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Three new Entoloma species of the Cyanula clade from (sub)alpine habitats in Northern Norway and Sweden


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2020) Three new Entoloma species of the Cyanula clade (Entolomataceae, Agaricales) from (sub)alpine habitats in Northern Norway and Sweden.-Sydowia 73: 185-196. Three Entoloma species belonging to the Cyanula clade from (middle-) northern boreal and alpine areas are described as new to science. Entoloma montanum, E. nordlandicum, and E. septentrionale, recorded from the Holmvassdalen area at Grane, Northern Norway while E. montanum shows a wide distribution in Northern Scandinavia and the Caucasus. Entoloma nordlandicum, however, has recently been recorded also from the Netherlands. The three species are phylogenetically well defined based on analysis of the nrDNA ITS region and they are distant from their closest relatives. Morphological descriptions of each species are given, as well as their ecology, distribution and relationships towards similar species are discussed.
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Sydowia 73 (2021) 185
DOI 10.12905/0380.sydowia73-2020-0185 Published online 23 December 2020
Three new
species of the Cyanula clade from
(sub)alpine habitats in Northern Norway and Sweden
Machiel Evert Noordeloos1, Jostein Lorås2, Siw Elin Eidissen2, Tor Erik Brandrud3, Egil Bendiksen3,
Olga Morozova4, John Bjarne Jordal5 Øyvind Weholt2, Gerrit Maarten Jansen1, Ellen Larsson6,7 &
Bálint Dima8,*
1 Naturalis Biodiversity Center, P.O. Box 9517, 2300 RA, Leiden, The Netherlands
2 Nord University, Nesna, NO-8700 Nesna, Norway
3 Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), Sognsveien 68, NO-0855 Oslo, Norway
4 Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2 Prof. Popov Str., RUS-197376 St Petersburg, Russia
5 Biolog J.B. Jordal, Skrøovegen 21, NO-6610 Øksendal, Norway
6 Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, 7Gothenburg Global Biodiversity Centre, University of Gothenburg,
P.O. Box 461, SE 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden
8 Department of Plant Anatomy, Institute of Biology, Eötvös Loránd University, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/c,
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary
* e-mail:
Noordeloos M.E., Lorås J., Eidissen S.E., Brandrud T.E., Bendiksen E., Morozova O., Jordal J.B., Weholt Ø., Jansen G.M., Lars-
son E. & Dima B. (2020) Three new Entoloma species of the Cyanula clade (Entolomataceae, Agaricales) from (sub)alpine habitats
in Northern Norway and Sweden. - Sydowia 73: 185–196.
Three Entoloma species belonging to the Cyanula clade from (middle-) northern boreal and alpine areas are described as new
to science. Entoloma montanum, E. nordlandicum, and E. septentrionale, recorded from the Holmvassdalen area at Grane, North-
ern Norway while E. montanum shows a wide distribution in Northern Scandinavia and the Caucasus. Entoloma nordlandicum,
however, has recently been recorded also from the Netherlands. The three species are phylogenetically well dened based on
analysis of the nrDNA ITS region and they are distant from their closest relatives. Morphological descriptions of each species are
given, as well as their ecology, distribution and relationships towards similar species are discussed.
Keywords: Entolomataceae, Agaricales, Basidiomycota, ITS phylogeny, taxonomy. – 3 new species.
This study is part of a large-scale molecular phy-
logenetic and morphological study of the Cyanula
clade in genus Entoloma in Europe to be published
in due course. The clade/group Cyanula is here tak-
en in a wide sense, including all clampless, often
vividly bluish coloured species, formerly included
in subgen. Leptonia, but shown to be phylogeneti-
cally quite distant from the clamped Leptonia s. str.
taxa (Morozova et al. 2014).
The present study is also part of mycological re-
search currently going on in the vast, largely little
visited higher altitude forests and alpine habitats of
Northern Norway and Northern Sweden. Particu-
larly the calcareous Holmvassdalen Nature Reserve
in Grane, Nordland, Norway, appears a rich hotspot
for Entoloma species, including some apparently
northern species, documented recently in a series of
papers based on 10 years of intensive studies (Lorås
& Eidissen 2011; Lorås et al. 2014; Noordeloos et al.
2018; Weholt et al. 2014, 2015, 2016). The hotspots
here are found mainly in calcareous, subalpine/
northern boreal Picea abies forests, sometimes also
in alpine or middle boreal sites. Preliminary results
from expeditions to some alpine, calcareous sites in
adjacent northern Sweden revealed a similarly rich
diversity in Entoloma with a number of unpub-
lished species. The current paper deals with three,
apparently northern boreal-alpine species new to
science, found in northern Scandinavia, and be-
longing to the Cyanula clade.
Material and methods
Morphological study
All collections studied were photographed in the
eld, where also much attention was paid to char-
acterize the surrounding vegetation and ecology.
The material was described straight after collecting
to x the ephemeral macroscopical characters,
dried and stored in the herbarium. Microscopical
characters were studied with a Leica DMLS micro-
scope, using a drawing tube and a Touptek Photo-
186 Sydowia 73 (2021)
Noordeloos et al.: Three new Entoloma species of the Cyanula clade
tronics camera and a Zeiss Axiophot microscope
with DC controlled Cree XP-G3 R3 CRI 90+ LED
illumination, Plan Neouar objectives 40×/1.30 Oil,
100×/1.30 Oil, differential interference contrast
(DIC) and 12MP Touptek video camera with SONY
Exmor IMX226 CMOS sensor, Toupview advanced
video & image processing application. Spores, ba-
sidia and cystidia were observed in squash prepara-
tions of small parts of the lamellae in 5 % KOH or
1 % Congo Red in concentrated NH4OH. The
pileipellis was examined on a radial section of the
pileus in water. Basidiospore dimensions are based
on observation of 20 spores, cystidia and basidia di-
mensions on observation of at least 10 elements per
collection. Basidia were measured without sterig-
mata, and the spores without hilum. Spore length to
width ratios are reported as Q. Unless otherwise
stated, all material is deposited in the herbarium of
the Botanical Museum, Oslo, Norway (O).
Molecular study and phylogenetic reconstruction
DNA extraction, PCR amplications and se-
quencing were performed in the Norwegian Bar-
code of Life (NorBOL) project or followed Alvarado
et al. (2015), Larsson & Jacobsson (2004) and Lars-
son et al. (2018). The primer pairs ITS1F/ITS4
(Gardes & Bruns 1993, White et al. 1990) were used
in both PCR and sequencing reactions for nrDNA
ITS barcoding region. Chromatograms were checked
and edited with the CodonCode Aligner package
(CodonCode Corp., Centerville, Massachusetts,
USA). Sequence comparison with public and own
databases followed Noordeloos et al. (2017). Newly
generated sequences were submitted to GenBank
(Tab. 1).
Our dataset composed of 55 nrDNA ITS se-
quences belonging to the Cyanula clade, carefully
selected after an initial analysis using published
and all our unpublished ITS sequences (data not
shown). The dataset was aligned with MAFFT on-
line v. 7 (,
using the E-INS-i option (Katoh & Standley 2013).
