the cardiac grooves.
Distribution. Unknown. Only one male specimen is known lacking locality data.
TABLE 2. Comparison of the species of Lamarckdromia Guinot & Tavares, 2003
Character Lamarckdromia beagle sp.
Lamarckdromia excavata
(Stimpson, 1858) comb. nov.
Lamarckdromia globosa
(Lamarck, 1818)
Tomentum Tangled mass of long thick
setae, giving shaggy, un-
kempt appearance; setae on
cheliped propodus shaggy.
Cover of thick erect setae
with distinct post-frontal
fringe of longer setae across
entire width; shorter setae on
cheliped propodus grouped
into 3 bands
Short tomentum of thick
setae on carapace.
Rostrum Tridentate, median tooth
strongly deflexed barely vis-
ible dorsally
Tridentate, median tooth
horizontal visible dorsally but
shorter than lateral teeth
Tridentate, median tooth
horizontal, visible dorsally
slightly longer than lateral
Posterior carapace margin Slightly concave Strongly concave Unknown
Post-frontal carapace area Weakly vaulted Strongly vaulted, cliff-like Not vaulted
Anterolateral carapace
Obtuse, sinuous, ending in
blunt shoulder
Obtuse, sinuous, ending in
blunt shoulder
Obtuse, strongly concave,
with strong sub-acute tooth
Sub-hepatic area Weakly concave, ventral
margin convex, obtuse
Strongly excavated, ventral
area forming distinct shelf
with convex obtuse edge
Concave, ventral area forms
weak shelf with concave
obtuse margin.
Chelipeds Distal inner edge of carpus
without tubercle; inner
superior border of propodus
with 3 or 4 small rounded
proximal tubercles
Distal inner edge of carpus
armed with sub-acute tuber-
cle; inner superior border of
propodus armed with 6 or 7
prominent evenly spaced sub-
acute tubercles.
Distal inner edge of carpus
armed with sub-acute tuber-
cle; inner superior border of
propodus armed with 3 or 4
small proximal tubercles and
2 granules.
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FIGURE 24. Lamarckdromia globosa (Lamarck, 1818), male lectotype, CL 21.1 mm (MNHN-B22033): A, frontal view of
right half of carapace; B, dorsal view of frontal margin of carapace; C, outer face right cheliped; D, dorsal view carapace (after
De Man, 1887); E, outer face right cheliped. (After De Man 1887: pl. 18).
Lamarckdromia beagle sp. nov.
(Figs. 25–27)
Type material. Holotype: WAM C15512, male 40.5 × 39.0 mm. Mistaken Island, Albany, ?depth, 34°58’00”S,
117°58’00”E, 14-12-1983, coll. D. Jones & W. Humphries. Paratypes: WAM C43596, female 44.0 × 45.5 mm,
Hopetoun, low tide among rocks, coll. L. Wignell, February 1969; WAM C51681, male 31 × 27 mm carrying small
brown sponge, locality details unknown; WAM C13503, male 27.1 × 25.5 mm, NE side of Cape Naturaliste, under
boulder at low tide, 26-12-1958, coll. L.M. March & B.R. Wilson; WAM C1653, male 26.3 × 24.5 mm, Nornalup
Inlet, 35°00’25”S 116°43’39”E, 12-1925, coll. P.J. Hampshire.
Etymology. The specific name commemorates the importance of the ship HMS “Beagle” that first carried
Charles Darwin to Albany, Australia in 1836 during its second voyage (1831–1836) and surveyed and mapped
many coastal areas around Australia during the third voyage (1837–1843), captained by Commander John Clements
Wickham. Used as a noun in apposition.
Description. Carapace about as long as wide, convex, smooth beneath dense cover of long tangled setae, which
also covers all limbs and the abdomen. Front weakly vaulted, weak median groove separates pair of low rounded
epigastric swellings; branchial grooves evident, lateral cardiac grooves strongly marked with pair of small pits me-
dially. Rostrum tridentate, lateral teeth short, blunt, triangular; similar median tooth strongly deflexed, scarcely vis-
ible dorsally when carapace is horizontal. Lateral tooth continuing as supraorbital margin interrupted by small blunt
tooth above eyestalk; external orbital corner projecting, evenly rounded and separated by narrow fissure from infra-
orbital margin, bearing small blunt tooth beneath cornea of eye, visible dorsally. Broad flattened area lateral to orbit,
SPONGE CRABS WESTERN AUSTRALIA Zootaxa 5129 (3) © 2022 Magnolia Press · 339
FIGURE 25. Lamarckdromia beagle sp. nov., holotype male, 40.5 × 39.0 mm (WAM C15512): A, dorsal view; B, frontal view;
C, fronto-ventral view.