The alignment was checked and edited in SeaView
4 (Gouy et al. 2010). Maximum Likelihood analysis
was performed in PhyML 3.1 (Guindon & Gascuel
2003) with the following settings: GTR+I+G model
of evolution, gamma distribution of 10 rate catego-
ries, and tree topology search as SPR. Branch sup-
port was tested using the non-parametric, Shimo-
daira-Hasegawa version of the approximate likeli-
hood-ratio test (SH-aLRT). The nal tree was edited
in MEGA 7 (Kumar et al. 2016).
Tab. 1. Entoloma nrDNA ITS sequences used in this study. * = not included in the phylogenetic analysis.
Species Voucher Country Accession no. Sequence origin
E. caesiellum aff. SAAS1410 China KP329587 GenBank
E. catalaunicum cf. TU106338 Estonia UDB011680 UNITE
E. ekaterinae LE312053 holotype Russia MK693215 Crous et al. (2019)
E. erhardii LE312051 holotype Russia MK693218 Crous et al. (2019)
E. exile K(M)157760 Great Britain MF977951 GenBank
E. foliocontusum cf.
(as Leptonia cf. foliocontusa)
4954SL USA KX574457 GenBank
E. holmvassdalenense O-F-75311 holotype Norway KM610321 Weholt et al. (2014)
E. incanum K(M)190322 Great Britain MF977955 GenBank
E. kauffmanii KA13-1202 South Korea KR673675 Kim et al. (2015)
E. largentii cf. (as Leptonia
cf. convexa)
OSC144006 USA KX574458 GenBank
E. longistriatum PBM4018 / TENN070451 USA KY744164 GenBank
E. montanum O-F-252062 / EB80/09 Norway MW340877 this study
E. montanum O-F-293389 / HH111-10 Norway MW340878 this study
E. montanum O-F-257330 / JL40-11 Norway MW340879 this study
E. montanum O-F-249961 / JL192-11 Norway MW340880 this study
E. montanum O-F 249966 / JL110-13 Norway MW340881 this study
E. montanum O-F-254320 / JL53-14 Norway MW340882 this study
Sydowia 73 (2021) 187
Noordeloos et al.: Three new Entoloma species of the Cyanula clade
Species Voucher Country Accession no. Sequence origin
E. montanum O-F-254321 / JL75-14 Norway MW340883 this study
E. montanum O-F-76210 / JL108-16 Norway MW340884 this study
E. montanum O-F-76209 / JL129-16 Norway MW340885 this study
E. montanum LE312479 Russia MW340886 this study
E. montanum GB-0191641 / PAM13-52 Sweden MW340887 this study
E. montanum GB-0191639 / GG160811 Sweden MW340888 this study
E. montanum GB-0191640 / GG160810 Sweden MW340889 this study
E. montanum GB-0191636 / JO160812 Sweden MW340890 this study
E. montanum GB-0191637 / JO160812 Sweden MW340891 this study
E. montanum GB-0191638 / JO160812 Sweden MW340892 this study
E. montanum GB-0191632 / SJ160816 Sweden MW340893 this study
E. montanum GB-0191634 / HC160816 Sweden MW340894 this study
E. montanum GB-0191630 / EL136-18 Sweden MW340895 this study
E. montanum GB-0191635 / EL143-18
Sweden MW340896 this study
E. montanum GB-0191631 / EL147-18 Sweden MW340897 this study
E. montanum GB-0191633 / EL153-18 Sweden MW340898 this study
E. mougeotii LE254352 Russia KC898446 Morozova et al. (2014)
E. nigrovelutinum LE295077 / holotype Vietnam MF898426 Crous et al. (2017)
E. nipponicum TNS F70747 holotype Japan MK693223 Crous et al. (2019)
E. nordlandicum O-F-76176 / JL99-14, holotype Norway MW340899 this study
E. nordlandicum O-F-76177 / JL128-14 Norway MW340900 this study
E. nordlandicum O-F-257331 / JL35-16 Norway MW340901 this study
E. nordlandicum O-F-257332 / JL36-16 Norway MW340902 this study
E. nordlandicum L0607818 / M. Jagers 19032 The Nether-
MW340903 this study*
E. ochromicaceum TU120040 Estonia UDB023715 UNITE
E. querquedula 18.XI.2011 TUR Finland LN850627 Kokkonen (2015)
E. roseotinctum WU13070 Austria LN850611 Kokkonen (2015)
E. sarcitulum TUR-31-VII-1967 FIN LN850562 Kokkonen (2015)
E. septentrionale O-F-254295 / JL77-14 holotype Norway MW340904 this study
E. serrulatum LE254361 Russia KC898447 Morozova et al. (2014)
E. sp. CM13-233
New Caledonia
KY774214 Carriconde et al. (2019)
E. sp. MES-534 Chile KY462681 Truong et al. (2017)
E. subcaesiellum LE253776 holotype Russia MK693224 Noordeloos &
Morozova (2010)
E. subcaesiocinctum SAAS2238 China KY711234 He et al. (2017)
E. subcorvinum SAT1518905/TENN070435 USA KY744169 GenBank
E. subfarinaceum SAT1518702 / TENN070395 USA KY777374 GenBank
E. turci MCVE3882 Italy JF907993 Osmundson et al.
E. unicolor cf. PBM3995 / TENN070383 USA KY777373 GenBank
E. yanacolor QCAM 6312 holotype Ecuador MG947210 Crous et al. (2018)
188 Sydowia 73 (2021)
Noordeloos et al.: Three new Entoloma species of the Cyanula clade
Results and discussion
Phylogenetic analysis
The nucleotide alignment was 757 characters
long including gaps. The Maximum Likelihood phy-
logenetic tree is illustrated in Fig. 1, and the evi-
dence for statistical support (SH-aLRT > 70) is in-
dicated at the branches. The sequences of the three
new species, Entoloma montanum, E. nordlandi-
cum, and E. septentrionale formed well-supported
terminal clades (Fig. 1.). Entoloma montanum and
E. septentrionale occupy rather isolated positions
within Cyanula, while E. nordlandicum belongs to a
well-supported clade together with e.g. E. holm-
vassdalenense Eidissen, Lorås & Weholt, a species
recently described from similar habitats of the Hol-
mvassdalen Nature Reserve (Weholt et al. 2014). In-
traspecic variation in the ITS sequences was low
(0–1 nucleotide difference) in the three new species.
According to our unpublished data of a large-scale
revision in the subgenus Cyanula, the intraspecic
genetic distance of E. montanum and E. nordlandi-
cum towards their known sister species is ca. 30 nu-
cleotide and indel differences (5 %), while the iso-
lated E. septentrionale has over 60 nucleotide and
indel differences (10 %) from its closest relative.
Entoloma nordlandicum
Noordel., Lorås, Eidissen
& Dima. spec. nov. – Figs. 2–3.
MycoBank no.: MB 838101
E t y m o l og y. – The epithet refers to the region
Nordland in Norway.
H o l o t y pe . – NORWAY. Nordland, Grane, Hol-
mvassdalen Nature Reserve, 3 September 2014. leg.
J. Lorås & S. E. Eidissen, JL99-14 (O-F-76176).
GenBank ITS: MW340899.
Description. Pileus 2030 mm broad,
convex with involute then deexed margin, slightly
depressed at centre, initially very dark brown with
slight blue-violaceous tinge near margin, later on
paler and more greyish to ochraceous brown, some-
times with radial dark stripes, not translucently stri-
ate, entirely minutely squamulose with slightly
darker pointed squamules. – L a m e l l a e moder-
ately distant, L = about 20–28, l = 1–3, deeply emar-
ginate, narrowly ventricose, white then pink, with
concolorous, entire edge.S t i p e 60–70 × 1–3 mm,
cylindrical, dark greyish blue fading to grey-blue,
not polished but covered with dark blue brils and
minute ocks all over. Smell indistinct then farina-
ceous when old. – B a s i d i o s p o r e s 8.0–11.2 ×
6.5–8.4 μm; Q=1.1–1.5; Qav.=1.29; Vav.=281; average
9.6 × 7.5 μm, heterodiametrical, 5–7-angled. – B a -
s i d i a 22–40 × 6–14 μm, clavate, 4-spored. L a -
m e l l a e d g e sterile, of the serrulatum-type. –
C h e i l o c y s t i d i a 15–25 × 4–14 μm, irregularly
distributed on gill edge, in tufts, but not intermixed
with basidia, ellipsoid, cylindrical, often in short
chains of 2 or 3 cells. – H y m e n o p h or a l tr a m a
regular to intermixed thin cylindrical hyphae 3–7 μm
wide and more inated hyphae, elements 80–120 ×
6–20 μm. – P i l e i p e l l i s a cutis with sparse tricho-
dermal tufts of clusters of erect terminal cells 23–
59(85) × 8–26 μm, with light brown intracellular pig-
ment, subpellis with refringent granules. – C a u l o -
c y s t i d i a 25–50 × 6–18 μm, cylindrical, subclavate,
clavate, in tufts, light brown intracellular pigment.
– C l am p c o n n e c t i o ns absent from all tissues.
H a b i t a t . – In small patches with open, low-
herb vegetation in calcareous spruce forests, both
moist tall-herb types as well as more seasonal hy-
grophilous ones; also in Sphagnum.
D i s t r i b u t i o n . – Known from Norway in a
restricted area in the county of Nordland in North-
ern Norway; sequence-veried from two localities
in the Holmvassdalen area and one locality (with
two collections) in the adjacent Geitklauvmyra na-
ture reserve. In addition it has been found in the
M a te r ia l e x a mi n ed (besides holotype). – NORWAY.
Nordland, Grane, Holmvassdalen Nature Reserve, 3 Septem-
ber 2014, leg. J. Lorås & S. E. Eidissen, JL128-14 (O-F-76177);
Geitklauvmyra Nature Reserve, 11 August 2016, leg. J. Lorås,
S. P. Stolsmo & S. E. Eidissen, JL35-16 (O-F-257331), JL36-16
(O-F-257332). THE NETHERLANDS. Prov. Overijssel,
Weerselo, Lemseler Maten, 8 October 2019, leg. M. Jagers,
19032 (L-0607818), GenBank ITS sequence: MW340903.
Comments. – Entoloma nordlandicum is
characterized by the initially velvety-tomentose-
squamulose, dark (bluish-) blackish brown pileus,
brillose stipe with scaly apex, as well as short,
clavate and often septate cheilocystidia, forming
turfs/clusters. Furthermore, it seems to be a mainly
(but not strictly) northern species. The species is
close to Entoloma holmvassdalenense, which has
recently been described from the same area, and the
same kind of habitats (semi-open, calcareous tall-
herb spruce forests and margins of rich fens). Ento-
loma holmvassdalenense differs from E. nordlandi-
cum by a more polished stipe without caulocystidia
and larger spores from two-spored basidia (Weholt
et al. 2014). The pileus of E. holmvassdalenense
seems also on average more squamulose than that
of E. nordlandicum, but a few young specimens of
the former are also observed with a more velvety
Sydowia 73 (2021) 189
Noordeloos et al.: Three new Entoloma species of the Cyanula clade
Fig. 1. Phylogenetic relationship of E. montanum, E. nordlandicum and E. septentrionale in the Cyanula clade inferred from
nrDNA ITS sequences using PhyML. Newly generated sequences are highlighted in blue. PhyML SH-aLRT support values (>70)
are indicated on the branches. Bar indicates 0.05 expected change per site per branch.
190 Sydowia 73 (2021)
Noordeloos et al.: Three new Entoloma species of the Cyanula clade
tomentose pileus. Both species belong to a rather
diverse and well-supported clade together with the
European species E. roseotinctum Noordel. & Liiv,
and a number of taxa with uncertain identity (veri-
ed from one sequence each): E. cf. catalaunicum
from Estonia, E. aff. caesiellum from China and E.
cf. largentii from North America) (Fig. 1). Entoloma
roseotinctum which also might be co-occurring
with E. nordlandicum in Holmvassdalen, differs
chiey from the latter on the more umbilicate, radi-
ally brillose (hardly tomentose-scaly) pileus, and
often being paler, including pinkish variants, never
seen in E. nordlandicum. Microscopically, E. rose-
otinctum differs in having more slender and longer,
more fusiform-lageniform cheilocystidia. Entoloma
roseotinctum appears also to be a somewhat more
southern species with a number of collections from
Tilia-Corylus forests in S Norway, and recorded also
from France as E. glaucodubium Corriol (Corriol
2016). Little is known about the morphology of the
other taxa in the E. holmvassdalenense-E. rose-
otinctum clade, except that E. cf. catalaunicum
(UDB011680) from Estonia is a pink coloured vari-
ant of E. rhynchocystidiatum.
Fig. 2. Entoloma nordlandicum: A. Basidiomata from Norway, holotype, drawing Hermod Karlsen; B–C. Basidiomata from The
Netherlands, L0607818, photo M. Jagers.
Sydowia 73 (2021) 191
Noordeloos et al.: Three new Entoloma species of the Cyanula clade
Entoloma septentrionale
Noordel., Lorås, Eidissen
& Dima, spec. nov. – Fig. 4.
MycoBank no.: MB 838102
E t y m o l o g y. – The epithet refers to the north-
ern distribution of this species.
H o l o t y pe . – NORWAY. Nordland, Grane, Hol-
mvassdalen Nature Reserve, 13 August 2014, leg. J.
Lorås & S. E. Eidissen, JL77-14 (holotype, O-F-
254295). GenBank ITS: MW340904.
P i l e u s about 20 mm in diameter, convex or
expanded campanulate with low, broad umbo, with
distinct umbilicus on umbo, with straight margin,
probably hygrophanous, blackish-brown at centre
(umbilicus), rest deeply translucently striate with
dark reddish brown lines alternating with paler
pinkish brown stripes, granulose-minutely squam-
ulose at centre only, rest innately radially brous.
L a m e l l a e moderately distant, L = about 40, l =
3–5, deeply emarginate with decurrent tooth, ven-
tricose, white to pale pink with very nely crenu-
late, darker coloured edge. – S t i p e about 60–70 ×
2–3 mm, not equal but slightly and gradually broad-
ened towards base, deep blue-grey, nely pruinose
in upper part, downwards polished, dull, not shiny,
base with white tomentum. – S m el l and taste not
noted. – B a s i d i o s p o r e s 10.0–13.5 × 7.0–9.0 μm,
average 10.5–12.0 × 7.8–8.4 μm, Q = 1.2–1.6, Qav =
1.35–1.45, heterodiametrical, 5–7-angled to almost
nodulose in side-view. – B a s i d i a 22–40 × 8.5–13
μm, 4, rarely also 2-spored, cylindrical to subclavate.