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FIGURE 26. Lamarckdromia beagle sp. nov. A–B, male holotype, 40.5 × 39.0 mm (WAM C15512): A, frontal view carrying
sponge cap; B, retail of “face”. C, female paratype, 44.0 × 45.5 mm (WAM C43596), ventral view of sternum of mated female
showing vestigial first pleopods, sternal sutures 7/8 and sperm plaque covering spermathecal apertures.
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weakly concave, with shorter setae; oral area arranged as most anterior part of face on which longer setae accentuate
mouth-frame, pterygostomial surface and orbital margins, making eyes appear deeply sunken. Viewed anteriorly,
elongate narrow sunken strip above the eyes and 2 small sunken patches amongst the setae lateral to the orbits.
Anterolateral carapace margin obtuse, sinuous, sloping gradually down to weakly concave sub-hepatic area; lower
sub-hepatic margin forming convex diagonal edge armed with 3 faint, evenly-spaced convexities; edge connecting
epistome to blunt shoulder-like corner, marking widest part of carapace. Carapace margin posterior to widest point
convex, interrupted by notch marking branchial groove. Posterior carapace margin weakly concave.
FIGURE 27. Lamarckdromia beagle sp. nov., male paratype, 27.1 × 25.5 mm (WAM C13503): A, dorsal view right half of
carapace; B, dorso-frontal view of carapace cheliped; C, frontal view cheliped and hepatic area of carapace; D, fronto-dorsal
view of carapace and cheliped.
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Chelipeds fitting closely against inferior carapace surface; both fingers white, curved, gaping widely when
closed, hollowed out internally, tips spoon-like, occlusal margins with 7 or 8 teeth, decreasing in size proximally,
only distal 3 teeth interlocking. Distal inner edge of carpus without tubercle; inner superior border of propodus with
3 or 4 small rounded proximal tubercles. Cheliped coxae with epipod.
P2–3 shorter than cheliped, dactylus curved, well developed, inner margins armed with 4 short spines decreas-
ing in size proximally. P4–5 reduced, last pair shortest, P4 dactyl strongly curved, opposed by well-developed
propodal spine; P5 dactyl similar but with 2 to 5 spines at base of dactyl on outer propodal margin, arranged in
comb-like row, decreasing in size anteriorly when limb is in normal sub-dorsal position.
Abdomen of 6 free segments and telson, uropods reduced to small plates hidden ventrally beneath joint be-
tween segment 6 and telson. Male abdominal holding mechanism consisting of well-developed tubercles on P2
coxae, which can be rotated into position at joint between segments 5 and 6, when abdomen is folded. Male without
pleopods 3–5. Gonopods stout setose-tipped G1 and long needle-like G2, extending well beyond tip of G1 when
engaged. G2 without exopod. Mobile penial tube extending from male P5 coxa, inserted into base of G1 endopod.
Female thoracic sternal sutures 7/8 deeply incised into sternum, strongly convergent, ending together on raised
sternal area between chelipeds. Tips of sutures 7/8 encased in hardened dark brown secretion (sperm plaque). Pos-
terior margin of female sternite 8 concave, medially depressed to form anvil-shaped pit, separating sternal sutures.
Vestigial first pleopods fitting into channels on sternite margins and terminating in anvil pits.
Male thoracic sternite 8 with evenly concave posterior margin, not depressed.
Remarks. A comparison of morphological characters that separate the three species of Lamarckdromia is given
in Table 2. The main differences between the two Australian species are: long shaggy tomentum and tangled mass
of setae on the carapace and chelipeds in L. beagle sp. nov. (most of carapace has short even tomentum except for
conspicuous post-frontal fringe of longer erect setae across whole width of carapace in L. excavata); median rostral
tooth strongly deflexed and scarcely visible dorsally (versus median rostral tooth prominent); post-frontal area of
carapace weakly vaulted (versus post-frontal area strongly vaulted, cliff-like; sub-hepatic area weakly concave,
ventral margin obtuse, maze-like patches on hepatic area with very short setae (versus strongly excavated, ventral
area forms a shelf, almost whole area uniformly covered in short setae); inner superior border of cheliped propodus
has 3 or 4 small rounded proximal tubercles (versus inner superior border of cheliped propodus armed with 6 or 7
prominent evenly spaced sub-acute tubercles).
The chief difference between the two Australian species and L. globosa is that neither has a strong sub-acute
tooth on the anterolateral carapace margin, but they do have a similar row of small tubercles along the inner superior
border of the cheliped propodus (see De Man’s 1887: pl. 18 fig. 1) illustration of L. globosa reproduced in Fig. 24b).
Distribution. Western Australia; shallow subtidal.
Lewindromia Guinot & Tavares, 2003
Lewindromia unidentata (Rüppell, 1830)
(Fig. 28)
Dromia unidentata Rüppell, 1830: 16, pl. 4 fig. 2, 2a, pl. 5 fig 9.—Alcock, 1900: 139, 1901: 47, pl. 2, fig 6.—Chilton, 1911: 554.