– L a m e l l a e d g e sterile of serrulatum type. –
C h e i l o c y s t i d i a 25–75 × 7.5–18 μm, clavate to
almost vesiculose, with brown, intracellular pig-
ment. Hymenophoral and pileitrama
regular, made up of inated elements, 120–200 ×
7.0–19 μm. – P i l ei p el l i s a cutis with transitions
to a trichoderm, made up of clavate terminal ele-
ments, 45–125 × 5–15(25) μm. – P i g m e n t brown-
ish-grey, intracellular in pileipellis. – C a u l o cy s -
t i d i a in dense clusters, 14–27 (43) × 5–11 μm, cy-
lindrical to clavate, with brown, intracellular pig-
ment. Brilliant granules present, particularly in
pileitrama. – C l a m p c o n n e c t i o n s absent
from all tissues.
Fig. 3. Entoloma nordlandicum, holotype. A. Spores; B. Pileipellis; C–D. Lamella edge. Bar = 10 μm.
192 Sydowia 73 (2021)
Noordeloos et al.: Three new Entoloma species of the Cyanula clade
H a b i t a t . – In a damp, moss-covered groove
with Sphagnum, adjacent to calcareous Picea abies
D i s t r i bu t i o n . – Norway, so far only found in
one location in North Norway; Holmvassdalen Na-
ture Reserve.
Material examined. – Holotype.
Comments. Entoloma septentrionale is
characterized by small basidiomata with a combi-
nation of a porphyry brown, translucently striate,
nely brillose-glabrous pileus, brownish lamellae
edge, glossy, distinctly bluish stipe and abundant,
broadly clavate cheilocystidia. This tiny Cyanula
has some resemblance to species in the E. cyanulum
Fig. 4. Entoloma septentrionale, holotype. A. Basidiomata; B. Spores; C. Lamella edge; D. Pileipellis; E. Details lamella edge;
F. Stipitipellis with caulocystidia. Bar = 10 μm.
Sydowia 73 (2021) 193
Noordeloos et al.: Three new Entoloma species of the Cyanula clade
complex, having similar blue, translucently striate
pilei and blue stipes, but these clearly have larger
spores and two-spored basidia, as well as a polished
stipe without caulocystidia, and a distant phyloge-
netic position. The serrulate, brown pigmented la-
mella edge reminds of some species in the E.
querquedula/E. serrulatum group, which has a
blue-black instead of brown lamella edge, and be-
long to another clade (Fig. 1).
So far, we only know one, rich collection of this
species, but since being morphologically clearly dif-
ferent from close taxa, and since isolated and well-
supported phylogenetically (see Fig. 1), we have de-
cided to describe this as a new species.
Entoloma montanum
Noordel., J.B. Jordal, Lorås,
Eidissen, E. Larss. & Dima, spec. nov. – Fig. 5.
MycoBank no.: MB 838103
E t y m o l o g y. – The epithet refers to the prefer-
ence for mountainous habitats.
H o l o t yp e . SWEDEN. Pite Lappmark, Arjeplog, Ahka-
ris, 14 August 2018, leg. J.B. Jordal, E. Larsson, J. Vauras & H.
Croneborg, EL143-18 (GB-0191635, isotype, L 0607987). Gen-
Bank ITS: MW340896.
Description. Pileus 1050 mm broad,
initially conico-campanulate long staying so, then
expanding to conico-convex, convex, nally at-
tened, with rounded, subumbonate, or slightly trun-
cate centre, rarely with slight central depression,
but never really umbilicate, with deexed margin,
with undulating marginal zone, rather variably col-
oured from fairly dark sepia with blackish brown
central part, to rather bright yellowish-sepia or
reddish yellow, centre often considerably darker,
when young and fresh tomentose all over, breaking
up quickly in small, appressed squamules of most of
the surface, when mature often somewhat glabres-
cent, when young and fresh not translucently stri-
ate but gradually becoming transparent at margin,
rarely up to half the radius. – L a m e l l a e fairly
crowded to moderately distant, L = 20–40, l = 3–7,
not purely white when young but with a fairly dis-
tinct yellowish-cream colour, later on yellowish
pink, mostly with entire, brown or partly brown
pigmented edge. – S t i p e 25–60 × 2–4 mm, cylin-
Fig. 5. Entoloma montanum, holotype. A. Habit; B. Spores; C. Cheilocystidia; D. Pileipellis. Bar = 10 μm.
194 Sydowia 73 (2021)
Noordeloos et al.: Three new Entoloma species of the Cyanula clade
drical or compressed, grey with more and less blue
tinge when fresh, less frequently distinctly and
deeper blue, soon fading to grey or pale grey, nally
brownish grey, polished, white tomentose at base.
B a s i d i o s p o r e s (9.0)9.5–13 × 7.0–9.5 μm, av-
erage 10–11.5 × 7.8–8.5 μm, Q = (1.1)1.2–1.5(1.6),
Qav = 1.35–1.4, heterodiametrical, 5–7-angled,
sometimes almost nodulose-angled in side view. –
B a s i d i a 19–34 × 7.5–12 μm, 4-spored, clamp con-
nections absent. – L a m e l l a e d g e sterile, made
up of dense clusters of septate cheilocystidia, termi-
nal elements broadly clavate to subvesiculose, 15–
32 × 10–16(20) μm, in part with brown, intracellular
pigment. Hymenophoral trama regular,
made up of cylindrical to inated elements, 75–250
× 5.0–10 μm. P i l e i p e l l i s a cutis with transi-
tions to a trichoderm at margin, a trichoderm at
centre, terminal elements, clavate, 22–60 × 5.0–
21 μm. – P i l e i t r a m a regular, made up of cylin-
drical to inated elements, 70–250 × 5.0–19 μm,
without or with few brilliant granules. Vascular hy-
phae abundant to sparse, in subpellis and trama.
Pigment brown, intracellular in pileipellis and in
cheilocystidia. Clamp connections absent.
H a b i t a t . – In Norway recorded in rich to cal-
careous Picea abies forests, in low-herb sites, tall-
herb sites and transitions to rich swamp forests, in
northern and upper part of middle boreal zone. In
Sweden found several times in calcareous mountain
heaths and early snowbeds, above the forest limit.
The type was found in moist calcareous mountain
heath with e.g. Dryas octopetala, Salix reticulata,
Thalictrum alpinum and scattered shrubs of Salix
glauca in the northeastern slope of the Ahkaris Mt.
In Caucasus recorded in alpine, steep, stony, richer
but not calcareous sites.
D i s t r i b u t i o n . – Widespread in Northern
Scandinavia (Norway, Sweden), also recorded from
the mountains of the W Caucasus (Russia).
M a t e r i a l e x a m i n e d (besides type). – NORWAY.
Trøndelag. Steinkjer, Limbuåsen, September 2010, leg. H. Ho-
lien et al., HH111-10 (O-F-293389); Grong, Skiftesbekken,
6 September 2009, leg. E. Bendiksen, EB80/09 (O-F-252062).
Nordland. Grane, Holmvassdalen Nature Reserve, 7 Septem-
ber 2011, leg. J. Lorås & S. E. Eidissen, JL40-11 (O-F-257330);
21 September 2011, leg. J. Lorås & S. E. Eidissen, JL192-11
(O-F-249961); 24 August 2013, leg. J. Lorås & S. E. Eidissen
JL110-13 (O-F 249966); 13 August 2014, leg. J. Lorås & S. E.
Eidissen, JL75-14 (O-F-254321); 20 August 2016, leg. J. Lorås
& S. E. Eidissen, JL129-16 (O-F-76209); 2 September 2016,
leg. J. Lorås, JL108-16 (O-F-76210); Salomonbergan Nature
Reserve, 4 September 2014, leg. J. Lorås & S. E. Eidissen,
JL53-14 (O-F-254320). SWEDEN. Pite Lappmark. Arjeplog,
Ahkaris, 14 August 2018, leg. J.B. Jordal, GB-0191630, GB-
0191633, GB-0191631). Lule Lappmark. Jokkmokk, Padjelan-
ta NP, Arralåbbdå, 10 August 2016, leg. G. Gulden, GB-
0191640; Arranoajvve, 11 August 2016, leg. J. Olsson, GB-
0191639; Vielggisbakte, 12 August 2016, leg. J. Olsson, GB-
0191638, GB-0191637, GB-0191636; Ajajaure, 16 August 2016,
leg. S. Jacobsson, GB-0191632; Njoemmeljaure, 18 August
2016, leg. H. Croneborg, GB-0191634. Torne Lappmark. Juk-
kasjärvi, Abisko, Latjavagge, 19 August 2013, leg. P.-A.
Moreau, PAM13-52, GB-0191641. RUSSIA. Karachaevo-
Cherkesia Republic, Teberda Biosphere Reserve, Malaya
Khatipara Mt, ca. 2500 m asl, 16 August 2009, leg. O. Morozo-
va, LE312479.
Comments. Entoloma montanum is a fairly
distinct species with a sordid to rather brightly col-
oured yellow-brown to sepia, often persistently
campanulate pileus; yellowish-cream tinged lamel-
la with a brown or partly brown edge, and grey, pol-
ished stipe with blue tinge when young. Particular-
ly the grey stipe with faint blue tinge when young is
distinctive. It belongs to the /Sarcitulum clade, but
fairly distant from E. sarcitulum and related spe-
cies (Fig. 1). The faint blue tinge in the stipe is rath-
er uncommon in this clade of mostly brown-col-
oured species. Entoloma sarcitulum var. majuscu-
lum sometimes has a similar faint blue-grey tinge in
the stipe, but has generally duller colours, and usu-
ally lacks a brownish, distinctly sterile lamella edge.
Entoloma montanum also reminds of the gener-
al, wide concept of E. poliopus (Romagn.) Noordel.,
particularly when the basidiomes have a relatively
dark brown pileus and pronounced blue tinges in
the stipe. For that reason, it was thought to be con-
specic with E. poliopus var. alpigenum (J. Favre)
Bon, described from the Alps (Favre 1955), with
similar morphology. However, the lectotype of E.
poliopus var. alpigenum is phylogenetically distant
and represents another species (unpublished results
of the type specimen at G).
Entoloma montanum was rst recorded from
Caucasus, Russia, and Grong in Nord-Trøndelag,
Central Norway, in 2009, and then a number of sites
in Holmvassdalen nature reserve and adjacent are-
as in Nordland, Norway, a renowned hotspot for En-
toloma. Later it was found in abundance also in dif-
ferent locations in Northern Sweden, so it may well
appear to be widespread in northern boreal, calcar-
eous taiga forests and adjacent alpine-arctic habi-
tats. In the alpine study sites at Padjelanta, North-
ern Sweden, E. montanum was one of the most fre-
quent members of the Cyanula clade. Due to its
presence in the Caucasus, it seems probable that
this one occurs also in more southern alpine-subal-
pine regions in Europe, such as the Carpathians, the
Alps and the Pyrenees, but this remains to be docu-
mented. That the species has a northern distribu-
tion pattern is reinforced by the fact that it has
Sydowia 73 (2021) 195
Noordeloos et al.: Three new Entoloma species of the Cyanula clade
never been found in well investigated regions in
South Norway.
Hermod Karlsen (Fredrikstad) prepared the
beautiful painting of Entoloma nordlandicum re-
produced in this paper, for which we are very grate-
ful. The director and Philippe Clerc (Conservatoire
et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève) are
thanked for facilitating a visit of MEN to study
original material of Favre and Kühner. The Rijk-
sherbariumfonds Dr. E. Kits van Waveren (Leiden)
provided funding for type studies and sequencing
for the Dutch barcoding of Entoloma, and travel ex-
penses for MEN, which is greatly acknowledged.
Naturvårdsverket, The Swedish Taxonomy Initia-
tive, ArtDatabanken, SLU, Uppsala, and Göran
Gustafssons Stiftelse for provided funding for in-
ventory of the alpine mountain regions in Sweden.
The study of Olga V. Morozova was carried out with-
in the framework of a research project of the
Komarov Botanical Institute RAS (AAAA-A19-
119020890079-6). The work of Bálint Dima was
supported by the ÚNKP-20-4 New National Excel-
lence Program of the Ministry for Innovation and
Technology from the source of the National Re-
search, Development and Innovation Fund, and by
the ELTE Institutional Excellence Program sup-
ported by the National Research, Development and
Innovation Ofce of Hungary (NKFIH-1157-8/2019-
DT). We thank to Pablo Alvarado (ALVALAB, San-
tander) to generate some sequence data to this
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... ). E. norlandicum is another closer species and the major differences of E. norlandicum from E. swatica include dark brown, non-translucently striate pileus, lamellar edge white to pinkish concolorous to lamellae, terminal elements of pileipellis bigger (80-120 × 6-20 μm) and presence of caulocystidia(Noordeloos et al. 2021).Our phylogenetic dataset shows that E. swatica is closer to E. roseotinctum Noordel. & Liiv, but E. roseotinctum is different on account of its greyish pink, non-hygrophanous and non-translucently pileus, pink-colored free lamellae and grey stipe. ...
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Cedar towering forests of Kumrat valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were visited to collect mushrooms during several fungal forays, which revealed two interesting and novel species from genus Entoloma, subgenus Cyanula , both are characterized by clamp-less hyphae and bluish-violaceous tinges on their pilei and stipes. Entoloma kumraticus is characterized by its bluish brown centrally depressed pileus, serrulate lamellar edge, bluish violet fibrillose stipe, dense clusters of cheilocystidia and presence of abundant greyish brown intracellular pigments in terminal cells of pileipellis and in few cheilocystidia. The key characters of Entoloma swatica are light brownish olive pileus with violet-blue finely fibrillose covering, translucently striated with radial stripes, blackish brown lamellar edge with clusters of cheilocystidia which are often septate and scaly, fibrillose slightly twisted violet blue stipe. Both new species are described and illustrated here, based on morphological and molecular evidence. E. kumraticus and E. swatica formed distinct phylogenetic lineages based on the sequences of nuclear ribosomal ITS and LSU gene regions.