Dromidia unidentata.—Laurie, 1906: 351.—Rathbun, 1910: 367.—Ihle, 1913: 31.—Barnard, 1950: 323, figs. 61h–I.—Garth,
1973: 315, 316, 329, 331.—Sakai, 1976: 11, pl. 2 fig 2, text figs 2a–b.—Lewinsohn, 1977: 9, fig. 1a–e; 1979: 2; 1984:
Cryptodromiopsis unidentata.—McLay, 1993: 192, fig. 7 a–k, 18a; 2001a: 84.—Davie, 2002: 161.—Takeda & Manuel-Santos,
2006: 83, fig. 1A–C.—Takeda & Webber, 2006: 232.
Cryptodromia unilobata Campbell & Stephenson, 1970: 240, fig. 2 A–I.
Lewindromia unidentata.—Guinot & Tavares, 2003: 74, fig. 11A–D.—McLay & Ng, 2005: 11.—Castro 2011: 32.—Ng &
Boyko, 2017: 199, fig. 1A.
Material examined. WAM C13523, Montebello Island, 20°31’S, 116°00’E, 38 m, FRV Soela, 2-12-1979: male
11.4 × 11.8 mm (ascidian cap coated with algal and coral fragments); WAM C50515, female 16.9 × 18.1 mm, speci-
men accompanied by handwritten label only showing “87-1953” [an old Registration Book listing these numbers,
entered by the former Curator Ludwig Glauert, suggests that the crab was possibly collected by Harry Butler, 11-11-
1953, from Swanbourne Beach, Perth]
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FIGURE 28. Lewindromia unidentata (Rüppell, 1830), female, 16.9 × 18.1 mm (WAM C50515): A, dorsal view; B, ventral
view; C, dorsal view anterolateral margin; D, dorso-frontal view with facial setae highlighted; E, lateral view; F, ventral view
orbits and rostrum.
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Diagnosis. Carapace longer than wide, oblong-shaped; evenly convex; branchial groove shallow; short dense
tomentum; rostrum short, tridentate, median tooth small not visible dorsally; strong supraorbital and suborbital
teeth; concave area immediately behind orbit shelf-like; anterolateral margin beginning at orbital level, without
teeth. Cheliped without epipod. Female thoracic sternal sutures 7/8 ending together on central raised ridge between
bases of P2, apertures directed anteriorly.
Remarks. Lewindromia unidentata was first recorded from Australia as Cryptodromia unilobata Campbell &
Stephenson, 1970, having been found in Moreton Bay Queensland. Guinot & Tavares (2003) erected the monotypic
genus Lewindromia to accommodate Dromia unidentata Rüppell, 1830, because it has several distinctive features.
They compared L. unidentata with several sponge carrying genera, but it is more constructive to compare it with
species that have an intimate association with ascidians, such as Ascidiophilus Richters, 1880 because L. uniden-
tata often uses ascidians and soft corals for shelter. The life style of Ascidiophilus caphyraeformis Richters, 1880
is described by Gordon (1950). This species lives almost totally enclosed in an ascidian or other soft-bodied host.
Lewindromia unidentata has an elongate body with a smooth surface, long P5 to carry its host and female thoracic
sternal grooves ending close together between the P2s as found in A. caphyraeformis. However, in Ascidiophilus
caphyraeformis the rostrum is strongly projecting forming a triangular extension, entire and supported beneath by
a keel, whereas in L. unidentata it is weakly tridentate, a condition more typical of sponge-carrying dromiid crabs.
In A. caphyraeformis the rostrum and superior orbital border are continuous whereas in L. unidentata the border is
interrupted by a blunt preorbital tooth. In A. caphyraeformis the orbits are exposed, but in L. unidentata they are
protected and have a suborbital tooth. The body shape also differs: in A. caphyraeformis the body is divided into
2 unequal sections by deep branchial grooves whereas in L. unidentata these grooves are much weaker and the
carapace is more or less ovoid in shape. In L. unidentata uropods are present as dorsal plates (concealed) whereas
they are absent in A. caphyraeformis. Lewindromia unidentata has a very hirsute body, densely covered by long
setae, whereas A. caphyraeformis only has a short tomentum. In many respects the morphology of L. unidentata is
intermediate between the sponge-carrying habit and more specialized ascidian-carrying habit found in A. caphyrae-
Distribution. Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Singapore, Japan, Philippines, Queensland, New Caledonia, Kermadec
Islands (New Zealand), Tonga, Hawaii and Easter Island. The present specimen represents a new record for Western
Australia. Depth range of L. unidentata is intertidal to 100 m.
Metadromia McLay, 2009
Metadromia wilsoni (Fulton & Grant, 1902)
(Fig. 29 A–D)
Cryptodromia wilsoni Fulton & Grant, 1902: 61, pl. 9.
Petalomera wilsoni.—Rathbun, 1923a: 154, pl. 42 fig. 1.—Dell, 1968: 14, pl. 2.—Griffin, 1972: 56.—McLay, 1988: 68, fig. 10
a–f.; 1991: 470, pl. 1B, figs 6a–d, 7a–c, 8a–c.—Baba, 1986: 309, fig. 162.—Davie & Short, 1989: 159.
Dromia wilsoni.—McLay, 1993: 156, fig 16e; 2001a: 84.—Davie, 2002: 162.—Poore, 2004: 304, fig. 84b, pl. 17f.—Poore et
al., 2008: 37, text photo.
Metadromia wilsoni.—McLay, 2009: 17, figs 4a–b.
Material examined. WAM C13501, Cape Naturaliste CSIRO stat. 134, 135–148 m, 208-18963: 2 males (6.6 × 5.8
mm, 8.6 × 6.8 mm), female (8.8 × 7.1 mm); WAM C13558, W end Rottnest Island, coll. B. R. Wilson, 14-02-1960:
ovig. female 9.8 × 7.0 mm; WAM C13548, W of Dongara, 29°07.5’S, 113°57’E, 110 m, FRV Sprightly stat. 30 m,
dredge sponge and rubble, 19-02-1976: ovig. female 9.0 × 7.8 mm; WAM C13562 (part), 35 km SW Cliff Head,
29°40’S, 114°42’E, 44 m, 17-11-1976: ovig. female 12.8 × 10.0 mm; WAM C17179, NW Bunbury, 32°57.05’S,
114° 48.00’E, 139 m, HMAS Diamantina Cruise V, 15-03-1972: 3 males, 10.6 × 9.1 mm, 11.3 × 9.2 mm, 16.5 ×
13.4 mm, 2 females 7.2 × 5.9 mm, 10.1 × 8.8 mm sacculinid parasite under abdomen), 3 ovig. females 8.7 × 7.1 mm,
12.5 × 9.3 mm, 15.6 ×.7 mm; WAM C17399, SW Cape Naturaliste, 33°45.03’S, 114°32.08’E, 146 m, coll. M.H.
Shepherd, HMAS Diamantina cruise V, 16-03-1972: male 12.8 × 10.0 mm.
Diagnosis. Carapace ovoid in shape, wider than long; covered in short undulating tomentum; rostrum triden-
tate, teeth as blunt lobes; supraorbital margin eave-like; branchial grooves well-marked; prominent subhepatic tooth
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at level of suborbital margin, 3 well developed blunt anterolateral teeth. Female thoracic sternal sutures 7/8 ending
wide apart just behind chelipeds. Distal corners of P2 and P3 knobbed; dorsal borders of P2–P5 emphasized with
fringe-like row of longer setae making them appear cristate.
Distribution. Indian and Pacific Oceans. Occurring around most of the coast of Australia and New Zealand as
far south as around 45°S. Depth range is 0–520 m.
FIGURE 29. Metadromia wilsoni (Fulton & Grant, (1902), male, 12.8 × 10.0 mm (WAM C17399): A, dorsal view; B, frontal
aspect; C, frontal view; D, ventral view.
Petalomera Stimpson, 1858
Petalomera pulchra Miers, 1884
(Fig. 30 A–C)
Petalomera pulchra Miers, 1884: 260, pl. 27 fig. A.—Davie, 2002: 166.—McLay & Ng, 2007: 128, figs. 8, 9.
Not Petalomera pulchra.—McLay, 1993: 166, fig. 17a–b [= Petalomera longipes Ihle, 1913].
Type material. Lectotype: NHM 1884.12, female 17.8 × 17.7 mm, Torres Strait.
Other material examined. WAM C13504, 53 km NE of Montebello, 19°55’S 116°36’E, 80 m, no date: 1
male 11.6 × 12.2 mm; WAM C13550, NE Montebello Islands, 20°08’S 115°57’E, 80 m, FRV Soela, 2-12-1979:
1 male 13.5 × 15.1 mm; WAM C13567, ENE Montebello Islands, 20°18’S 116°01’E, 60–64 m, FRV Soela, 2-12-
1979: 1 female 23.1 × 23.3 mm (also reported by McLay & Ng 2007); WAM C43231, Point Cloates, 73.5–72.9 m,
22°46’29”S, 113°32’39”E to 22°46’50”S, 113°32’48”E, 24-08-2008, Ningaloo Marine Park: ovigerous female 13.8
× 14.0 mm.
Diagnosis. Carapace as long as wide, regions well-marked, surface granulate; front prominent, rostrum triden-
tate, lateral teeth prominent, median tooth very small; supraorbital margin eave-like, unarmed; 3 small granulated
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anterolateral teeth. P1 and P2 meri flattened, petaloid. Female thoracic sternal sutures ending apart between or be-
hind P2. (For detailed description see McLay & Ng 2007).