... In Europe, they are characteristic of oligotrophic grasslands, habitats which are generally threatened in Europe (Janssen et al. 2016). The subgenus Cyanula is the most species-rich subgenus within Entoloma, with approximately 500-600 species already described (Hesler 1967;Horak 1980Horak , 2008Largent 1994;Noordeloos 2004;Noordeloos and Gates 2012;Crous et al. 2021;Noordeloos et al. 2021;Dima et al. 2021). Species delimitation is often rather difficult. ...
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We present the latest version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software, which contains many sophisticated methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. In this major upgrade, MEGA has been optimized for use on 64-bit computing systems for analyzing bigger datasets. Researchers can now explore and analyze tens of thousands of sequences in MEGA. The new version also provides an advanced wizard for building timetrees and includes a new functionality to automatically predict gene duplication events in gene family trees. The 64-bit MEGA is made available in two interfaces: graphical and command line. The graphical user interface (GUI) is a native Microsoft Windows application that can also be used on Mac OSX. The command line MEGA is available as native applications for Windows, Linux, and Mac OSX. They are intended for use in high-throughput and scripted analysis. Both versions are available from free of charge.
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Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Australia, Chaetomella pseudocircinoseta and Coniella pseudodiospyri on Eucalyptus microcorys leaves, Cladophialophora eucalypti, Teratosphaeria dunnii and Vermiculariopsiella dunnii on Eucalyptus dunnii leaves, Cylindrium grande and Hypsotheca eucalyptorum on Eucalyptus grandis leaves, Elsinoe salignae on Eucalyptus saligna leaves, Marasmius lebeliae on litter of regenerating subtropical rainforest, Phialoseptomonium eucalypti (incl. Phialoseptomonium gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus grandis × camaldulensis leaves, Phlogicylindrium pawpawense on Eucalyptus tereticornis leaves, Phyllosticta longicauda as an endophyte from healthy Eustrephus latifolius leaves, Pseudosydowia eucalyptorum on Eucalyptus sp. leaves, Saitozyma wallum on Banksia aemula leaves, Teratosphaeria henryi on Corymbia henryi leaves. Brazil, Aspergillus bezerrae, Backusella azygospora, Mariannaea terricola and Talaromyces pernambucoensis from soil, Calonectria matogrossensis on Eucalyptus urophylla leaves, Calvatia brasiliensis on soil, Carcinomyces nordestinensis on Bromelia antiacantha leaves, Dendryphiella stromaticola on small branches of an unidentified plant, Nigrospora brasiliensis on Nopalea cochenillifera leaves, Penicillium alagoense as a leaf endophyte on a Miconia sp., Podosordaria nigrobrunnea on dung, Spegazzinia bromeliacearum as a leaf endophyte on Tilandsia catimbauensis, Xylobolus brasiliensis on decaying wood. Bulgaria, Kazachstania molopis from the gut of the beetle Molops piceus. Croatia, Mollisia endocrystallina from a fallen decorticated Picea abies tree trunk. Ecuador, Hygrocybe rodomaculata on soil. Hungary, Alfoldia vorosii (incl. Alfoldia gen. nov.) from Juniperus communis roots, Kiskunsagia ubrizsyi (incl. Kiskunsagia gen. nov.) from Fumana procumbens roots. India, Aureobasidium tremulum as laboratory contaminant, Leucosporidium himalayensis and Naganishia indica from windblown dust on glaciers. Italy, Neodevriesia cycadicola on Cycas sp. leaves, Pseudocercospora pseudomyrticola on Myrtus communis leaves, Ramularia pistaciae on Pistacia lentiscus leaves, Neognomoniopsis quercina (incl. Neognomoniopsis gen. nov.) on Quercus ilex leaves. Japan, Diaporthe fructicola on Passiflora edulis × P. edulis f. flavicarpa fruit, Entoloma nipponicum on leaf litter in a mixed Cryptomeria japonica and Acer spp. forest. Macedonia, Astraeus macedonicus on soil. Malaysia, Fusicladium eucalyptigenum on Eucalyptus sp. twigs, Neoacrodontiella eucalypti (incl. Neoacrodontiella gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus urophylla leaves. Mozambique, Meliola gorongosensis on dead Philenoptera violacea leaflets. Nepal, Coniochaeta dendrobiicola from Dendriobium lognicornu roots. New Zealand, Neodevriesia sexualis and Thozetella neonivea on Archontophoenix cunninghamiana leaves. Norway, Calophoma sandfjordenica from a piece of board on a rocky shoreline, Clavaria parvispora on soil, Didymella finnmarkica from a piece of Pinus sylvestris driftwood. Poland, Sugiyamaella trypani from soil. Portugal, Colletotrichum feijoicola from Acca sellowiana. Russia, Crepidotus tobolensis on Populus tremula debris, Entoloma ekaterinae, Entoloma erhardii and Suillus gastroflavus on soil, Nakazawaea ambrosiae from the galleries of Ips typographus under the bark of Picea abies. Slovenia, Pluteus ludwigii on twigs of broadleaved trees. South Africa, Anungitiomyces stellenboschiensis (incl. Anungitiomyces gen. nov.) and Niesslia stellenboschiana on Eucalyptus sp. leaves, Beltraniella pseudoportoricensis on Podocarpus falcatus leaf litter, Corynespora encephalarti on Encephalartos sp. leaves, Cytospora pavettae on Pavetta revoluta leaves, Helminthosporium erythrinicola on Erythrina humeana leaves, Helminthosporium syzygii on a Syzygium sp. bark canker, Libertasomyces aloeticus on Aloe sp. leaves, Penicillium lunae from Musa sp. fruit, Phyllosticta lauridiae on Lauridia tetragona leaves, Pseudotruncatella bolusanthi (incl. Pseudotruncatellaceae fam. nov.) and Dactylella bolusanthi on Bolusanthus speciosus leaves. Spain, Apenidiella foetida on submerged plant debris, Inocybe grammatoides on Quercus ilex subsp. ilex forest humus, Ossicaulis salomii on soil, Phialemonium guarroi from soil. Thailand, Pantospora chromolaenae on Chromolaena odorata leaves. Ukraine, Cadophora helianthi from Helianthus annuus stems. USA, Boletus pseudopinophilus on soil under slash pine, Botryotrichum foricae, Penicillium americanum and Penicillium minnesotense from air. Vietnam, Lycoperdon vietnamense on soil. Morphological and culture characteristics are supported by DNA barcodes.
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Entoloma aurorae-borealis is described as new to science and three rare or little known Entoloma species (E. borgenii, E. eminens, and E. serpens) from Norway are treated based on morphological and molecular evidences. In the ITS phylogeny presented here, all species belong to the Sinuatum clade, one of five well-supported lineages of subgenus Entoloma (= Rhodopolia & Nolanidea). Entoloma aurorae-borealis is only known from northern Norway, whereas E. eminens and E. serpens, apart from the here reported new records in Norway are known only from a few localities in Finland, and E. serpens also in NW Russia. Ento-loma borgenii is a widespread , though rarely recorded species from alpine sites in north Norway as well as the arctic (Greenland, Svalbard) and a few places in northern and eastern Finland. The two arctic-alpine species (E. aurorae-borealis and E. borgenii) are associated with Salix herbacea, E. serpens grows with Salix spp. and probably also with Betula and Populus in boreal-boreonemoral (-alpine) areas, and E. eminens in Norway is associated with Tilia and Corylus in a boreonemoral area. In Finland it is apparently associated with boreal deciduous trees. Full descriptions are given, as well as notes on the variability, ecology and geographic distribution of each species.