Distribution. Indonesia, New Caledonia, northeastern Australia (Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Strait), and
Western Australia; 7–86 m
Stimdromia McLay, 1993
Remarks. McLay (1993) included the following species in Stimdromia: S. angulata (Sakai, 1936), S. kosugei (Take-
da & Miyake, 1972), S. lamellata (Ortmann, 1894), S. longipedalis (Dai, Yang, Song & Chen, 1981) and S. lateralis
(Gray, 1831) (type species). Later, Cleva et al. (2007) included Dromia foresti McLay, 1993 in Stimdromia.
Stimdromia lamellata (Ortmann, 1894)
(Fig. 31A–C)
Cryptodromia lamellata Ortmann, 1894: 34, pl. 2, fig 8. —Ihle, 1913: 34.
Petalomera lamellata.—Rathbun, 1923: 154, pl. 42 fig. 2–3.—Guiler, 1952: 37.—Griffin, 1972: 55, figs. 1f–j.
Stimdromia lamellata.—McLay, 1993: 168–169.—Poore, 2004: 307, fig. 87b.
Material examined. WAM C13557, Point Peron, coll. W. H. Butler, 28-04-1962: female 13.5 × 12.0 mm (sponge
cap) (right gill chamber swollen by bopyrid parasite); WAM C53545, off Koolama Bay, 13°49’44”S 127°15’46”E,
coll. A.M. Hosie & A. Hara, CSIRO King George River Expedition, 12-06-2013: male 15.5 × 14.0 mm; WAM
C53546, Off Koolama Bay, 13°47’23”S 127°16’37”E, coll. A.M. Hosie & A. Hara, CSIRO King George River
Expedition, 12-06-2013: male 14.5 × 12.6 mm.
Description. Carapace slightly wider than long, surface gently convex, mostly devoid of setae, finely granu-
lated (especially in frontal area); cardiac and branchial grooves faintly marked. Rostrum tridentate, teeth bluntly tri-
angular, similar in length, median tooth on lower level, lateral teeth separated by broad sulcus extending posteriorly
as shallow frontal groove; supraorbital margin interrupted by small tooth, post-orbital corner with small projection,
suborbital margin armed with small tooth not visible dorsally. Anterolateral margin initially concave followed by
largest tooth and 3 smaller teeth along convex margin interrupted by faint branchial notch (more evident on right
hand side. In the present specimen there are some differences between the right and left-hand sides of the carapace.
Sub-hepatic area finely granulate with 2 teeth, second larger tooth visible dorsally below margin of post-orbital
Cheliped merus inner face smooth, flattened; carpus flattened armed with 3 prominent unequal tubercles on
outer face; propodus superior face bearing 3 smaller tubercles, outer face with several small granules some arranged
in rows; fingers white, down curved, not gaping widely, margins armed with 8 or 9 small interlocking occlusal
teeth. P2–3 shorter than cheliped; flattened, ridged, tuberculate, especially on distal ends of articles; dactylus short,
curved, inner margin armed with 2 strong spines. Merus and propodus of P1 and P2 with entire dorsal crests. P3–4
reduced, used to carry camouflage cap, P4 shortest, P5 flattened sub-dorsal, dactylus opposed by single, long,
propodal spine.
Abdomen fringed with short dense setae. Telson of mature female much wider than long, posterior margin
strongly truncated; uropods visible externally. Abdominal surface strongly ridged along axis, with concave sulcus
on each side; lateral margins of segments 3–5 each with small blunt tubercle. Female thoracic sternal grooves deeply
marked, converging but ending apart on low swellings between bases of P2.
Remarks. Distinctive features of S. lamellata are the finely granulated carapace with granules extending on to
the subhepatic area and third maxillipeds, anterolateral margin shoulder-like armed with unequal teeth, merus and
propodus of chelipeds and walking legs flattened with dorsal crests or lamellae, telson posterior margin truncate
(see also Griffin 1972).
Distribution. The type locality is Thursday Island, Torres Strait, Queensland and the species is known from
Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and Western Australia; depth range 10–120 m.
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FIGURE 30. Petalomera pulchra Miers, 1884, ovigerous female, 13.8 × 14.0 mm (WAM C43231): A, dorsal view; B, frontal
view; C, ventral view.
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FIGURE 31. Stimdromia lamellata (Ortmann, 1894), female, 13.5 × 12.0 mm (WAM 116-83): A, dorsal view; B, frontal view
(with sponge cap); C, ventral view (with sponge cap). (Note that the chelipeds are detached. The shape of the right hand side of
carapace is distorted by a bopyrid parasite in the swollen gill chamber)
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Stimdromia lateralis (Gray, 1831)
(Fig. 32A–D)
Dromia lateralis Gray, 1831: 40.
Cryptodromia lateralis.—Stimpson, 1858: 226; 1907: 174, pl. 20 fig 3.—Miers, 1884: 259.—Henderson, 1888: 5.
Petalomera lateralis.—Borradaile, 1903: 300.—Montgomery, 1922: 193, text figs 1–3.—Rathbun, 1923a: 153. —Hale, 1927:
111, figs. 108–109; 1941: 284.—Richardson, 1949: 58–69.—Griffin, 1972.
Paradromia lateralis.—Hale, 1925: 410, pl. 40 figs 1–3.
Stimdromia lateralis.—McLay, 1993: 169.—Davie, 2002: 166.—Poore, 2004: 307, fig. 87c.—Farrelly & Ahyong, 2019: 72,
fig. 139.
Austrodromidia octodentata.—Farrelly & Ahyong, 2019: fig. 138.
NOT Petalomera lateralis.—Dai & Yang, 1991: 28, fig. 8, pl. 2 fig. 6.
Material examined. WAM C13507, Port Willunga, intertidal limestone reef platform under rocks, 22-01-1965:
male 17.0 × 15.0 mm (sponge cap).
Description. Carapace wider than long, convex, smooth, regions not defined, covered by short dense tomen-
tum. Rostrum tridentate lateral teeth broadly triangular, rounded, median tooth shorter, sharper, at lower level,
slightly deflexed; supraorbital margin continues interrupted by weak supraorbital tooth and similar postorbital tooth,
suborbital tooth more prominent. Anterolateral margin armed with 2 similar blunt teeth and strong subhepatic tooth
visible dorsally between postorbital corner and first anterolateral tooth; margin between 2 anterolateral teeth con-
vex; well defined posterolateral tooth behind branchial notch.
FIGURE 32. Stimdromia lateralis (Gray 1831), male, 17.0 × 15.0 mm (WAM 65-83): A, dorsal view; B, ventral view (with
sponge cap); C, frontal view; D, ventral view oral and sternal areas.
Chelipeds well developed, tubercular, inner surface of carpus and propodus densely setose, dorsal surface tends
to be flattened with poorly defined ridge running along inner border; fingers white and gaping. Outer face of cheli-
ped propodus sometimes with fine tubercles tending to be arranged in longitudinal rows. P2 and P3 also with strong
350 · Zootaxa 5129 (3) © 2022 Magnolia Press
distal tubercles on dorsal margins. P4 and P 5 smaller, dactyli opposed by single propodal spine with another similar
spine on outer propodal margin. Posterior margin of telson broadly rounded, subtruncate. Female thoracic sternal
grooves ending well apart on small tubercles between P2 coxae.
Remarks. The true identity of Cryptodromia lateralis was uncertain until Stimpson (1907: pl. 20 fig. 3) pub-
lished a figure of this species, based on material collected from Port Jackson, i.e., Sydney Harbour.
The differences between S. lateralis and S. lamellata include: carapace tomentose and smooth (versus bare and
granular in S. lamellata); rostral teeth unequal (versus teeth approximately same size); anterolateral carapace margin
armed with two teeth (versus three irregular teeth); cheliped and P1 and P2 tubercular on distal ends of carpi and
propodi (versus crest-like). Brood young are carried by female (Montgomery 1922).
Distribution. Endemic to Australia, found around most of the coastline. Old records of this species from New
Zealand refer to Metadromia wilsoni (Fulton & Grant, 1902). Miers’ (1884) records of S. lateralis based on speci-
mens from Bohol, Philippines and Madjicasima, Japan, (HMS Samarang) in the NHM need verification. Depth
range: 0–221 m (Farrelly & Ahyong 2019).
We would like to thank Peter Davie, Peter Ng, and Gary Poore for valuable taxonomic discussions and advice.
Shane Ahyong provided valuable input that improved this paper. Also we are grateful for the technical help provided
by Paul Clark, Ana Hara and Anna McCallum. Laure Corbari kindly arranged for photographs of fragile type mate-
rial. We would like to acknowledge the help and advice of the staff of the Dambimangari Aboriginal Corporation,
Kimberley Region Australia with the naming of a new species, Alainodromia dambimangari sp. nov., collected
from the coast of their Indigenous Protected Area.
Ahyong, S.T., Naruse, T., Tan, S.H. & Ng, P.K.L. (2009) s.n. In: Crustacean Fauna of Taiwan: Brachyuran Crabs. Vol. 1.
Carcinology in Taiwan and Dromiacea, Raninoida, Cyclodorippoida. National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, pp.
Alcock, A. (1900) Materials for a carcinological Fauna of India. No. 5. Brachyura Primigenia or Dromiacea. Journal of the
Asiatic Society Bengal, 1899, 68 (2), 123–169. [1900]
Alcock, A. (1901) Catalogue of the Indian Decapod Crustacea in the Collection of the Indian Museum. Part l: Brachyura. Fasc.
I. Introduction and Dromides or Dromiacea (Brachyura Primigenia). Trustees of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, 80 pp.