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Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Australia, Chaetopsina eucalypti on Eucalyptus leaf litter, Colletotrichum cobbittiense from Cordyline stricta × C. australis hybrid, Cyanodermella banksiae on Banksia ericifolia subsp. macrantha, Discosia macrozamiae on Macrozamia miquelii, Elsinoë banksiigena on Banksia marginata, Elsinoë elaeocarpi on Elaeocarpus sp., Elsinoë leucopogonis on Leucopogon sp., Helminthosporium livistonae on Livistona australis, Idriellomyces eucalypti (incl. Idriellomyces gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus obliqua, Lareunionomyces eucalypti on Eucalyptus sp., Myrotheciomyces corymbiae (incl. Myrotheciomyces gen. nov., Myrotheciomycetaceae fam. nov.), Neolauriomyces eucalypti (incl. Neolauriomyces gen. nov., Neolauriomycetaceae fam. nov.) on Eucalyptus sp., Nullicamyces eucalypti (incl. Nullicamyces gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus leaf litter, Oidiodendron eucalypti on Eucalyptus maidenii, Paracladophialophora cyperacearum (incl. Paracladophialophoraceae fam. nov.) and Periconia cyperacearum on leaves of Cyperaceae, Porodiplodia livistonae (incl. Porodiplodia gen. nov., Porodiplodiaceae fam. nov.) on Livistona australis, Sporidesmium melaleucae (incl. Sporidesmiales ord. nov.) on Melaleuca sp., Teratosphaeria sieberi on Eucalyptus sieberi, Thecaphora australiensis in capsules of a variant of Oxalis exilis. Brazil, Aspergillus serratalhadensis from soil, Diaporthe pseudoinconspicua from Poincianella pyramidalis, Fomitiporella pertenuis on dead wood, Geastrum magnosporum on soil, Marquesius aquaticus (incl. Marquesius gen. nov.) from submerged decaying twig and leaves of unidentified plant, Mastigosporella pigmentata from leaves of Qualea parviflorae, Mucor souzae from soil, Mycocalia aquaphila on decaying wood from tidal detritus, Preussia citrullina as endophyte from leaves of Citrullus lanatus, Queiroziella brasiliensis (incl. Queiroziella gen. nov.) as epiphytic yeast on leaves of Portea leptantha, Quixadomyces cearensis (incl. Quixadomyces gen. nov.) on decaying bark, Xylophallus clavatus on rotten wood. Canada, Didymella cari on Carum carvi and Coriandrum sativum. Chile, Araucasphaeria foliorum (incl. Araucasphaeria gen. nov.) on Araucaria araucana, Aspergillus tumidus from soil, Lomentospora valparaisensis from soil. Colombia, Corynespora pseudocassiicola on Byrsonima sp., Eucalyptostroma eucalyptorum on Eucalyptus pellita, Neometulocladosporiella eucalypti (incl. Neometulocladosporiella gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla, Tracylla eucalypti (incl. Tracyllaceae fam. nov., Tracyllalales ord. nov.) on Eucalyptus urophylla. Cyprus, Gyromitra anthracobia (incl. Gyromitra subg. Pseudoverpa) on burned soil. Czech Republic, Lecanicillium restrictum from the surface of the wooden barrel, Lecanicillium testudineum from scales of Trachemys scripta elegans. Ecuador, Entoloma yanacolor and Saproamanita quitensis on soil. France, Lentithecium carbonneanum from submerged decorticated Populus branch. Hungary, Pleuromyces hungaricus (incl. Pleuromyces gen. nov.) from a large Fagus sylvatica log. Iran, Zymoseptoria crescenta on Aegilops triuncialis. Malaysia, Ochroconis musicola on Musa sp. Mexico, Cladosporium michoacanense from soil. New Zealand, Acrodontium metrosideri on Metrosideros excelsa, Polynema podocarpi on Podocarpus totara, Pseudoarthrographis phlogis (incl. Pseudoarthrographis gen. nov.) on Phlox subulata. Nigeria, Coprinopsis afrocinerea on soil. Pakistan, Russula mansehraensis on soil under Pinus roxburghii. Russia, Baorangia alexandri on soil in deciduous forests with Quercus mongolica. South Africa, Didymocyrtis brachylaenae on Brachylaena discolor. Spain, Alfaria dactylis from fruit of Phoenix dactylifera, Dothiora infuscans from a blackened wall, Exophiala nidicola from the nest of an unidentified bird, Matsushimaea monilioides from soil, Terfezia morenoi on soil. United Arab Emirates, Tirmania honrubiae on soil. USA, Arxotrichum wyomingense (incl. Arxotrichum gen. nov.) from soil, Hongkongmyces snookiorum from submerged detritus from a fresh water fen, Leratiomyces tesquorum from soil, Talaromyces tabacinus on leaves of Nicotiana tabacum. Vietnam, Afroboletus vietnamensis on soil in an evergreen tropical forest, Colletotrichum condaoense from Ipomoea pes-caprae. Morphological and culture characteristics along with DNA barcodes are provided.
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Sequence data from a broad geographical region and different habitats show that the Inocybe praetervisa clade is comprised of four closely related species. These species of section Marginatae are characterized by having nodulose spores and a stipe that is abundantly pruinose only in the upper half. Inocybe praetervisa occurs in Southern Europe in mountainous mixed coniferous forests, and is not confirmed from Northern Europe. Inocybe rivularis occurs in northern boreal forests up to the lower alpine zone, associated with Betula in moist habitats, and is not confirmed from Southern Europe. Inocybe taxocystis is confirmed as a later synonym of I. favrei. The species has a wide geographical distribution range in Europe, mainly restricted to the alpine zone and moist soils, associated with Salix herbacea. Inocybe arctica is here described as a new species. It occurs in the arctic and higher alpine zones, associated with Dryas octopetala, Salix polaris, S. reticulata and S. herbacea. All species except I. arctica are shown to have an intercontinental distribution range and are confirmed from North America. Sequence data suggest the occurrence of one additional species in the alpine zone of China. A key to the species in the I. praetervisa group is provided.