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Full-text available
The genus Conchoecetes Stimpson, 1858, has long been considered to include three species: C. artificiosus (Fabricius, 1798), C. andamanicus Alcock, 1900, and C. intermedius Lewinsohn, 1984. The type species, C. artificiosus, has been assumed to be widely distributed throughout the Indo-West Pacific and a fourth species, C. conchifera (Haswell, 1882), from Australia, has been regarded as a synonym. The enigmatic and long overlooked “Caphyra pectenicola Adams, in Belcher, 1848” is shown to be a species of Conchoecetes occurring in Java, Singapore and the Gulf of Thailand. We review the status of these species, establish C. conchifera as a valid species, and describe five new species: C. atlas n. sp., C avikele n. sp., C. chanty n. sp., C. investigator n. sp. and C. pembawa n. sp. In this revision we recognize 10 valid species in Conchoecetes. They are distributed from Southern Africa, across the Indian Ocean to Australia and northwards to China. Formerly considered to be cosmopolitan, C. artificiosus is restricted to India, Sri Lanka Pakistan, as well as the Persian Gulf and Madagascar, while C. intermedius, first discovered near Madagascar, is shown to be the most widespread species occurring from Africa to China.
Technical Report
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This is the first project funded by the Total Foundation in Australia and this partnership with CSIRO and its research partners has resulted in the first exploration of biodiversity and biological/ecological assessment of one of the most remote wilderness areas of Australia. The main objective is to survey and record the marine and estuarine habitats and biodiversity of the King George River Region of north-western Australia. The field expedition for the project was undertaken aboard the RV Solander from 3 to 13 June 2013 and achieved the most comprehensive and intensive study ever undertaken in the remote north-eastern Kimberley region of Australia. A combined total of 146 stations, transects and gear deployments were sampled or made, from up river to the base of the twin waterfalls out to 15 km offshore into the Timor Sea to a water depth of 70 m and across a range of habitat types including water column, mangrove, shallow muddy benthos, rocky shores, coral reefs and deepwater sedimentary and filter feeder communities. The distribution of each of these habitat types is described in detail in the report. Sampling equipment deployed included sediment cores, CTD (salinity, temperature, depth) profiler and Niskin (water sampling) bottles, bongo net, benthic sleds, traps, drop camera, tow video cameras and hand collections by reef walking and snorkel diving. A total of 1374 animal and plant lots were collected comprising about 3500 specimens. A total of 796 species were recorded and a number new species and likely new species from a number of the taxonomic groups have been identified, principally the crustaceans and the echinoderms. Four new species of echinoderms have already been described as new species in the scientific literature as a result of this study. In addition to this numerous new records for Australia and Western Australia have been established meaning that in total this study has made a very significant contribution to the knowledge of biodiversity of the regions. Of the 796 species we sampled, 559 species were taken in sleds. Our species accumulation curve analyses suggest true species richness may have been more than double this. Undersampling of biodiversity is likely due to sampling just a small area of the total region and undersampling of hard bottom substrates, which although making up a small proportion of the overall study area in comparuson to soft sediment habitats, are generally more biodiverse. Analysis of species abundance data indicated that the invertebrate assemblages were significantly different among different positions, different depths and between hard and soft substrate. Species assemblages from stations in shallow waters (5 m or less) were clearly different from assemblages from deeper waters 5-20 m stations which in turn were more similar to stations >20m and species assemblages on stations on hard substrate were dominated by filter feeders such as crinoids, soft coral and sponges while soft bottom habitats were characterised by crustaceans and molluscs. Habitats that were under-sampled in our study were the coral reefs around Lesueur Island. This occurred for two reasons, our sampling was limited to snorkelling rather than SCUBA diving which is more efficient and enables a greater depth range of habitats to be sampled and poor (very windy)weather which meant we were unable to sample the windward reef crest and lagoon and created turbid conditions elsewhere where we were able to sample. Future sampling in the region should target the reefs around Lesueur Island with greater intensity and through the use of SCUBA. Our study also made a comprehensive analysis of water column biogeochemical and biophysical data (temperature, salinity, phytoplankton, nutrients) and sediment characteristics (grain size, chlorophyll and organic matter content) were examined and related to location along a gradient from upper-river out through the estuary and offshore to Lesueur Island and beyond. Upper river sediments were coarser than those in the estuary, bay and out to sea and water chemistry showed patterns expected for this region in the dry season. Silicate and phosphate was highest in the upper reaches were the freshwater influence is greatest while nitrate was highest offshore. All sites sampled were significantly nitrogen limited when compared to the Redfield ratio reflecting the oligotrophic condition in the dry season. Being able to sample the variation in water chemistry between the dry season and wet season was not possible but would be highly desirable to enabling both a seasonal contrast and to determine the extent of influence of the transport of nutrients transported out of the estuary by the wet season river flows. Total mean depth integrated chlorophyll a was 0.81 mg m-3 with a large fraction biomass of 0.19 mg m-3 and small fraction of 0.63 mg m-3. On average the small fraction was 78% of total chlorophyll a. There was significantly less phytoplankton offshore (0.66 mg m-3) than in King George River (1.13 mg m-3) and in Koolama Bay (1.05 mg m-3). Small phytoplankton dominated in all stations comprising on average 82% of total chlorophyll. Mean zooplankton biomass in the study was 0.05 g m-3 which is comparable to biomass collected from other studies in the north-west of Australia. Size fractionated biomass showed that 355 and 1000 µm zooplankton dominate in all stations and large (3000 µm) and medium sized (250 µm) zooplankton are least abundant. Small copepods were quite important in all stations. Zooplankton biomass was significantly positively correlated with fucoxanthin which is a pigment proxy for diatom abundance which represents an important food source. The study also examined food webs in the region focussing on filter feeders (oysters and zooplankton) as consumers. We expected to find evidence of offshore filter feeders consuming more marine derived carbon sources (phytoplankton) and those up river more dependent on terrestrial carbon sources (mangrove and land based plants). Our results suggest that there is some influence of the onshore – offshore gradient in the carbon source of the diet of oysters however during the dry season there is a lack of strong contrast in environmental conditions across this gradient which may be concealing patterns which might otherwise be obvious with sampling in both wet and dry seasons. Sampling in the wet season will be needed to resolve this issue.
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This paper deals with the decapod crustaceans obtained from the stomachs of four species of fishes collected at the rocky bottom of the shallow water. The fish species are Epinephelus fasciatus (FORSSKAL) of the Serranidae, Gymnocranius japonicus AKAZAKI and Lethrinus variegatus VALENCIENNES Of the Lethrinidae, and Parupeneus barberinoides (BLEEKER) of the Mullidae. All the species are useful for food, and the first or the blacktip rockcod is the most abundant along the entire coasts of the islands and islets of the Ogasawara Islands. Among these only in the second species three specimens are available for the examination of the stomach contents. The identification of the species is rather difficult in some cases in which there are only the fragments of the carapace and chelipeds. In this paper altogether 20 crab species including some questionable ones were identified, and two pairs of chelae obtained from G. japonicus, which are probably referred to those of Lissocarcinus or allied genera of the Portunidae, are remained uncertain. There are otherwise a large and a small chelae of snapping shrimp referable to Alpheus, a chela of Callianassa which is an anomuran decapod called mud or ghost shrimp, two specimens of Munida or lobster krill, a right or small cheliped of hermit crab referable to Calcinus, and two specimens of grapsid megalopa larvae. Although 123 crab species have hitherto been known from the Ogasawara Islands, it is remarkable that 11 of 20 species identified at present are new to this area. This fact indicates that the rocky bottom of the shallow or rather deep water is scarcely exploited. This sort of reports may be therefore of certain use not only for the systematics of the crustaceans, but also as the indicators for the ecology of the fishes and crustaceans. As summarized in Table 1, it is remarkable that 7 of 20 species are referable to the Majidae, representing 35% of the species recorded. The families subjected to food of fishes are the Dromiidae, Majidae, Parthenopidae, Portunidae, Xanthidae, Goneplacidae, so that the ratio of the known species of the Majidae among these families are only 14%. On the other hand, the low percentage of the Xanthidae for food is also remarkable, being 30% at present contrary to 69% in the known species of the above families. This fact may be attributed to the different habit and habitat, and it is briefiy mentioned that the camouflage with the seaweed, sponge or other inorganic matter may be not always an effective means for the defence against the fishes. The relation between the crab and fish species is summarized in Table 2. This suggests that as for the habit of food search Parupenus barberiwoides may be somewhat different from Gymnocranius japonicus and Epinephelus fasciatus.
This book is a comprehensive guide to the identification of 800 species of decapod and stomatopod crustaceans from southern Australian marine waters. It is liberally illustrated with more than 1000 line drawings giving good views of many species as well as diagnostic illustrations. Details for each species include the authority, year of description, sometimes a common name, diagnosis, size, geographical distribution, and ecological and depth distribution. The chapter on the Stomatopoda is by Shane Ahyong. Sections within each chapter are hierarchical, species within genera, within families (often with subfamilies as well). Identification is achieved through the use of dichotomous keys adapted from many originally published in the primary literature, or developed from scratch. Some keys are to all Australian taxa but most are to southern Australian taxa only. The information in this book derives from over 200 years of collecting in southern Australian environments, from the intertidal to the deep sea, and publications in numerous journals in several languages. More than 800 of these papers and books are cited. Winner of the 2005 Whitley Award for Systematics.
A collection of 33 Dromiidae (Crustacea Decapoda Brachyura) from central and southern Somalia has been studied. Six species were present, one of which is described for the first time (Dromidia fenestrata n. sp.) and one was known only from the original record from Madagascar (Hemisphaerodromia abellana Barnard).