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Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Antarctica: Cadophora antarctica from soil. Australia: Alfaria dandenongensis on Cyperaceae, Amphosoma persooniae on Persoonia sp., Anungitea nullicana on Eucalyptus sp., Bagadiella eucalypti on Eucalyptus globulus, Castanediella eucalyptigena on Eucalyptus sp., Cercospora dianellicola on Dianella sp., Cladoriella kinglakensis on Eucalyptus regnans, Cladoriella xanthorrhoeae (incl. Cladoriellaceae fam. nov. and Cladoriellales ord. nov.) on Xanthorrhoea sp., Cochlearomyces eucalypti (incl. Cochlearomyces gen. nov. and Cochlearomycetaceae fam. nov.) on Eucalyptus obliqua, Codinaea lambertiae on Lambertia formosa, Diaporthe obtusifoliae on Acacia obtusifolia, Didymella acaciae on Acacia melanoxylon, Dothidea eucalypti on Eucalyptus dalrympleana, Fitzroyomyces cyperi (incl. Fitzroyomyces gen. nov.) on Cyperaceae, Murramarangomyces corymbiae (incl. Murramarangomyces gen. nov., Murramarangomycetaceae fam. nov. and Murramarangomycetales ord. nov.) on Corymbia maculata, Neoanungitea eucalypti (incl. Neoanungitea gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus obliqua, Neoconiothyrium persooniae (incl. Neoconiothyrium gen. nov.) on Persoonia laurina subsp. laurina, Neocrinula lambertiae (incl. Neocrinulaceae fam. nov.) on Lambertia sp., Ochroconis podocarpi on Podocarpus grayae, Paraphysalospora eucalypti (incl. Paraphysalospora gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus sieberi, Pararamichloridium livistonae (incl. Pararamichloridium gen. nov., Pararamichloridiaceae fam. nov. and Pararamichloridiales ord. nov.) on Livistona sp., Pestalotiopsis dianellae on Dianella sp., Phaeosphaeria gahniae on Gahnia aspera, Phlogicylindrium tereticornis on Eucalyptus tereticornis, Pleopassalora acaciae on Acacia obliquinervia, Pseudodactylaria xanthorrhoeae (incl. Pseudodactylaria gen. nov., Pseudodactylariaceae fam. nov. and Pseudodactylariales ord. nov.) on Xanthorrhoea sp., Pseudosporidesmium lambertiae (incl. Pseudosporidesmiaceae fam. nov.) on Lambertia formosa, Saccharata acaciae on Acacia sp., Saccharata epacridis on Epacris sp., Saccharata hakeigena on Hakea sericea, Seiridium persooniae on Persoonia sp., Semifissispora tooloomensis on Eucalyptus dunnii, Stagonospora lomandrae on Lomandra longifolia, Stagonospora victoriana on Poaceae, Subramaniomyces podocarpi on Podocarpus elatus, Sympoventuria melaleucae on Melaleuca sp., Sympoventuria regnans on Eucalyptus regnans, Trichomerium eucalypti on Eucalyptus tereticornis, Vermiculariopsiella eucalypticola on Eucalyptus dalrympleana, Verrucoconiothyrium acaciae on Acacia falciformis, Xenopassalora petrophiles (incl. Xenopassalora gen. nov.) on Petrophile sp., Zasmidium dasypogonis on Dasypogon sp., Zasmidium gahniicola on Gahnia sieberiana. Brazil: Achaetomium lippiae on Lippia gracilis, Cyathus isometricus on decaying wood, Geastrum caririense on soil, Lycoperdon demoulinii (incl. Lycoperdon subg. Arenicola) on soil, Megatomentella cristata (incl. Megatomentella gen. nov.) on unidentified plant, Mutinus verrucosus on soil, Paraopeba schefflerae (incl. Paraopeba gen. nov.) on Schefflera morototoni, Phyllosticta catimbauensis on Mandevilla catimbauensis, Pseudocercospora angularis on Prunus persica, Pseudophialophora sorghi on Sorghum bicolor, Spumula piptadeniae on Piptadenia paniculata. Bulgaria: Yarrowia parophonii from gut of Parophonus hirsutulus. Croatia: Pyrenopeziza velebitica on Lonicera borbasiana. Cyprus: Peziza halophila on coastal dunes. Czech Republic: Aspergillus contaminans from human fingernail. Ecuador: Cuphophyllus yacurensis on forest soil, Ganoderma podocarpense on fallen tree trunk. England: Pilidium anglicum (incl. Chaetomellales ord. nov.) on Eucalyptus sp. France: Planamyces parisiensis (incl. Planamyces gen. nov.) on wood inside a house. French Guiana: Lactifluus ceraceus on soil. Germany: Talaromyces musae on Musa sp. India: Hyalocladosporiella cannae on Canna indica, Nothophoma raii from soil. Italy: Setophaeosphaeria citri on Citrus reticulata, Yuccamyces citri on Citrus limon. Japan: Glutinomyces brunneus (incl. Glutinomyces gen. nov.) from roots of Quercus sp. Netherlands (all from soil): Collariella hilkhuijsenii, Fusarium petersiae, Gamsia kooimaniorum, Paracremonium binnewijzendii, Phaeoisaria annesophieae, Plectosphaerella niemeijerarum, Striaticonidium deklijnearum, Talaromyces annesophieae, Umbelopsis wiegerinckiae, Vandijckella johannae (incl. Vandijckella gen. nov. and Vandijckellaceae fam. nov.), Verhulstia trisororum (incl. Verhulstia gen. nov.). New Zealand: Lasiosphaeria similisorbina on decorticated wood. Papua New Guinea: Pseudosubramaniomyces gen. nov. (based on Pseudosubramaniomyces fusisaprophyticus comb. nov.). Slovakia: Hemileucoglossum pusillum on soil. South Africa: Tygervalleyomyces podocarpi (incl. Tygervalleyomyces gen. nov.) on Podocarpus falcatus. Spain: Coniella heterospora from herbivorous dung, Hymenochaete macrochloae on Macrochloa tenacissima, Ramaria cistophila on shrubland of Cistus ladanifer. Thailand: Polycephalomyces phaothaiensis on Coleoptera larvae, buried in soil. Uruguay: Penicillium uruguayense from soil. Vietnam: Entoloma nigrovelutinum on forest soil, Volvariella morozovae on wood of unknown tree. Morphological and culture characteristics along with DNA barcodes are provided.
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A new Entoloma species is fully described from the Holmvassdalen Nature Reserve in Nordland, Norway, based on morphological, ecological and molecular characteristics. Its position within the genus is discussed.
Tropical rainforests have been thought to have low prevalence and diversity of ectomycorrhizal sym-bioses. However, to date, tropical regions have been poorly sampled for ectomycorrhizal fungi. Here, we investigated ectomycorrhizal fungal community diversity and the role of host plants in shaping this diversity in three main ultramafic rainforests in New Caledonia, an archipelago renowned for its exceptional plant diversity and recognized as a biodiversity hotspot. Sampling of ectomycorrhizal root tips and fruit bodies in Nothofagus aequilateralis-dominated, Arillastrum gummiferum-dominated and mixed rainforests showed high fungal diversity with, in total, 28 lineages and 311 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), of which 95% might be endemic. We also found that host preference and host density influenced ectomycorrhizal community composition and contributed to the high fungal diversity of New Caledonian rainforests. Finally, the /cortinarius lineage dominated the below-and above-ground communities , which suggests that this lineage plays a central role in ultramafic ecosystems functioning.
Two species of Entoloma with serrulatum-type lamellar edge, E. cyanostipitum and E. subcaesiocinctum from the Changbai Mountains in northeast China, are described as new. E. cyanostipitum is distinguished by a brownish orange pileus with a central depression, black-blue lamellar edge, deep blue stipe, and cylindrical cheilocystidia with intense blue, intracellular pigment. E. subcaesiocinctum is characterized by a depressed pileus covered with brownish squamules, blackish blue lamellar edge, and cylindrical to clavate cheilocystidia with intense blue intracellular pigment. The two new species are further confirmed based on the ITS and nLSU sequences. © 2017 German Mycological Society and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg