ArticlePDF Available

Quantifying Stimulus-Affected Cinematic Spaces Using Psychophysiological Assessments to Indicate Enhanced Cognition and Sustainable Design Criteria


Abstract and Figures

Objectives: Converging architecture with cinema and cognition has proved to be a practical approach to scrutinizing architectural elements' significant contribution to engineering science. In this research, a behavioral analysis has been conducted to examine if disruptive events in cinematic spaces can lead to an insightful perception of architectural qualities and enhanced interplay with the observed spaces to highlight mental health and improved cognitive tasks in sustainable design characteristics. Methods: The experiment was conducted in participants (N = 90) while watching three films with different stimuli to facilitate multivariate analyses. The HR, BP, SCL, and BT were measured while screening films to subjects. Psychological assessments of PANAS, TIPI, Chills, Pleasure, Arousal, Dominance, and NAQ were gathered to conduct correlation and regression analyses between variables. An independent space syntax analysis of film plans was also performed to compare film spaces' properties. Results: Analyses show that physiological responses of HR, BP, SCL, and BT showed a meaningful relationship with the event intensity. Psychological assessments of Chills, SAM, and NAQ also depicted a meaningful relationship with the degree of stimuli during the movie screenings. Regression analyses illustrated that the age factor had a significant relationship with Arousal (p-value = 0.04), Chills (p-value = 0.03), and Dominance (p-value = 0.00). The TIPI factor showed a meaningful relationship with Chills (p-value = 0.03) and Dominance (p-value = 0.00). PANAS PA factor's relationship was significant on Chills (p-value = 0.00), Arousal (p-value = 0.04), and Dominance (p-value = 0.03), and the PANAS NA factor showed a meaningful relationship with Chills (p-value = 0.00) and Dominance (p-value = 0.05). mixed plan structure than the other two films. Factors such as area compactness, connectivity, visual entropy, controllability, and mean depth were influential in distinguishing film spaces. Conclusion: It has been concluded that the space with intensive disruption of architectural elements successfully indicated improved cognitive perception of spatial qualities, enhanced interaction, and signified sustainable design criteria. Evoking events disrupted the banalization of cinematic spaces, illustrating that the designed model can indicate a more homogenous evaluation of a sustainable environment.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Quantifying Stimulus-Affected
Cinematic Spaces Using
Psychophysiological Assessments to
Indicate Enhanced Cognition and
Sustainable Design Criteria
Hamidreza Sakhaei
, Mansour Yeganeh
* and Reza Afhami
Architectural Design, Modeling, and Fabrication Lab, Department of Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran,
Department of Art Studies, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Objectives: Converging architecture with cinema and cognition has proved to be a
practical approach to scrutinizing architectural elementssignicant contribution to
engineering science. In this research, a behavioral analysis has been conducted to
examine if disruptive events in cinematic spaces can lead to an insightful perception of
architectural qualities and enhanced interplay with the observed spaces to highlight mental
health and improved cognitive tasks in sustainable design characteristics.
Methods: The experiment was conducted in participants (N= 90) while watching three
lms with different stimuli to facilitate multivariate analyses. The HR, BP, SCL, and BT were
measured while screening lms to subjects. Psychological assessments of PANAS, TIPI,
Chills, Pleasure, Arousal, Dominance, and NAQ were gathered to conduct correlation and
regression analyses between variables. An independent space syntax analysis of lm plans
was also performed to compare lm spacesproperties.
Results: Analyses show that physiological responses of HR, BP, SCL, and BT showed a
meaningful relationship with the event intensity. Psychological assessments of Chills, SAM,
and NAQ also depicted a meaningful relationship with the degree of stimuli during the
movie screenings. Regression analyses illustrated that the age factor had a signicant
relationship with Arousal (p-value = 0.04), Chills (p-value = 0.03), and Dominance (p-value
= 0.00). The TIPI factor showed a meaningful relationship with Chills (p-value = 0.03) and
Dominance (p-value = 0.00). PANAS PA factors relationship was signicant on Chills
(p-value = 0.00), Arousal (p-value = 0.04), and Dominance (p-value = 0.03), and the
PANAS NA factor showed a meaningful relationship with Chills (p-value = 0.00) and
Dominance (p-value = 0.05). The correlations in ChillsArousal (p-value = 0.01), PANAS
NATIPI (p-value = 0.01), NAQPleasure (p-value = 0.05), and ArousalDominance
(p-value = 0.00) were signicant. Space syntax analyses also showed that lm 3 had a
Edited by:
Denise Voci,
University of Klagenfurt, Austria
Reviewed by:
Havva Alkan Bala,
Çukurova University, Turkey
Vincent Omwenga,
Strathmore University, Kenya
Elaheh Zareanshahraki,
Monash University, Australia
Mansour Yeganeh
Specialty section:
This article was submitted to
Science and Environmental
a section of the journal
Frontiers in Environmental Science
Received: 10 December 2021
Accepted: 09 March 2022
Published: 26 April 2022
Sakhaei H, Yeganeh M and Afhami R
(2022) Quantifying Stimulus-Affected
Cinematic Spaces Using
Psychophysiological Assessments to
Indicate Enhanced Cognition and
Sustainable Design Criteria.
Front. Environ. Sci. 10:832537.
doi: 10.3389/fenvs.2022.832537
Abbreviations: BF, biofeedback; SBP, systolic blood pressure; HR, heart rate; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; BP, blood pressure;
SAM, Self-Assessment Manikin; BT, body temperature; NAQ, normalized accumulated quality; PA, positive affects; VGA,
visibility graph analysis; NA, negative affects; TIPI, Ten-Item Personality Inventory; SCL, skin conductance level ; SRL, skin
resistance level; PANAS, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule.
Frontiers in Environmental Science | April 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 8325371
published: 26 April 2022
doi: 10.3389/fenvs.2022.832537
mixed plan structure than the other two lms. Factors such as area compactness,
connectivity, visual entropy, controllability, and mean depth were inuential in
distinguishing lm spaces.
Conclusion: It has been concluded that the space with intensive disruption of
architectural elements successfully indicated improved cognitive perception of spatial
qualities, enhanced interaction, and signied sustainable design criteria. Evoking events
disrupted the banalization of cinematic spaces, illustrating that the designed model can
indicate a more homogenous evaluation of a sustainable environment.
Keywords: cinematic mediation, psychophysiological responses, spatial perception, space conguration,
sustainable design criteria
Architecture has been studied in multiple discussions to integrate
with the cinematic art form in design (Vidler 1992). A cinematic
context can be a proper solution to analyze the human interaction
in space and time that reveals physical habits (Upton 2002),
especially because moving images work directly with emotional-
affective traits (Pallasmaa 2007b;Pallasmaa 2007a). The
emotional-affective assessments in a cinematic context can be
surveyed through the disruption of the monotonous rhythm of
everyday life followed by the occurrence of evoking events.This
helps to reach a holistic perception of architectural qualities and
transform the ignorance of space banality that affects spatial
perception (Penz 2017). Recalling these events, interpretations,
and evaluation procedures determines self-cognitive activity
(Jokić-Begić2008). Hence, focusing on the multi-dimensional
eld of environmental design and space cognition can enhance
peoples quality of life and fulll the long-term sustainable design
in everyday life. In sustainable development, the socially
perceived surrounding world is a crucial discussion to address
mental health in human-environment cognition and behavior,
leading to improving human cognition and social
communication with space confrontations.
Multiple researchers examined the impact of lm spaces on
cognitive behavior and emotional responses (Table 1). Still, no
signicant research has integrated holistic qualitative
psychological data with quantitative biofeedback, space syntax
analyses, and architectural quality assessments to conclude if
spatial stimuli in lms can enhance spatial cognition to fulll
sustainable design criteria. While human beings are constantly
experiencing different moments at different times in their lives
(Sakhaei 2020), perceiving the physical and natural world is
crucial for environmental communication (Akerlof et al.,
2022). Within this communication, architectural characteristics
of built environments can positively or negatively affect mental
health (Love et al., 2010;Dzhambov et al., 2018;Andargie and
Azar 2019;Hoisington et al., 2019;Wang et al., 2021), a crucial
factor to reach a sustainable design thinking. In this research, a
conceptual framework is designed from architectural space
characteristics, cognitive emotions, and lm theories to
indicate behavioral responses to stimuli in home places that
have been strongly afliated with cognition in previous
discussions (Freud 1966;Nin and Stuhlmann 1966;Bachelard
1969;Colman and Colman 1971;Cooper 1974;Chandler 1991).
Also, an integrated method is conducted to elicit emotion from
lm screenings to capture physiological responses, space
congurations, and quality measurements to analyze
expressive space qualities toward sustainable criteria.
1.1 Cognitive Emotions and Environmental
The human mindset is actively developed to create models for
perception, information processing, recalling, and interpreting
input data (Reinecke et al., 1996). Environmental stimuli also
have inuenced perception through the brains data processing
which involves noticing, interpretation, memory, and evaluation
(Musa and Lépine 2000). Peoples root beliefs rst inuence these
cognitive processes about themselves, the world, and the future
(Guidano and Liotti 1983;Ingram 1984;Segal 1988;Hammen
and Goodman-Brown 1990).
Emotions from stimulus confrontations are specic
neuropsychological phenomena formed by natural selection
that organize and create physiological, cognitive, and
functional patterns (Plutchik 1980;Izard 2013). They can be
measured in three different mental and physiological reactions
(Wundt 1922;Lang 1969), later developed as Pleasure, Arousal,
and Dominance (Mehrabian 1996). Pleasure indicates a
willingness to a stimulus, while sadness shows a tendency to
retreat and escape. Arousal shows the level of strength in the
behavioral choice related to the intensity of that stimulus (Bradley
and Lang 1994). Dominance measures environmental limitations
in the case of expressing actions and behaviors (Bakker et al.,
2014). Any degree of low Pleasure brings about disharmony and
inconsistency in the environment (Bakker et al., 2014).
Conversely, extreme Pleasure also leads to the same result
because people become dull and bored following a lack of
challenge (Soesman 2005). The same procedure applies to the
arousal level where individuals tend to feel sleepy from low
Arousal and extremely disturbed from a high stimulus
intensity (Kandel et al., 2000), especially because a low degree
of order simulates a chaotic situation, while too much order
represents hardness (Schneider 1987). A low degree of diversity
causes slowness and depression, whereas a higher level would
Frontiers in Environmental Science | April 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 8325372
Sakhaei et al. Quantifying Cinematic Spaces Indicate Sustainable Goals
bring excessive stimulation. As explained, the normalized middle
region of the evaluation of mental and emotional states can be
interpreted as routine everyday life, constant ordinariness, or
banality. If people move away from the banal area, they witness
events and stimuli, and therefore, their level of satisfaction and
feeling affected by environmental characteristics changes
proportionally (Bakker et al., 2014). Consequently, positive
emotions will notice pleasant aspects, whereas those with
negative emotional traits remember unpleasant dimensions
(Rusting 1998).
1.2 Cinematic Space Cognition and Emotion
While lms promote spatial understanding by observing the
practice of space (Penz 2017), their extracted data can analyze
architecture creatively (Neumann 1999). People who watch these
scenes can be termed as architects who focus on building details
to feed their visual memory (Bala 2014). Evoking attention by
showing lms activates the motor system and embodiment as the
emotionalmotivational state is linked with cognitive processes in
humanenvironment interactions from a sensory-cognitive
structure (Izard 2013). Hence, the activation of the motor
system leads to imagination and perception (Prinz 2005). In
addition, environmental feelings that activate sensory cues are
closely related to embodied processes (Coëgnarts 2017). The
mind creates a mental path to perceive the space, and by
exploration, similar to genuine experience, it forms a mental
organization and processes the discovery like lm sequences
(Ghahramani et al., 2015). As a result, the comparison
between the lm space and physical environments can signify
space qualities to the design process to boost the experience in
designing a more interactive and sustainable place.
In an architectural space, experiences are gradually revealed in
time as the mind constantly predicts what will happen in that
specic place (Roudavski and Penz 2003) which requires
movement. Bergson (1911) separated cinematic movement
into real and false; the latter explains the illusion of movement
in space made by a sequence of images stored in memory. He
believes that movement does not induce a holistic perception of
time but instead offers multiple fragments of a period interpreted
as spatialized time. Comparably, Deleuze (2020) argues that the
result of a pure visual moving image is a unique projection of time
images. In the movement image, time is measured by the physical
TABLE 1 | Research background review.
Author(s) Year Discussion Methods Results
Penz F 2004 Pertinent issues of narrativity and space
in the moving-image practice
Questionnaire reports from cinematic
The architectural promenade can depict practice-
based research issues to apply moving images in
Soleymani M
et al.
2009 Characterizing movie scenes based on
Physiological responses and self-
assessment questionnaire
Multimedia helps to analyze physiological and
emotional responses to the video content.
Rooney B et al. 2012 Investigating the effect of increasing a
movies perceptual realism on emotional
Self-report analysis and physiological
Increased physiological Arousal and heart rate
contribute to the perceived apparent reality.
Carvalho S et al. 2012 Developing affective lm databases
without auditory content, based on
emotional stimuli
Self-report rating from lms and
psychophysiological assessment
Exposure to clip effects resulted in SCL increase and
HR deceleration in high arousal conditions.
Kuliga S et al. 2013 Space syntax can capture aesthetic
judgments or emotional impacts of a
public building.
Qualitative data on subjective user
evaluations and space syntax analyses
Suggesting methods to link qualitative and emotive
data to objective spatial analysis
Bafna S et al. 2014 Effect of homes spatial organization on
moderate and intense activities
Syntactical data and questionnaires
Interconnectedness or modied integration is linked
with socially sedentary activities rather than solitary
Wassiliwizky E
et al.
2015 Exploring if art-elicited chills indicate
emotional states of being moved
Self-assessment questionnaire through
watching lms
Higher intensity episodes of being moved can lead to
a higher level of chills
Schubert TW
et al.
2016 The feeling of being moved or touched is
a component of a social-relational
Analyzing emotional self-reports from
Cross correlations of feeling moved and touched and
closeness, with physiological variables
Coëgnarts M 2017 How lms convey meaning to the
audience and how they infer provided
Conceptual framework reasoning The cinematic approach structures the metaphorical
mapping in which the inferential logic of image
schemas expresses conceptual knowledge.
Ding N et al. 2018 Investigating emotional effects of
cinematic VR by comparing with 2D lms
Collecting subjective emotional experience
and real-time objective physiological
Cinematic VR induces a stronger emotional
experience and physiological response than
traditional 2D lms
Su Y et al. 2019 Perceiving emotional intensities
synchronously in two dimensions
Integration of EEG and eye movement data
analyses from watching videos
Quantitatively assessing environmental psychology
through an accurate emotion intensity perception
Banaei M et al. 2019 Evaluating interior forms of built living
rooms throughout history and their
impact on emotions
Analyzing Pleasure, Arousal, and
Dominance feedback using VR tools
Results showed a relationship between forms and
emotional states for different personality traits.
Aguilar L et al.
2020 Studying physiological tenderness using
lm clips
Self-assessment reports and physiological
Different subjective and physiological responses in
young and older adults
Chun C et al. 2020 Effects of repeated exposure to a
suspenseful lm
Self-reported questionnaires and
psychophysiological responses
Repeated exposure to suspenseful lm stimuli results
in affective habituation or desensitization.
Frontiers in Environmental Science | April 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 8325373
Sakhaei et al. Quantifying Cinematic Spaces Indicate Sustainable Goals
movement, which is construed as haptic, meaning tactile and
physical. On the other hand, the moving image is related to seeing
in the time image, interpreted as optical (Cairns 2016). Both
Bergson and Deleuze conrm that the process of cognitive
interference with moving images bonds space and time in an
illusional or false movement that relies on both optical and haptic
1.3 Everyday Life Versus Disruptive Event in
Film Spaces
Observing the practice of lm spaces divided into everyday ordinary
and event-based scenes creates a cyclic rhythm together, which
Lefebvre interprets as rhythm analysis. He articulates that the
everyday space is different from the geometric space. It contains
four dimensions: accomplished, foreseen, uncertain, and
unforeseeable, representing past, present, short-term future, and
long-term future, respectively (Lefebvre 2013). Incorporating
everyday space and dramatic events collectively enhances the
expressive narrative space to reach a unique form of interaction
with moving images (Nitsche et al., 2002). Films offer an exceptional
experience in heterotopic spaces to help the observer distinguish
them from quotidian ones (Penz 2017). Likewise, the architectonics
of elements will directly affect emotional experiences and personality
traits that play a vital role in assessing space and related emotional
indicators (Gifford 2007). In addition, elementstype,angle,scale,
and location inuence emotional behavior and visual properties
(Kent et al., 2021). Beyond their geometrical properties, factors such
as color, light, and material of the interior space will have the same
impact on viewers (Banaei et al., 2020), leading to an accurate design
approach for a sustainable space. To activate memory and emotions
in this experiment, choosing home spaces to induce a sense of a place
that feels private, protected, and is a psycho-social space (Bala 2019)
would be practical to measure psychophysiological assessments.
Based on the literature review and conceptual framework,
three main hypotheses are expressed to be measured: 1)
Implementing dramatic events in a narrative cinematic space-
time, which leads to the disruption of everydayness, can enhance
spatial cognition. 2) A dramatic event is the most critical factor in
changing the structure of everyday life and thus promoting space
interactions. 3) Developing a model based on physical-spatial
elements affecting the change of mentality and behavior under
personality traits, experiences, and mental and historical
backgrounds leads to the criteria to design an optimal and
sustainable environment (Figure 1).
2.1 Study Population and Sampling Method
Ninety participants with Iranian ethnicity (45 male, mean age 26,
SD 2.69, and range 2030 years old) were selected for this
TABLE 2 | Filmsplot summaries and events.
Film Name Plot Summary Pre-event
Scene Characteristics
Event Scene Characteristics
Film No. 1: The Money Pit
A young couple buys a relatively old house
with classic architecture to start their new life
together. The house, however, needs a
renovation to satisfy the couples needs.
During the renovation, some unpredictable
accidents happen in the space.
The young couple walks inside the house to
see if it is suitable to buy. After they buy it, the
renovation begins while they reside in the
During the renovation, the front door and the
interior main stairs collapse. The kitchens
electrical wiring catches re, and the tiles
shatter. The bedroom chimney also gets
demolished when they light the re.
Film No. 2: Zathura: A
Space Adventure (2005)
Two playful brothers live with their father.
While they persist in keeping their father at
home to play more with them, he has to go
outside to run some errands. Meanwhile, the
kids witness weird activities inside the house
when they try to solve riddles in a board
A typical fatherboy chase and run game
inside the house depicts an ordinary weekend
amusement in a happy family. The kids use the
stairs, living room, and kitchen as playgrounds.
The house gets attacked by numerous reballs
that pierce the roof, the ceiling, interior walls,
and furniture. The lone afraid kids try to nd a
shelter as the house elements shatter.
Film No. 3: I, Robot (2004) Robots will work as public service groups to
help humans in the future. While strict rules
are applied to them to control their activities,
a detective investigates if a robot has violated
the rules and murdered a human being.
The detective enters a vacant house to
investigate the place. He suspiciously walks
into the corridor, climbs the stairs, walks inside
a room, and searches the area for clues.
However, he nds no unusual activity for a few
A giant robot suddenly attacks the house with
iron robotic arms from the outside. It destroys
the exterior walls and soon demolishes the
entire house as the detective tries to run away
and save his life. The house has turned into
ashes at the end of the clip.
Frontiers in Environmental Science | April 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 8325374
Sakhaei et al. Quantifying Cinematic Spaces Indicate Sustainable Goals
experiment and reported as students or employed. As socio-
cultural aspects of human personality, such as past spatial
experience, affect assessments (Khaleghimoghaddam and Bala
2018), the age range of 2030 was chosen to control the
experiment. While the users sensitivity is highly reliant on the
environmental exposure impact (Dijkstra et al., 2008), we tried to
TABLE 3 | Film spacesarchitectural parameters.
Film 1
Architectural Parameter
Film 2
Architectural Parameter
Film 3
Architectural Parameter
-Warm cozy colors -Warm wooden colors -Warm wooden colors
-Medium brightness -Medium brightness -Low brightness
-Classic curvy architecture -Wooden village-like architecture -Classic architecture
-Space simplicity with readability -Space simplicity with readability -Space sophistication with lower readability
-Linear architecture -Symmetric structure -Asymmetric complicated spaces
-Low space enclosure -Medium space enclosure -High space enclosure
-Transparent elements -Natural sunlight in the scene -Dimmed night light
-Poor sign stimulus -Average sign stimulus -Strong sign stimulus
-Two levels with a central void -Split level -Two levels in a villa house
-High ceiling height -Medium ceiling height -Medium ceiling height
Frontiers in Environmental Science | April 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 8325375
Sakhaei et al. Quantifying Cinematic Spaces Indicate Sustainable Goals
achieve more homogeneous behavioral and physical
characteristics than adolescents or elderly demographics whose
potential differences in past experiences could have affected the
responses. While we preferred gender equality to control
psychophysiological responses, we also ensured that none of
the participants had watched the lms before to bring a novel
and fresh experience of observation. Each participant was
informed about the entire psychophysiological measurements
during pre-test preparation. They were pre-evaluated as being
healthy with no mental or physical trouble while reporting they
had a night of sufcient sleep and a proper meal before the test
day. They were also asked to avoid smoking, drinking alcohol,
and consuming caffeine-containing food or beverage at least 4 h
before the experiment. Additionally, they were asked if they were
under any medication. The experiment protocol was validated by
the department of physiology at Tarbiat Modares University and
performed under the ethical standards as proposed in the 1964
Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable
ethical standards.
2.2 Editing the Cinematic Experiment
We selected three lms in the cinematic test model by examining
several criteria. The rst crucial criterion was the lmsspace
narration ability, meaning that the screened space and
architectural details should solely impress the audience and
gather their attention without using a screenplay or scenario.
The second factor addressed a disruptive and evoking event in
each lm space. By eliminating the role of the script in each clip,
architectural qualities could potentially affect the audiences
perception of the space by avoiding the implementation of
stories and dialogues. To facilitate these two criteria, we tried
to choose specic scenes wherein the camera angle has a
continuous movement as a one-point perspective in the edited
clips. Specically, the formal lm analysis system (Bordwell et al.,
1993) was studied to choose standard scenes for this specic
experiment. The camera height and angle were selected from eye-
level view perspective scenes and point-of-view shots that seemed
like the participants were exploring the space themselves. A
disruptive event in the middle of the everyday depicted spaces
helped to choose lms with different intensities of space
deconstruction by placing each lm from less disruptive to
more disruptive, respectively. The element of stimulusin the
middle of two everyday space scenes increased from the rst lm
to the third one to bring an ascending impact on the emotional
feelings of the participants.
Thus, three lms with an approximate duration of 5 min each
were selected as the test model. The rst and last 2 min of each
lm narrate the familiar home atmosphere, while the middle
1:30 min depict the beginning of the evoking events of that
space. As mentioned previously, the house space was chosen to
represent the most lived, private, and connected place to the human
mind. Participants rst watched the beginning scene to immerse
themselves in the narrative space and architectonics. Then, the
middle of the lm is dedicated to the event screening wherein
some of the same elements and details from the ordinary scene were
destroyed. In the third or nal part of each lm, participants were
confronted with the same everyday scene from the rst 2 min to
assess their cognitive perception and emotions while remembering
the event that had evoked their emotional perception. Participants
perceptions and feelings were assessed by lling out two
psychological questionnaires before the start of the screening of
the lms as a baseline pre-test assessment and another three
questionnaires during the screening of the lms.
2.2.1 FilmsPlot Summaries
The three lmsplot summaries and related events are depicted in
Table 2. Accordingly, the lmsarchitectural parameters are
illustrated in Table 3.
2.3 Data Collection of Biofeedback and
Psychological Measurements
Data collection during the experiment was accomplished using
multiple questionnaires and tools that indicate physiological
changes in the human body while watching movies between
11 a.m. and 2 p.m. in the same room and condition with 25°C
temperature. Five standard questionnaires were provided in
paper and pencil format for psychological and emotional
analyses: TIPI (Gosling et al., 2003) to assess personality traits
that reect internal characteristics of the participants, PANAS
(Watson et al., 1988) to measure the two dimensions of human
mood, namely, negative emotion and positive emotion, Chills
(Silvia and Nusbaum 2011) to examine how often people
experience aesthetic chills and related states while engaging
with lms, SAM (Mehrabian and Russell 1974;Bradley and
Lang 1994) to assess Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance as
three independent emotional characteristics to describe
individualsfeelings, and NAQ (Zawidzki 2016) which is based
on geometrical characteristics of an architectural space plan to
reach the human subjective evaluation while the assessment is
mainly related to the spatial perception of a space rather than its
aesthetic properties. Before the lm screening, the TIPI and
PANAS questionnaires assessed general personality traits and
emotional conditions in a resting situation. As participants spent
a few minutes in the test-taking environment to ensure they had a
relative sense of relaxation, we asked them to pay attention to
architectural details and properties since they had been informed
that the entire experiment relates to the spatial assessment. After
completing TIPI and PANAS questionnaires, participants sat in
front of a 15-inch laptop with a loudspeaker to watch the clips.
Right after the ordinary everyday scene screening and before
beginning the disruptive event scene, the lm screening was
paused. Then, participants were asked to complete the Chills,
SAM, and NAQ questionnaires for the rst scene. Upon
completing the rst three questionnaires, the evoking
disruptive event scene alongside the everyday scene (the exact
scene which was screened at the beginning of the test) was shown
without a pause between them. This time, participants were again
asked to ll out the Chills, SAM, and NAQ tests for the second
time based on observed events. Thus, the evoking effects that
events in the middle of the two identical everyday scenes
provoked would affect how people respond to the repeated
questionnaires. As a result, data were gathered in two different
phases: pre-event and post-event, with two thoroughly similar
Frontiers in Environmental Science | April 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 8325376
Sakhaei et al. Quantifying Cinematic Spaces Indicate Sustainable Goals
scenes but the latter one affected by an emotional and cognitive
stimulus. This procedure was performed in other lms as the
participants were divided into three thirty-person groups for each
clip. We performed linear regression analyses to capture the
effects of general personality traits and positive or negative
affect scales on Chills, SAM, and NAQ. We also conducted a
Pearsons correlation coefcient test to evaluate the association
between variables. p-values less than 0.05 were regarded as
statistically signicant.
In this test, the four indicators of the HR (bpm), SRL (kilo-
ohm), SBP and DBP (mmHg), and internal BT (Celsius) were
measured during the lm screening. The Apple Watch Series 2 was
attached to the left wrist for real-time heartbeat recordings during
the screening. The Sanwa PC5000A digital multimeter was
conducted to measure sweating on the palm surface of the hand
related to SRL, which has an inverse ratio with SCL. Because the
palm holds nervous sweat glands, two Skintact F-55 chest leads
were attached next to each other to the palm surface with the digital
multimeters electrodes attached to the chest leads. Watching
evoking scenes leads to a resistance change between two
electrodes because of sweating caused by nervous system
activities. The SRL measurement procedure was the same as HR
data collection. To measure BP, the Beurer BM 60 Blood Pressure
Monitor was used to measure the SBP and DBP three times for
each movie: before each movie screening in resting mode, right
after the screening of the everyday scene, and the last time right
after the end of each lm. The BT-A11CN digital thermometer was
conducted three times for each movie with the same procedure as
recording BP. Hence, four physiological responses were analyzed
by examining the average statistical data for all participants in each
period recorded before and after the events and evaluated from the
report timeline. The effect of time in habituation or desensitization
feelings was also analyzed because of physiological changes
throughout the scenes and the considerable duration of time to
screen three lms (Figure 2).
2.4 Analyzing the Structure of the Cinematic
The space syntax was used to derive architectural characteristics
of lm spaces from quantitative space analysis. Turner et al.
(2001) introduced visibility graph analysis to examine positions
in an environment by computing the intervisibility of positions
distributed across the entire space (Franz and Wiener 2005). The
UCL Depthmaps VGA generated a grid map from each of the
three lm plans to perform the VGA analysis.
2.5 Data Normalization and Fuzzy Scaling
The two-valued account of scientic truth does not correspond to
scientic facts, especially because science in all dimensions, including
ambiguous, indenite, graded, and multi-valued attributes, has a
fuzzy truth (Ragin 2009;Arabacioglu 2010). Fuzzy logic depends on
reasoning with fuzzy sets (Kosko and Toms 1994;Yeganeh and
Kamalizadeh 2018) and represents the type and amount of
membership. It extends the two-value space of zero and one to
the three-value space of zero, one, and a half. Consequently, the types
and amounts of membership can be dened as fuzzy membership. In
the fuzzy logic, everything is relatively graded (Casco 2013;Yeganeh
2020), and the truth is between zero and one. Ragin determines the
fuzzy degrees of the concepts based on different values. Fuzzy
degrees represent verbal labels of 0.010.047 for Mostly in,
0.0470.119 for Degree of membership is more in than out,
0.1190.378 for Cross-over point, 0.3780.5 for Degree of
membership is more out than in, 0.50.622 for Mostly out,
0.6220.881 for Mostly in, and 0.8810.99 for Degree of
membership is more in than out. The membership function of
classical and fuzzy sets is expressed as the following formula:
AΧA, μ(Χ)
AΧA, μ(Χ)
The fuzzy set A with a membership function μ(Χ)
Adedicates to
each point in x an actual number in the interval [0,1] and amount
of μ(Χ)
A, demonstrating the membership degree in A" (Goguen
1973). Accordingly, the qualities with a signicant coefcient of
less than 0.378 have been removed.
As illustrated in the method section, we performed a linear
regression analysis between variables. To normalize each
dataset in analyses, we have scaled every variable on a fuzzy
scale to be adjusted and comparable in zero and one intervals.
3.1 Physiological Responses
3.1.1 Heart Rate
With the highly intense disruptive event, a signicant change and
effect on the HR and a noticeable increase were witnessed (Figure
3A), supporting previous studies (Ekman et al., 1983;Sinha 1996;
Prkachin et al., 1999;Kreibig et al., 2007;Ding et al., 2018;
Fernández-Aguilar et al., 2020)andreecting a potential for
emotional valence (Greenwald et al., 1989;Lang et al., 1993;
Gruber et al., 2015). On the contrary, when the intensity was
low, the HR had almost a descending trend, demonstrating that
the increase or decrease in the HR in the post-event was directly
related to the intensity level. In other words, participants
susceptibility to perceive the post-event observed space was
signicantly high, meaning that the disruptive event remarkably
evoked cognitive activity and emotional Arousal, as discussed
previously (Lang et al., 1995;Bolls et al., 2001;Bradley et al.,
2001;Ravaja 2004). Still, with a deceleration in the HR reported
in similar studies (Bradley 2009;Carvalho et al., 2011,2012;Deng
et al., 2017;Kimura et al., 2019), HR reports need more specic
interpretations. During the pre-event, participants did critically
involve in space narratives as no signicant HR changes were
observed, meaning that the lmsstimulus contents had a
prominent role in spatial perception (Deng et al., 2017).
3.1.2 Blood Pressure
In lm 1, SBP and DBP (Figure 3C) correlated with a declining
steep slope trend, consistent with a previous study (Mrug et al.,
2015). In lm 2, SBP increased with a moderate slope, and
conversely, the DBP decreased with a slow gradient. In lm 3,
Frontiers in Environmental Science | April 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 8325377
Sakhaei et al. Quantifying Cinematic Spaces Indicate Sustainable Goals
SBP decreased with a steep slope while DBP with an average slope
showed an increasing trend. It can be said that DBP was directly
related to the event intensity. In other words, DBP increased
signicantly with increasing deconstruction severity. However,
no signicant effect was reported for SBP, consistent with
previous reports (Mrug et al., 2015).
3.1.3 Skin Resistance Level
There was a signicant relationship between the event intensity
and SRL; as the intensity increased, the SRL changed slightly and
vice versa (Figure 3B). Changes in trends during lmsscreening
also showed a signicant correlation with changes in the SRL. In
lm 1, at the beginning of the event in a short period, SRL
decreased and gradually began a gentle ascending trend. Then,
with a gradual increase in event intensity, the SRL witnessed a
descending trend, as reported previously (Kunzmann and Grühn,
2005;Carvalho et al., 2011,2012;Kimura et al., 2019;Fernández-
Aguilar et al., 2020;Zickfeld et al., 2020). The SRL trend supports
previous discussions that more sweating on the palm surface can
indicate more arousal (Cuthbert et al., 2000;Soleymani et al.,
2009;Korpal and Jankowiak 2018). The post-event SRL in lm 1
showed a different trend with a steep ascending slope. The
diagrams in lms 2 and 3, where the intensity was higher,
illustrated an almost identical trend to lm 1s chart in both
pre-event and post-event.
3.1.4 Body Temperature
The graphs show that BT increased in all three lms in the
intervals between pre-test and pre-event (Figure 3D). The stimuli
effects on uctuations in BT provided a different pattern (Šolcová
and Lačev 2017), in which a more intensive event caused a drastic
decrease in BT, as reported in similar studies (Ekman et al., 1983;
Sinha 1996;Kistler et al., 1998;Prkachin et al., 1999;Kreibig et al.,
2007;Yoshihara et al., 2016;Ding et al., 2018). Also, the moderate
event raised BT relatively, whereas the low-intensity event
increased BT sharply. However, other studies reported a
converse and debatable increase in similar experiments on
skin temperature (Zickfeld et al., 2020).
3.2 Stimulus-Affected Self-Assessments
3.2.1 Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance
Before the event, participantsfeelings about Pleasure were almost
the same for lms 1 and 2, and responses overlapped with each
other following similar reports. In contrast, in lm 3, Pleasure
responses were distributed in a more extensive range (Figure 4).
After the event, a signicant difference in all three lms reported
for Pleasure, in which the average Pleasure for lm 1 in the post-
event was almost equal to the pre-event. However, there were
broad changes in feelings per participant, showing that the
distribution of data in the plot was less homogeneous. In lm 2,
the average Pleasure was signicantly reduced alongside
FIGURE 1 | Theoretical framework.
Frontiers in Environmental Science | April 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 8325378
Sakhaei et al. Quantifying Cinematic Spaces Indicate Sustainable Goals
uniformity in data distribution. In lm 3, despite the decrease in the
average of Pleasure, participantsopinions about space became
closer, revealing that the disruptive event in space notably
decreased Pleasure, which was reported previously in a similar
discussion (Soleymani et al., 2009).
Changes in Arousal and Dominance patterns before and after the
event illustrated a direct relationship with the event intensity. The
higher the intensity, the greater was the amplitude of Arousal and
Dominance oscillations (Figure 4). Arousal was directly related to the
event intensity due to the increase in the post-event under all three
lmsevents, showing consistency with previous discussions (Schupp
et al., 2004;Kimura et al., 2019). Dominance showed an ascending
trend with increasing event intensity, as previously reported (Carvalho
et al., 2012;Deng et al., 2017), with a moderate slope. Still, Dominance
requires specic evaluation to see if participants rated the stimulus
itself or the subjective feeling it elicited (Bradley and Lang 1994). In
addition, the pre-event Arousal had an ascending trend from lms 1 to
3, respectively, while lm 2 produced higher Arousal and Dominance
than the other two lms.
3.2.2 Chills
Chills were among the variables most affected by the event
(Figure 5). The Chills rate was almost the same during the
pre-event for the three lms. Although the distribution of plot
data for lm 3 had been more scattered and lm 1 had relatively
robust data, lm 2 showed a more extensive data distribution. In
the post-event, Chills showed a signicant increase while the data
distribution was out of uniformity and placed in much larger
intervals. Thus, Chills validated a substantial relationship with the
event intensity, as reported previously (Schubert et al., 2018;
Bannister 2019). With an increase in space deconstruction, Chills
increased noticeably as well.
3.2.3 Normalized Accumulated Quality
The NAQ factor for the pre-event in three lms indicated that the
rst and second lmsarchitectural spaces had a higher
normalized quality than lm 3 (Figure 6). Also, the audiences
assessment of the place quality was close to each other, and the
overlap of responses was high compared to lm 3. After the event,
the audiences assessment had undergone signicant changes so
that the spaces of lms 1 and 2 were perceived with the lower
quality than the pre-event. In contrast, the lm 3 diagram showed
almost the same pre-event average quality as the post-event space,
with the audiences views getting closer. Conclusively, the
disruptive event reduced the place perception quality and
brought participantsviews closer. Apart from lowering the
FIGURE 2 | Research design.
Frontiers in Environmental Science | April 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 8325379
Sakhaei et al. Quantifying Cinematic Spaces Indicate Sustainable Goals
perceived quality, the less intensive event caused a more semantic
difference. Hence, the space deconstruction stimulus played a
decisive role in reducing the semantic differentiation of the
perceived place and the overlap of spatial quality assessments.
3.3 Regression Analyses
3.3.1 Age Factor
The linear regression graphs showed that age had a signicant
and positive relationship with Chills, Pleasure, and NAQ. With
the increase of age, these parameters decreased linearly (Figure
7A). In contrast, age indicated a positive linear relationship with
Arousal (df = 88, f= 8.5, β= 0.3, R
= 0.09, and PV = 0.04), in
which a steep slope increasing of age in all three lms followed an
increase in Arousal. However, before the event, age did not
demonstrate a signicant relationship with Dominance (df =
88, f= 0.26, β= 0.05, R
= 0.03, and PV = 0.61). In the post-event,
age showed a signicant linear relationship with Chills (df = 88,
f= 4.9, β= -0.23, R
= 0.05, and PV = 0.03) with a descending
slope and also a steep slope and negative linear relationship with
Dominance (df = 88, f= 12.7, β= -0.36, R
= 0.13, and PV = 0.00).
Thus, with age growth, Chills and Dominance decreased
signicantly after the event. Age also had a signicant positive
linear relationship with Arousal with a moderate slope (df = 88,
f= 0.26, β= 0.05, R
= 0.01, and PV = 0.61). In general, it can be
argued that the increase of the event intensity brought about a
steeper slope in plots.
3.3.2 Ten Item Personality Inventory Factor
Before the event, the TIPI had a signicant positive linear
relationship with Chills (df = 88, f= 15.08, β=0.38,R
= 0.15,
and PV = 0.04) and showed consistency with previous research
(Panksepp and Bernatzky 2002;Silvia and Nusbaum 2011), as well as
FIGURE 3 | Physiological reports for (A) Heart rate, (B) Skin resistance level, (C) Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and (D) Body temperature from pre-test to
pre-event, event-time, and post-event scenes in the three lms. Python graphs.
Frontiers in Environmental Science | April 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 83253710
Sakhaei et al. Quantifying Cinematic Spaces Indicate Sustainable Goals
asignicant linear relationship with Dominance (df = 88, f=7.6,β=
0.28, R
=0.08,andPV = 0.14) and a steep slope (Figure 7B). When
the event intensity was low or moderate, TIPI depicted a signicant
linear positive relationship with Pleasure (df = 88, f=8.1,β=0.29,R
0.02, PV = 0.04) and Arousal (df = 88, f=2.6,β=0.17, R
0.03, PV = 0.00), but as the intensity increased, this relationship
FIGURE 4 | Psychological responses for Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance responses for the three lms between pre-event and post-event conditions. R ggplot2
Frontiers in Environmental Science | April 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 83253711
Sakhaei et al. Quantifying Cinematic Spaces Indicate Sustainable Goals
appeared in reverse so that the increase of TIPI led to a steep
descending slope with both of these variables. In addition, the
type of post-event TIPI relationship with Chills (df = 88, f= 0.41,
= 0.05, and PV = 0.14), Pleasure (df = 88, f= 2.97, β=
0.19, R
= 0.04, and PV = 0.06), and Dominance (df = 88, f=
23.6, β= 0.46, R
= 0.21, and PV = 0.00) variables was the same
as the pre-event situation. However, Arousal increased with a
steep slope than the pre-event with the intensity increase.
3.3.3 Positive and Negative Affect Schedule Positive
Affect Factor
Before the event, PANAS PA showed a direct linear and signicant
relationship with Chills, Arousal, and Dominance (Figure 7C).
Chills increased following PANAS PAs ascending trend, but
Arousal, Pleasure, and Dominance depicted a decreasing trend
following the event intensityssignicant and direct effect.
Apart from this, while PANAS PA had a non-uniform effect
on NAQ (df = 88, f= 0.58, β=0.01, R
= 0.01, and PV =0.44),
based on the intensity and the quality derived from the
cinematic architectural space, the increase of PANAS PA
reduced the perceived quality of the space when high space
quality was reported with normal intensity. Still, when the
quality of the cinematic architectural space was moderate
and the event intensity was either very high or very low, the
NAQ decreased signicantly. The effect of PANAS PA in the
post-event on Chills (df = 88, f= 24.35, β= 0.47, R
PV = 0.00), Arousal (df = 88, f=8.9,β=0.31,R
=0.1,PV =
0.04), and Dominance (df = 88, f=4.9,β=0.23,R
=0.05,PV =
0.03) parameters was similar to the pre-event. The effectiveness
of PANAS PA after the event was substantially dependent on the
FIGURE 5 | Psychological responses for Chill's reactions for the three lms between pre-event and post-event conditions. R ggplot2 graphs.
FIGURE 6 | Psychological responses for NAQ responses for the three lms between pre-event and post-event conditions. R ggplot2 graphs.
Frontiers in Environmental Science | April 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 83253712
Sakhaei et al. Quantifying Cinematic Spaces Indicate Sustainable Goals
intensity. With moderate intensity, Arousal highly increased,
whereas with high intensity, Arousal had a steep decreasing
trend. Regarding NAQ, it can be understood that with high and
extreme event intensity, PANAS PA greatly diminished NAQ,
but with low event intensity, PANAS PA signicantly elevated
NAQ (df = 88, f= 1.18, β=0.13,R
= 0.01, and PV = 0.14).
3.3.4 Positive and Negative Affect Schedule Negative
Affect Factor
The effect of PANAS NA in the pre-event on Chills (df = 88, f=9.47,
=0.09,andPV = 0.03) was signicant and linear with a
negative slope and directly related to event intensity, which was
reported previously (Hanich et al., 2014). In addition, PANAS NA
FIGURE 7 | Regression of Chills, Pleasure, Arousal, Dominance, and NAQ with (A) Age, (B) TIPI, (C) PANAS PA, and (D) PANAS NA in both pre-event and post-
event conditions for the three lms. R ggplot2 graphs.
Frontiers in Environmental Science | April 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 83253713
Sakhaei et al. Quantifying Cinematic Spaces Indicate Sustainable Goals
had a signicant positive and linear relationship with
Dominance (df = 88, f=0.36,β= -0.06, R
=0.1,andPV = 0.04),
and accordingly, with the increase of PANAS NA, Dominance
increased in proportion to the intensity as well. Similarly, in the
post-event, the effect of PANAS NA on Chills (df = 88, f= 17.8, β
= -0.41, R
= 0.17, and PV = 0.00) and Dominance (df = 88, f= 0.36, β=
-0.06, R
= 0.04, and PV = 0.05) parameters was the same with pre-event
situations (Figure 7D).
3.4 Correlation Analyses
Examination of correlation diagrams for the three lms showed
that in general, the highest correlation was related to post-event
Chills with post-event Arousal (pc = 0.77 and pv = 0.01) and also
pre-event Chills with post-event Chills (pc = 0.76 and pv = 0.02).
This correlation shows that feeling chills and goosebumps can be
followed by signicant arousal when subjects react to a lm space
stimulus. The highest negative correlation was related to PANAS
NA with the TIPI (pc = -0.72, pv = 0.01), illustrating a solid
relationship between the negative affect scale with general
personality traits. In addition, the correlation between NAQ
and Pleasure was positive and signicant (pc = 0.28, pv =
0.05), ranging from moderate to high. Before and after the
event, the correlation between these two variables was quite
substantial and highest in lm 1. However, it gradually
descended from lm 1 to lms 2 and 3, illustrating that the
correlation decreased with the event intensity. It can be said that
participantsfeelings of pleasure from space stimuli show a high
relationship with understanding negative space qualities. It
should be noted that the degree of correlation between NAQ
and Arousal was the same as between NAQ and Pleasure and
FIGURE 8 | Correlation matrix of psychological responses for the three lms in pre-event and post-event conditions. R ggplot2 graphs.
Frontiers in Environmental Science | April 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 83253714
Sakhaei et al. Quantifying Cinematic Spaces Indicate Sustainable Goals
NAQ and Chills, both in three lmsaverage and in event intensity.
Compared to the NAQ and Dominance correlation, NAQChills
and PleasureArousal correlations were quite the opposite. As the
intensity increased, the correlation rate increased with the highest
rate for lm 3. This increase can be another indicator for the role of
stimulus-affected space in emotional response to judge the space
quality. The correlation between NAQ and TIPI was positive and
directional but showed a weak correlation. Still, it showed a
signicant relationship with the event intensity so that the
intensity ascent caused a correlation decrease, and accordingly,
TABLE 4 | The three lmsarchitectural spacesVGA Map visualization. UCL Depthmap plots.
Film Number Films Architectural Space
VGA Map visualization
Film 1 Linear axis structure
Symmetrical design
Rectangular geometry
Split levels with a central void
Film 2 Square-shaped with void geometry
Symmetrical design
Two levels without a void
Film 3 Various direction axes
Spaces with different areas
Asymmetrical design
Two levels without a void
Frontiers in Environmental Science | April 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 83253715
Sakhaei et al. Quantifying Cinematic Spaces Indicate Sustainable Goals
TIPI and NAQ showed the highest correlation in lm 1. General
personality traits may not be accurate indicators of the perceived
quality of space in event-based situations.
The correlation between NAQ and PANAS NA was negative
but positive with PANAS PA. With PANAS NA increase, the
NAQ decreased, and with PANAS PA increase, the NAQ
FIGURE 9 | Space syntax VGA data visualization. R ggplot2 graphs.
Frontiers in Environmental Science | April 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 83253716
Sakhaei et al. Quantifying Cinematic Spaces Indicate Sustainable Goals
increased. This outcome shows that the normalized space quality
is strongly related to the positive or negative affects scale. PANAS
PA and PANAS NA showed a constant correlation, while the
degree of correlation signicantly correlated with the event
intensity. The more severe the disruptive event, the closer
PANAS PA and PANAS NA got to each other (pc = -0.16,
and pv = 0.00), or in other words, the increase in PANAS PA
did not have a signicant effect on PANAS NA and vice versa.
This result can strongly prove that PANAS scales relate to totally
different realms in human characteristics. PANAS NA also had a
signicant negative correlation with TIPI (pc = -0.72 and pv =
0.00). The lower the intensity of the event, the stronger was the
negative correlation coefcient between these variables. Also, the
intensity reduced the negative correlation coefcient
between them.
Conclusively, the event intensity changed the type and degree
of correlation between PANAS NA-TIPI and reduced positive
and negative correlations. This reduction shows that a severe
event may not be a valuable indicator of personality traits and
negative affects interrelationships. Chills showed a high positive
correlation between the pre-event and post-event (pc = 0.75 and
pv = 0.00), indicating the strong relationship between both phases
of spaces in lms regarding the emotional state of chills and
goosebumps. The same type of positive correlation was very low
for Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance. It can be argued for SAM
that during the post-event, the correlation in
DominancePleasure was very low (pc = 0.16 and pv = 0.03),
high in ArousalDominance (pc = 0.54 and pv = 0.00), and
moderate in PleasureArousal (pc = 0.27 and pv = 0.00), as
previously validated in a similar study (Soleymani et al., 2009).
This result shows that being dominated by spatial stimuli can be
highly related to feeling aroused. Chills demonstrated the highest
positive correlation in SAM with Arousal, Dominance, and
Pleasure, respectively, both during the pre-event and post-
event with a signicant rate. This correlation has also been
validated previously (Maruskin et al., 2012;Wassiliwizky et al.,
2015), showing that emotional goosebumps or chills can highly
relate to pleasantness or being aroused or dominated. There was
also a positive correlation between SAM in the pre-event but less
correlated than the post-event, showing that the event had
increased the correlation between SAM factors. Similarly,
Chillspost-event positive correlation with SAM showed a
signicant ascent (Figure 8).
3.5 Space Syntax Analyses
VGA for the cinematic spaces demonstrated that the three lms
layouts differed in the geometric structure (Table 4), as discussed
previously (Franz and Wiener 2005). Film 1 was a square-shaped
space with a central void representing a centrality. Film 2s events
took place in an axial and linear space. In contrast, the
architectural structure of lm 3 had a more irregular and
complex structure than the other two lms, representing a
combination of multiple axes and central space. In other
words, the spatial characteristic of lm 3 was a mixture of the
other two lmsgeometric structures. Thus, the measurement
indicators of lmsarchitectural syntax differed, and the events
impact was related to each space (Figure 9).
Regarding the isovist index, lm 1s space, despite the high
area index, encompassed low compactness, whereas lms 2 and 3
had almost the same area and compactness indicators. In
addition, the connectivity index of spaces in lm 1 and lm 3
was relatively high but moderate in lm 2. Still, the connectivity
level of different segment points of lm 3 spaces had a higher
deviation from average points than the other two lms. In other
words, in lm 3, segmentspoints showed different connectivity
than the other two lms. Regarding the gate counts index, despite
the differences between lmsspaces, the gates were symmetrical
for all different segments of the spaces. In terms of visual
indicators, lm 3 showed high entropy, controllability, and
mean depth, whereas these indicators were lower for lm 2
than the other two lms. Although lm 1 showed similar data
to lm 3, the indicatorsintensity was notably lower than lm 3.
Consequently, lm 2 had a much lower standard deviation in
terms of the distribution of different data from spatial
measurement criteria, showing that the segment points were
more similar in terms of spatial measurement indicators, and
the spaces were more homogeneous. In contrast, lm 3 had a
much lower homogeneity of points, and lm 1 was average
between lms 2 and 3.
Converging research ndings show that spatial cognition based
on mental embodiment proved to be signicantly effective in
analyzing the ordinariness of lived spaces and the impact of the
disruptive event to understand the architectural quality of a place.
As studied before (Li et al., 2021), environmental quality is crucial
in achieving a sustainable and communicative design, and non-
physical factors such as personal attitudes and past events affect
this quality (Torresin et al., 2018). To achieve the sustainability
goals, we focused on multiple mental and cognitive aspects of
space to highlight the vitality of enhanced perception in everyday
sustainable design thinking. Accordingly, environmental stimuli
validated their inuential roles in activating the sign system,
which led to consequent event recall based on past experiences,
root beliefs, and mentality between different participants,
conrming the rhythm analysis theory (Lefebvre 2013). The
narrative features of space in the cinematic form reveal
signicant potential for testing mental hypotheses and
inferences. This test, both in movement-image and time-image
theoretical frameworks, signies the importance of remembering
past experiences and their impact on assessing present and future
in cognitive processes. Strong stimuli can enhance the potential to
improve the illusion of motion in space and blend in with actual
physical activity as they make a combination of real and false
movements. This cinematic experience illustrated its practical
aspect of capturing architectural essence in the behavioral
analysis frame by frame to highlight each elements physical
and mental effect in understanding the sustainability of
everyday life in terms of perception and communication. In
this regard, the problematization concept of noticing the
spatial impact on the cognitive behavior can be highly debated
in sustainable design thinking and environmental research.
Frontiers in Environmental Science | April 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 83253717
Sakhaei et al. Quantifying Cinematic Spaces Indicate Sustainable Goals
Moreover, criteria and components of understanding the
quality of banal versus heterotopic spaces that are affected by
events turn out to be substantially different. The geometry,
structure, and isovist index of spaces analyzed in previous
studies (Montello 2007;Osmond 2011;Kuliga et al., 2013;
Xiang et al., 2021) were critical on how the event affects and
changes attitudes towards spatial perception. The space syntax
factors with higher event disruption had a different structure than
the other two spaces in lm spaces. The space with the non-linear
structure and spatial diversity, such as the combination of various
areas, different isovist properties, level differences, and visual
connectivity, can determine an interactive and mentally engaging
environment to generate a socially accepted sustainable design
and improved environmental communication.
In addition, activation of the sensory-motor system leads to
better imagination and improved perception of space. In an
architectural space with more geometric complexity, the
tendency to predict the next space and possible events in that
space increases due to more engagement with spatial elements.
Also, when more intensive events are witnessed, the sensory-
motor activity is enhanced to imagine and predict the following
scene environment. Hence, the cinematic space with a non-linear,
complex, and hybrid geometric structure, within the context of a
highly disruptive event, can transform a banal space into an
inhomogeneous space and subsequently bring a more accurate
perception of the quality of space. When an architectural space
combines various axes for enhanced exploration, it holds more
interactive spatial elements such as corridors, stairs, transparent
materials, and integrated spaces with multiple areas and isovists.
This quality can evoke cognitive emotions to eliminate the
banality of lived space and validate more sustainable and
communicative space criteria.
Conversely, poor environmental qualities decelerate cognitive
tasks and debilitate physical and mental abilities. As Bala (2019)
previously discussed, perceiving a place in space facilitates
physiological needs and aesthetic satisfaction. In this study,
notable events in a home environment that signied placeness
successfully addressed these two factors by signicantly changing
bio-feedback responses and the subjective assessment of spatial
qualities. According to our test model, the rst part of each lm
clip that shows ordinary house space was regarded as a baseline
situation to capture changes in biofeedback and psychological
assessment differences with post-event scenes. This procedure
was conducted to make sure that the psychophysiological changes
of subjects were the outcome of space-related stimuli. During the
experiment, the human response to stimuli in space was highly
different in physiological, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral
aspects, as previously discussed (Plutchik 1980;Izard 2013;
Mahdavi 2020). In physiological feedback derived from
different events and spatial structures, the HR and BP were
most affected. We can also argue that the normalized quality
of space changed based on the type of mental schemas, previous
experiences, memory, and event recall.
As the subjects witnessed the lm clipspre-event and post-
event sections in a time frame, the effect of time would be
essential to discuss. Participants in this study observed three
different events in a total of 15 min clips in which each clip could
have affected the subjectspsychophysiological reaction. Previous
studies showed that repeated exposure to suspenseful stimuli in
lms might cause affective habituation or desensitization (Mrug
et al., 2015;Chun et al., 2020). However, the biofeedback reports
do not show a signicant desensitization effect since events
impacts illustrate a gradual increase in reports from lm 1 to
lm 3, especially in the HR and BP. As we conducted subjective
assessments with Chills, SAM, and NAQ tests to support the
physiological changes reports, participantsself-reports validated
a substantial impact throughout the lm screening. Psychological
reports during the time spent from lm 1 to lm 3 show no
desensitization effects to inuence the eventsintensity
Feeling Chills and goosebumps illustrated a signicant impact on
changing the perception of place quality through the disruption of
the banalization of the cinematic space. Additionally, participants
with the positive affect scale in evaluating architectural space
qualities considered positive aspects of spaces more than negative
ones. In contrast, those with the reported negative affect scale before
the test paid more attention to the negative elements during space
observation. Likewise, participants with inclined negative personality
traits noticed a lower level of space quality due to more Arousal and
Chills and less Pleasure and Dominance. In contrast, subjects who
had reported self-positive personality traits noticed more positive
spatial attributes. Feeling lower Dominance and Pleasure but higher
Arousal in perceiving space overlaps the typical mentality of
individuals and collective mental schemas that lead to a
transcendent environmental perception. Feeling too much and
too low Pleasure causes the perception of space to be of lower
quality, but when it creates a sense of moderate Pleasure, it will be an
optimal criterion for an improved quality of space.
Regarding the aforementioned evaluations, some studies
concluded that self-reports are prone to bias (Schwarz and
Strack 1999), especially because they measure the conscious
side of the human mind. Other studies discussed that the
primary cognitive and emotional processes occur at the
unconscious level (Zaltman 2003). We tried to measure both
psychological and physiological aspects to validate our ndings to
weaken the biased consequences. As a result, the overlap and
correlation between subjective and participantsobjective
assessments validate that they were solely impressed by spatial
properties as their physiological changes in the HR and BP had a
meaningful relationship with space quality reports. In this study,
our primary goal was to investigate the impact of space-related
events on variables. The analysis of differences between the pre-
event and post-event sufciently answered our hypotheses. Also,
no similar exploratory study (Neter et al., 1996) has been
previously conducted to identify any additional signicant
variables in regression analyses. As we found no confounder
to control its effect, we analyzed the unadjusted effect of the pre-
event and post-event and the age factor separately. Still, we
referred to the video-recorded contents from the participants
to report any further observations from apparent
psychophysiological changes. We found slight changes in skin
tone color, pupils, and in some cases, goosebumps during the
event and post-event scenes through the observational
examinations. After the post-event scene screening, some
Frontiers in Environmental Science | April 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 83253718
Sakhaei et al. Quantifying Cinematic Spaces Indicate Sustainable Goals
participants were overwhelmed by the spatial stimuli and felt
emotionally aroused. However, participants appeared to be more
relaxed during the pre-event scenes, illustrating an alignment
between observational analyses and subjectspsychophysiological
In summary, applying multivariate behavioral analyses of
subjective and objective evaluations during exposure to different
spatial qualities and congurations signies critically debating results
to enlighten architectsconsiderations during a sustainable design
process. Quantitatively observing cinematic environments can help
designers perceive how their upcoming elements of constructed
space will interact with occupants. By achieving sustainable
communicative space criteria, we can inuence the society to live
more sustainably when their perceptions and cognitive behaviors are
highly regarded during the design process.
The analysis of the models in this research showed that
creating a common collective mindset can be attributed to a
broader context regarding the understanding of space. Placing
an event to perform a cognitive task in mind to transform
ordinariness into an inhomogeneous space can be an
operational concept. Everydayness, ordinary space, and
events differentiate perceptions and signicant differences
in normalized space quality. The intersection of
psychophysiological assessments and space conguration
features can help designers consider human behavior and
subjective evaluation during the sustainable design process
to enhance humanenvironment communication. As
discussed in this research, multiple factors such as root
beliefs and past experiences, personality traits, emotional
feelings of a lived space, and the space structure play a
substantial role in the pre-evaluation of the elements of a
built environment. Utilizing lm space screenings to capture
architectural impacts on the cognitive behavior can
substantially help sustainable thinking during the design by
undertaking spatial interactions and enhanced perception. In a
sustainable realm, enhancing cognition in environmental
communication can be a problematic design approach when
our everyday places such as homes integrated with our body
and mind become boring and monotonous.
In future research, more sophisticated techniques such as
neuroimaging can be conducted to obtain neurophysiological
outputs in different brain parts, such as environment-related
stress (Choi et al., 2015) or discomfort (Han and Chun 2021), and
compare them with this studys self-assessment variables. Also, it
would be more accurate to examine and compare the elements of
space in each scene frame of the studied lm separately to analyze
the impacts of events intensity more precisely. Accordingly, gaze-
related tools such as eye-tracking with emphasis on the eye pupil
attention (Choi and Zhu 2015) can offer a suitable potential to
examine each architectural element. ANCOVA analyses will give
us more comprehensive outcomes from adjusted variables after
identifying different effective variables and controlling them in
future studies. Focusing solely on the effect of stimuli in a specic
group of people may not be generalized to a large population
when ignoring cultural differences and preferences (Wang and
Cheong 2006;Xu et al., 2008). It would be better to explore a
larger statistical population to reach more comprehensive data for
personality traits and related affective factors, both within a
nation and between different nationalities. This holistic
approach helps to receive a notable comparison of
characteristics, beliefs, and past experiences between other
societies exposed to space stimuli for more comprehensive
sustainable design and communication discussions.
The original contributions presented in the study are included in
the article/Supplementary Material, further inquiries can be
directed to the corresponding author.
The studies involving human participants were reviewed and
approved by the Department of PhysiologyTarbiat Modares
University. Written informed consent for participation was not
required for this study in accordance with the national legislation
and institutional requirements.
All authors listed have made a substantial, direct, and intellectual
contribution to the work and approved it for publication.
The authors would like to thank Dr. Navid Ziaei Darounkolaei for
his sincere contribution to bio-feedback measurements, especially
the SRL data collection.
(2022). The Growth and Disciplinary Convergence of Environmental
Communication: A Bibliometric Analysis of the Field (19702019).
Front. Environ. Sci. 9, 1. doi:10.3389/fenvs.2021.814599
Andargie,M. S., and Azar, E. (2019). An Applied Framework to Evaluate the Impact
of Indoor Ofce Environmental Factors on Occupantscomfort and Working
Conditions. Sustainable Cities Soc. 46, 101447. doi:10.1016/J.SCS.2019.101447
Frontiers in Environmental Science | April 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 83253719
Sakhaei et al. Quantifying Cinematic Spaces Indicate Sustainable Goals
Arabacioglu, B. C. (2010). Using Fuzzy Inference System for Architectural Space
Analysis. Appl. Soft Comput. 10, 926937. doi:10.1016/j.asoc.2009.10.011
Bachelard, G. (1969). The Poetics of Space.
Bakker, I., van der Voordt, T., Vink, P., and de Boon, J. (2014). Pleasure, Arousal,
Dominance: Mehrabian and Russell Revisited. Curr. Psychol. 33, 405421.
Bala,A.H.(2019).ArchitecturalReadingoftheFilmTerminalvia Non-place.Online
J. Art Des. 7, 5366.
Bala, H. A. (2014). Reading of the Architectural Identity via Cinema. Cinej Cinema J. 4,
Evaluation of Architectural interior Forms Based on Personality
Differences Using Virtual Reality. Front. Architectural Res. 9, 138147.
Bannister, S. (2019). Distinct Varieties of Aesthetic Chills in Response to
Multimedia. PloS one 14, e0224974. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0224974
Bergson, H. (1911). Matter and Memory (Trans.PalmerWS):PaulNM.
Listener Arousal on Attention, Memory, and Facial Muscular Responses to Radio
Advertisements. Commun. Res. 28, 627651. doi:10.1177/009365001028005003
Bordwell,D.,Thompson,K.,andSmith,J.(1993).Film Art: An Introductio n.NewYork:
Bradley, M. M., Codispoti, M., Cuthbert, B. N., and Lang, P. J. (2001). Emotion and
Motivation I: Defensive and Appetitive Reactions in Picture Processing. Emotion 1,
276298. doi:10.1037/1528-3542.1.3.276
Bradley, M. M., and Lang, P. J. (1994). Measuring Emotion: the Self-Assessment
ManikinandtheSemanticDifferential.J.Behav.Ther.Exp.Psychiatry25, 4959.
Bradley, M. M. (2009). Natural Selective Attention: Orienting and Emotion.
Psychophysiology 46, 111. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.2008.00702.x
Cairns, G. (2016). Visioning Technologies: The Architectures of Sight. Taylor & Francis.
Psychophysiological Correlates of Sexually and Non-sexually Motivated
Attention to Film Clips in a Workload Task. PLoS One 6, e29530. doi:10.1371/
Movie Database (EMDB): A Self-Report and Psychophysiological Study. Appl.
Psychophysiol Biofeedback 37, 279294. doi:10.1007/s10484-012-9201-6
Casco, B. (2013). in Fuzzy Thinking. Editors A. Ghaffari Fifth Edition (Tehran: Publisher
of Khajeh Nasir al-Din Tusi University of Technology).
Dwelling Text: Houses Am. Fiction 1, 291318.
Choi, J.-H., and Zhu, R. (2015). Investigation of the Potential Use of Human Eye Pupil
Sizes to Estimate Visual Sensations in the Workplace Environment. Building
Environ. 88, 7381. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2014.11.025
Choi, Y., Kim, M., and Chun, C. (2015). Measurement of OccupantsStress Based
on Electroencephalograms (EEG) in Twelve Combined Environments. Building
Environ. 88, 6572. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2014.10.003
Responses during Repeated Exposure to Suspenseful Film. Front. Psychol. 11,
558234. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2020.558234
Coëgnarts, M. (2017). Cinema and the Embodied Mind: Metaphor and Simulation in
Understanding Meaning in Films. Palgrave Commun. 3, 115.
Colman, A., and Colman, L. (1971). Pregnancy: The Psychological Experience.New
York: Herder & Herder.
Cooper, C. (1974). The House as Symbol of the Self. People Place Space Read. 1,
Brain Potentials in Affective Picture Processing: Covariation with Autonomic
Arousal and Affective Report. Biol. Psychol. 52, 95111. doi:10.1016/s0301-
Deleuze, G. (2020). 8. Cinema I: The Movement-Image. Columbia University Press.
for Asian Culture. Front. Psychol. 8, 1941. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01941
Dijkstra, K., Pieterse, M. E., and Pruyn, A. T. H. (2008). Individual Differences in
Reactions towards Color in Simulated Healthcare Environments: The Role of
Stimulus Screening Ability. J. Environ. Psychol. 28, 268277. doi:10.1016/j.
Compared with Traditional 2D Film. Telematics Inform. 35, 15721579. doi:10.
Dzhambov, A. M., Markevych, I., Hartig, T., Tilov, B., Arabadzhiev, Z., Stoyanov,
D., et al. (2018). Multiple Pathways Link Urban green- and Bluespace to Mental
Health in Young Adults. Environ. Res. 166, 223233. doi:10.1016/J.ENVRES.
Ekman, P., Levenson, R. W., and Friesen, W. V. (1983). Autonomic Nervous System
Activity Distinguishes Among Emotions. science 221, 12081210. doi:10.1126/
Fernández-Aguilar, L., Latorre, J. M., Martínez-Rodrigo, A., Moncho-Bogani, J. V., Ros,
Physiological and Subjective Responses to Emotion Induction Using Films. Scientic
Rep. 10, 113. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-71430-y
Franz, G., and Wiener, J. M. (2005). Exploring Isovist-Based Correlates of
Spatial Behavior and Experience,in 5th International Space Syntax
Symposium (Delft, Netherlands: Techne Press), 503517.
Freud, S. (1966). Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis.StandardEdition.
New York, NY.
Ghahramani, M. B., Piravi Vanak, M., Mazaherian, H., and Sayyad, A. (2015).
The Moving Body of the Spectator and Formation of Spatial Sequences in
Cinematic Architecture. Honar-ha-ye-ziba: Memary Va. Shahrsazi 19,
2736. doi:10.22059/jfaup.2015.55693
Gifford, R. (2007). Environmental Psychology: Principles and Practice.WA:
Optimal books Colville.
(1965), Pp. 338353.-LA Zadeh. Similarity Relations and Fuzzy Orderings.
InformationSciences,Vol.3(1971),Pp.177200. The J. Symbolic Logic 38,
656657. doi:10.2307/2272014
Gosling, S. D., Rentfrow, P. J., and Swann, W. B., Jr (2003). A Very Brief
Measure of the Big-Five Personality Domains. J. Res. Personal. 37, 504528.
Greenwald, M. K., Cook, E. W., and Lang, P. J. (1989). Affective Judgment and
Psychophysiological Response: Dimensional Covariation in the Evaluation
of Pictorial Stimuli. J. psychophysiology 3(1),5164.
Rate Variability as a Potential Indicator of Positive Valence System
Disturbance: a Proof of Concept Investigation. Int. J. Psychophysiology
98, 240248. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2015.08.005
Guidano, V. F., and Liotti, G. (1983). Cognitive Processes and Emotional
Disorders: A Structural Approach to Psychotherapy.NewYork:Guilford
Hammen, C., and Goodman-Brown, T. (1990). Self-schemas and Vulnerability
to SpecicLifeStressinChildrenatRiskforDepression.Cogn. Ther. Res.
14, 215227. doi:10.1007/bf01176210
thermal Displeasure. Building Environ. 204, 108220. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2021.
Hanich, J., Wagner, V., Shah, M., Jacobsen, T., and Menninghaus, W. (2014). Why We
like to Watch Sad Films. The Pleasure of Being Moved in Aesthetic Experiences.
Psychol. Aesthetics, Creativity, Arts 8, 130143. doi:10.1037/a0035690
Film. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 16, 689704. doi:10.1109/tcsvt.2006.
Hoisington, A. J., Stearns-Yoder, K. A., Schuldt, S. J., Beemer, C. J., Maestre, J. P.,
Kinney, K. A., et al. (2019). Ten Questions Concerning the Built Environment
and Mental Health. Building Environ. 155, 5869. doi:10.1016/J.BUILDENV.
Ingram, R. E. (1984). Toward an Information-Processing Analysis of Depression. Cogn.
Ther. Res. 8, 443477. doi:10.1007/bf01173284
Izard, C. E. (2013). Human Emotions. Springer Science & Business Media.
Jokić-Begić, N. (2008). Bihevioralno-kognitivne Terapije. Psihoterapija-škole i
psihoterapijski pravci u Hrvatskoj danas 1, 6374.
(2000). Principles of Neural Science.NewYork:McGraw-Hill.
Kent, M., Parkinson, T., Kim, J., and Schiavon, S. (2021). A Data-Driven Analysis of
Occupant Workspace Dissatisfaction. Building Environ. 205, 108270. doi:10.1016/j.
Frontiers in Environmental Science | April 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 83253720
Sakhaei et al. Quantifying Cinematic Spaces Indicate Sustainable Goals
Archıtectural Design on UsersAffective Experience. YBL J. Built Environ. 6, 519.
Kimura, K., Haramizu, S., Sanada, K., and Oshida, A. (2019). Emotional State of Being
MovedElicitedbyFilms:AComparison with Several Positive Emotions. Front.
Psychol. 10, 1935. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01935
Kistler, A., Mariauzouls, C., and von Berlepsch, K. (1998). Fingertip Temperature as an
Indicator for Sympathetic Responses. Int. J. psychophysiology 29, 3541. doi:10.1016/
Korpal, P., and Jankowiak, K. (2018). Physiological and Self-Report Measures in
Emotion Studies: Methodological Considerations. Polish Psychol. Bull. 49 (4),
475481. doi:10.24425/124345
Kosko, B., and Toms, M. (1994). Fuzzy Thinking: The New Science of Fuzzy Logic.
Flamingo London: International Journal of General Systems.
Psychophysiology of Fear and Sadness: Cardiovascular, Electrodermal, and
Respiratory Responses during Film Viewing,in 47th Annual Meeting of the
Society-for-Psychophysiological-Research, OXFORD OX4 2DQ, OXON,
RD). S20S20.
Kuliga,S.,Dalton,R.C.,andHölscher,C.(2013).Aesthetic and Emotional Appraisal of
the Seattle Public Library and its Relation to Spatial Conguration,in Proceedings
of the International Space Syntax Symposium 2013 (Seoul, South Korea: Sejong
University), 117.
Kunzmann, U., and Grühn, D. (2005). Age Differences in Emotional Reactivity: the
Sample Case of Sadness. Psychol. Aging 20, 4759. doi:10.1037/0882-7974.20.1.47
Lang, A., Dhillon, K., and Dong, Q. (1995). The Effects of Emotional Arousal and
Valence on Television ViewersCognitive Capacity and Memory. J. Broadcasting
Electron. Media 39, 313327. doi:10.1080/08838159509364309
Lang, P. J., Greenwald, M. K., Bradley, M. M., and Hamm, A. O. (1993). Looking at
Pictures: Affective, Facial, Visceral, and Behavioral Reactions. Psychophysiology 30,
261273. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.1993.tb03352.x
Lang,P.J.(1969).The Mechanics of Desensitization and the Laboratory Study of Human
Fear.NewYork:McGraw-Hill,160191. Behavior therapy: Appraisal and status.
Lefebvre, H. (2013). Rhythmanalysis: Space, Time and Everyday Life.London:
Bloomsbury Publishing.
Li, Z., Ba, M., and Kang, J. (2021). Physiological Indicators and Subjective
Restorativeness with Audio-Visual Interactions in Urban Soundscapes.
Sustainable Cities Soc. 75, 103360. doi:10.1016/J.SCS.2021.103360
Health in Construction. J. Constr. Eng. Manage. 136, 650658. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)
Mahdavi, A. (2020). Explanatory Stories of Human Perception and Behavior in
Buildings. Building Environ. 168, 106498. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2019.106498
Maruskin, L. A., Thrash, T. M., and Elliot, A. J. (2012). The Chills as a Psychological
Construct: Content Universe, Factor Structure, Affective Composition, Elicitors,
Trait Antecedents, and Consequences. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 103, 135157. doi:10.
Mehrabian, A. (1996). Pleasure-arousal-dominance: A General Framework for
Describing and Measuring Individual Differences in Temperament. Curr.
Psychol. 14, 261292. doi:10.1007/bf02686918
Mehrabian, A., and Russell, J. A. (1974). An Approach to Environmental Psychology.the
MIT Press.
Montello,D.R.(2007).The Contribution of Space Syntax to a Comprehensive Theory
of Environmental Psychology,in Proceedings of the 6th International Space Syntax
Symposium. _Istanbul, iv-112Retrieved from: http://www.spacesyntaxistanbul.itu.
Physiological Desensitization to Real-Life and Movie Violence. J. Youth
Adolescence 44, 10921108. doi:10.1007/s10964-014-0202-z
Musa, C. Z., and Lépine, J. P. (2000). Cognitive Aspects of Social Phobia: A Review of
Theories and Experimental Research. Eur. Psychiatr. 15, 5966. doi:10.1016/s0924-
Neter, J., Kutner, M. H., Nachtsheim, C. J., and Wasserman, W. (1996). Applied Linear
Regression Models.NewYork:Irwin.Availableat:
Neumann, D. (1999). Film Architecture: From Metropolis to Blade Runner-Das Cabinet
des Dr. Caligari.Prestel.
Nin, A., and Stuhlmann, G. (1966). The Diary of Anais Nin: Volume One: 1931-1934.
Harvest/Harcourt, Brace & World.
Nitsche, M., Roudavski, S., Penz, F., and Thomas, M. (2002). Nar rative Expressive Space.
SIGGROUP Bull. 23, 1013. doi:10.1145/962185.962189
Osmond, P. (2011). The Convex Space as Theatomof Urban Analysis. The J. Space
Syntax 2, 97114.
Pallasmaa, J. (2007a). The Architecture of Image: Existential Space in Cinema.Helsinki:
Pallasmaa, J. (2007b). The Eyes of the Skin. Architecture and the Senses.
Panksepp, J., and Bernatzky, G. (2002). Emotional Sounds and the Brain: the Neuro-
Affective Foundations of Musical Appreciation. Behav. Process. 60, 133155. doi:10.
Penz, F. (2017). Cinematic Aided Design: An Everyday Life Approach to Architecture.
London: Routledge.
Plutchik, R. (1980). Emotion. A Psychoevolutionary Synthesis.
Prinz, W. (2005). An Ideomotor Approach to Imitation. Perspect.imitation:Neurosci.
Soc. Sci. 1, 141156.
Cardiovascular Changes during Induced Emotion. J. psychosomatic Res. 47,
255267. doi:10.1016/s0022-3999(99)00036-7
Ragin, C. C. (2009). Redesigning Social Inquiry: Fuzzy Sets and beyond. Social Forces 88,
Ravaja, N. (2004). Contributions of Psychophysiology to media Research: Review and
Recommendations. Media Psychol. 6, 193235. doi:10.1207/s1532785xmep0602_4
Reinecke,M.A.,Dattilio,F.M.,andFreeman,A.(1996).Cognitive Therapy with
Children and Adolescents.NewYork:TheGuilford.
Roudavski, S., and Penz, F. (2003). Space, agency, Meaning and Drama in Navigable
Real-Time Virtual Environments. Utrecht, Netherlands: DIGRA.
Rusting, C. L. (1998). Personality, Mood, and Cognitive Processing of Emotional
Information: Three Conceptual Frameworks. Psychol. Bull. 124, 165196. doi:10.
Sakhaei, H. (2020). Interactive Kinetic Canopy with Industrial Architecture Legacy
Preservation Approach. Jard 4, 1. doi:10.26689/jard.v4i2.1033
Schneider, W. (1987). Sinn und Un-Sinn: Umwelt sinnlich erlebbar gestalten in
Architektur und Design.Gütersloh,Germany:Bau-Verlag.
Changes in Feeling Moved Match Changes in Closeness, Tears, Goosebumps, and
Warmth: Time Series Analyses. Cogn. Emot. 32, 174184. doi:10.1080/02699931.
Brain Processes in Emotional Perception: Motivated Attention. Cogn. Emot. 18,
593611. doi:10.1080/02699930341000239
Schwarz, N., and Strack, F. (1999). Reports of Subjective Well-Being: Judgmental
Processes and Their Methodological Implications. Well-being: foundations hedonic
Psychol. 7, 6184.
Segal, Z. V. (1988). Appraisal of the Self-Schema Construct in Cognitive Models of
Depression. Psychol. Bull. 103, 147162. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.103.2.147
Differences in Aesthetic Chills and Other Unusual Aesthetic Experiences. Psychol.
Aesthetics, Creativity, Arts 5, 208214. doi:10.1037/a0021914
Sinha, R. (1996). Multivariate Response Patterning of Fear and Anger. Cogn. Emot. 10,
173198. doi:10.1080/026999396380321
Soesman, A. (2005). De Twaalf Zintuigen. Netherlands: Vrij Geestesleven.
Šolcová, I. P., and Lačev, A. (2017). Differences in Male and Female Subjective
Experience and Physiological Reactions to Emotional Stimuli. Int.
J. Psychophysiology 117, 7582. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2017.04.009
Characterization of Movie Scenes Based on Content Analysis and Physiological
Changes. Int. J. Semantic Comput. 03, 235254. doi:10.1142/s1793351x09000744
Torresin, S., Pernigotto, G., Cappelletti, F., and Gasparella, A. (2018). Combined Effects
of Environmental Factors on Human Perception and Objective Performance: A
Review of Experimental Laboratory Works. Indoor Air 28, 525538. doi:10.1111/
Turner, A., Doxa, M., OSullivan, D., and Penn, A. (2001). From Isovists to Visibility
Graphs: a Methodology for the Analysis of Architectural Space. Environ. Plann. B
Plann. Des. 28, 103121. doi:10.1068/b2684
Upton, D. (2002). Architecture in Everyday Life. New Literary Hist. 33, 707723. doi:10.
Frontiers in Environmental Science | April 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 83253721
Sakhaei et al. Quantifying Cinematic Spaces Indicate Sustainable Goals
Vidler, A. (1992). The Architectural Uncanny: Essays in the Modern Unhomely.MIT
Wang, L., Zhou, Y., Wang, F., Ding, L., Love, P. E. D., and Li, S. (2021). The Inuence of
the Built Environment on Peoples Mental Health: An Empirical Classication of
Causal Factors. Sustainable Cities Soc. 74, 103185. doi:10.1016/J.SCS.2021.103185
Wassiliwizky, E., Wagner, V., Jacobsen, T., and Menninghaus, W. (2015). Art-elicited
Chills Indicate States of Being Moved. Psychol. Aesthetics, Creativity, Arts 9, 405416.
Watson, D., Clark, L. A., and Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and Validation of Brief
Measures of Positive and Negative Affect: the PANAS Scales. J. Personal. Soc.
Psychol. 54, 10631070. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063
Wundt, W. M. (1922). Grundriss der psychologie.Leipzig,Germany:Kröner.
Density Cities Using Visual Exposure and Machine Learning: Tracking Real-Time
Physiology and Psychology in Hong Kong. Building Environ. 205, 108273. doi:10.
Xu, M., Jin, J. S., Luo, S., and Duan, L. (2008). Hierarchical Movie Affective Content
Analysis Based on Arousal and Valence Features,in Proceedings of the 16th ACM
international conference on Multimedia, 677680. doi:10.1145/1459359.1459457
Yeganeh, M. (2020). Conceptual and Theoretical Model of Integrity between Buildings
and City. Sustainable Cities Soc. 59, 102205. doi:10.1016/j.scs.2020.102205
Yeganeh, M., and Kamalizadeh, M. (2018). Territorial Behaviors and Integration
between Buildings and City in Urban Public Spaces of Iran׳s Metropolises.
Front. Architectural Res. 7, 588599. doi:10.1016/j.foar.2018.06.004
Yoshihara, K., Tanabe, H. C., Kawamichi, H., Koike, T., Yamazaki, M., Sudo, N.,
et al. (2016). Neural Correlates of Fear-Induced Sympathetic Response
Associated with the Peripheral Temperature Change Rate. NeuroImage 134,
522531. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.04.040
Zaltman, G. (2003). How Customers Think: Essential Insights into the Mind of the
Market. Boston: Harvard Business Press.
Zawidzki, M. (2016). Automated Geometrical Evaluation of a plaza (Town Square).
Adv. Eng. Softw. 96, 5869. doi:10.1016/j.advengsoft.2016.01.018
Zickfeld, J. H., Arriaga, P., Santos, S. V., Schubert, T. W., and Seibt, B. (2020). Tears of
joy, Aesthetic Chills and Heartwarming Feelings: Physiological Correlates of Kama
Muta. Psychophysiology 57, e13662. doi:10.1111/psyp.13662
Conict of Interest: The authors declare that the research was conducted in the
absence of any commercial or nancial relationships that could be construed as a
potential conict of interest.
Publishers Note: All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors
and do not necessarily represent those of their afliated organizations, or those of
the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in
this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or
endorsed by the publisher.
Copyright © 2022 Sakhaei, Yeganeh and Afhami. This is an open-access article
use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original
author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this
journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or
reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Frontiers in Environmental Science | April 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 83253722
Sakhaei et al. Quantifying Cinematic Spaces Indicate Sustainable Goals
... In centralist structures based on a traditional perspective, general and inflexible divisions of social capital, i.e., networks of cooperation and mutual trust are not formed (He et al., 2021). Neighborhood planning emphasizes that neighborhood residents, through the shared and long experience of living in an environment, can identify many of the needs and necessities of their daily lives and, in coordination with senior management, help create sustainable urban neighborhoods (Sakhaei, Yeganeh, Afhami, 2022). It has more time and space on a local scale. ...
Full-text available
This study investigates the impact of neighborhood branding on increasing its social capital. The issue of social capital at the neighborhood scale is one of the most essential components of quality and for achieving various aspects of sustainability in human life in urban societies. Examining the background of this issue shows that paying attention to the potential of place branding as an essential and practical component in increasing the social capital in neighborhoods has not been seriously studied. This study aims to know the components and measures of place branding that can significantly impact increasing social capital. The conceptual model of this research has been tested in 13 neighborhoods of Ahvaz city and using the opinions of 663 residents of these neighborhoods. The research results show that social capital in neighborhoods is directly related to the brand of those neighborhoods. This study is limited to metropolises with the diversity of architecture and diversity of texture, and social structure in Iran. The results show that place branding, with a coefficient of 0.77, has the highest impact on social values. The impact of place branding on social solidarity, social security, social participation, and place-belonging is equal to 0.61, 0.55, 0.39, and 0.33, respectively.
Full-text available
Recent reviews describe academic scholarship on environmental communication as a subdiscipline of communication studies focused on mass media. However, these reviews may not provide a full picture of the field. We searched one of the most comprehensive citation databases (Scopus) for articles published from 1970 to 2019 containing the root terms environment* communicat*. The dataset ( n = 474) revealed an increase over time in the number of journals that publish environmental communication studies and the breadth of their National Science Foundation disciplinary categorizations. Climate communication, corporate social responsibility, and public engagement and participation represent the most frequent abstract topics. Through co-citation analysis of journals cited in references, we found that the foundational literatures informing the field have grown into dense, interconnected networks across disparate areas of scholarship that span the social sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and business. This disciplinary convergence is a positive sign for the field’s potential to address problems of societal importance.
Full-text available
Walter Benjamin pointed out the affinity of cinema and architecture, and argued unexpectedly that tbese art forms are both essentially tactile arts. The tactility of the material art of building is not difficult to grasp, but the idea that a cinematic projection could result in fundamentally tactile experience certainly meets objections. However, the philosophical as well as neurological studies ofthe past few decades in perception, emotion, and thought, as well as in artistic expressions, suggest that these two arts, or poetic images at large, address ali our senses, including our synthesizing existential sense, all at once. The arts communicate through the “fiesh of the world”, to use a notion of Maurice Merleau-Ponty. The acts of perception, feeling, thinking, and memorizing cal! for the reality and sense of embodiment. We identify ourselves unknowingly with constructed architectural spaces as well as projected cinematic situations with our empathetic capacity. So, Benjamin ‘s argument could be re- -formulated: cinema and architecture are embodied atis in which the externa! and the internal are fully intertwined and fused. “The world is wholly inside, and 1 aro wholly outside myself’, as Merleau-Ponty enigmatically argues.
Full-text available
Studies often aim to determine which indoor environmental quality parameters best predict the overall workspace assessment. However, this method overlooks important differences distinguishing satisfied and dissatisfied occupant groups. We used a new analytical approach on 33671 post-occupancy evaluation responses to overcome this problem and better understand workspace satisfaction in office buildings. Principal components analysis reduced satisfaction votes with 15 different IEQ items into two principal components related to: 1) privacy and amount of space, and 2) cleanliness and maintenance. We grouped the data by occupants that were either satisfied or dissatisfied with their workspace. Principal component 1 explained half of the variability in the dataset and reliably distinguished occupants satisfied with their workspace from those that were dissatisfied. We used support vector machine to classify the satisfied and dissatisfied groups based on principal components 1 and 2. Classification of occupant satisfaction with the overall workspace was highly accurate (approximately 90%) and based predominantly on the component related to privacy and amount of space. Further analyses showed that occupants satisfied with their overall workspace were generally satisfied with all other IEQ items. There was greater independence between workspace attributes for those dissatisfied with their overall workspace. Issues of privacy and available space were an overwhelming determinant of occupant dissatisfaction irrespective of the success of other workspace attributes. These findings suggest that efforts to improve occupant satisfaction with workspaces should leverage designs that ensure privacy and provide sufficient space to support occupants in their work.
Full-text available
Arguments about the effects of repeated exposure to a suspenseful narrative raise controversial disputes over the paradox of suspense. The lexical meaning and the theoretical analyses of suspense imply that suspense cannot be experienced repeatedly because, in such cases, the knowledge from prior viewings and the resolution of outcome will eliminate tension and suspense. However, previous studies have argued that suspense can be re-experienced even when the participants know the outcome or repeatedly confront a suspenseful narrative. This study investigated the effects of repeated exposure to a suspenseful film by collecting self-reported questionnaires and measuring psychophysiological responses. The participants (N = 50) watched clips of a suspenseful film three times and answered self-reported items regarding suspense, arousal, and enjoyment. Psychophysiological data, including skin conductance level (SCL) and electrocardiogram (ECG), were collected while the participants watched the video clips. It was hypothesized that self-reported suspense, arousal, and enjoyment as well as the physiological indices of arousal (SCL) and attention (ECG) would decrease upon repeated viewing of suspenseful clips. Furthermore, it was postulated that there would be inter-group differences depending on the awareness of potential or definite change in outcome at the end of repeatedly shown suspenseful events. The results showed that self-reported suspense and arousal, as well as the physiological measures of SCL, declined with repeated exposure, although there were no significant differences on self-reported enjoyment. No group difference was found in self-reported items, but meaningful significant changes were observed in the group comparison of SCL and ECG. The findings suggest that repeated exposure to suspenseful films could result in affective habituation or desensitization to repeated stimuli. The implications and the limitations of the current study and suggestions for future research are discussed.
The present study aimed to identify the trends of changes in physiological indicators and subjective restorativeness in response to audio-visual interactions in the environment. Four scenarios types were presented using four different modalities (video-sound, image-sound, sound-only, and video-only; each modality was evaluated by independent groups of subjects). The physiological responses and subjective restoration of subjects were measured to assess the interactions between the audio-visual modalities. These data were also analysed to determine the physiological and subjective differences between dynamic and static visual presentations. We found that with visual modalities, the heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV) calculated using the standard deviation of the NN intervals (SDNN-HRV), high-frequency band in the HRV power spectrum (HF-HRV), alpha reactivity on electroencephalography, and skin temperature (ST) decreased; however, the beta reactivity on EEG and skin conductance level (SCL) increased. With auditory modalities, the SDNN-HRV, HF-HRV, ST, and respiration depth decreased; however, the respiration rate and SCL increased. Use of static images and sound to reproduce the natural environment evoked more physiological comfort and subjective restorativeness. These findings could provide physiological insights for the theory of the restorative environment.
People's mental health has been deteriorating as a result of urban living, which also causes disability, pain, or even death among metropolitan residents. Understanding the interaction between human emotions and the built environment is therefore essential for developing strategies towards a psychologically friendly and socially resilient environment. This study aims to model the pedestrian emotion in high-density urban areas of Hong Kong using machine learning based on environmental visual exposure, which is one of the most significant factors affecting emotions. Using ambulatory sensing and portable technologies, two-dimensional emotional data from 99 pedestrians are retrieved from coupled data with respect to wearable arousal, subjective report preference, and the location at a high spatiotemporal resolution (4 m). The visual environment is quantified by isovist and street view factors. This study examines the impact of visual exposures using two multiple linear regression (MLR) models and establishes a predictive model using random forest (RF) (N = 548). The MLR models have R² values around 0.5 and suggest that in the high-density environment, exposure to more trees, visual volume, and drift magnitude can cause positive emotions. Conversely, areas with a view of sign symbols, object proportion, min-radial, and occlusivity can cause negative emotions. The resultant predictive model with nine visual exposure variables can explain 79% of the spatial variance of pedestrian emotion. Furthermore, the methodological framework provides opportunities for spatial, data-driven approaches to portable sensing and urban planning research. The findings are also applicable to optimize the infrastructure design of outdoor environments for more psychologically friendly experiences.
This study used electroencephalograms (EEGs) to investigate thermal discomfort. The thermal discomfort defined in this study considers both thermal displeasure induced by step-changes and thermal discomfort induced by temperature ramping. A total of 108 people in their 20s and 30s participated in the experiments. The subjects experienced uncomfortable thermal environmental changes and changes in EEG were measured accordingly. The EEG data were divided into four frequency bands, namely; theta (4–8 Hz), alpha (8–13 Hz), beta (13–30 Hz), and gamma (30–40 Hz) waves for analysis. By examining the thermal-displeasure EEGs, we observed that when thermal displeasure was induced by heat, the relative theta power decreased and the relative beta and gamma powers increase. Furthermore, the relative theta power decreased when thermal displeasure was induced by cold. By examining the thermal-discomfort EEGs, we observed that all the EEG power values increases when thermal discomfort results from either heat or cold. Based on these experimental results, the brainwaves can be utilized to increase the prediction accuracy of individual thermal comfort by the conventional comfort model that is based on physical quantities, such as, temperature, humidity, air velocity, metabolic rate, and clothing insulation.
There is a degree of ambiguity about the specific factors of the built environment that impact people's mental health. This paper aims to examine the relations between an individual's mental health and the environmental risk factors. Drawing on clinical data and an outpatient survey from a hospital in China, 993 samples over 18 years old were available. A Boruta algorithm is deployed to determine the factors that affect people's mental health and an association rule algorithm is then introduced to ascertain the associations between risk factors. The analysis reveals the main risk environmental factors (i.e., environmental degradation and the absence of green spaces) and their coupling effects on mental health. Environmental degradation may be a key mediator in the green space-mental health relationship. Another key risk pattern is that physically unhealthy people who reside in places lacking green spaces are prone to having mental health problems. Considering the identified risks, there is a need for built environment professionals (e.g., architects and planners) to place greater emphasis on incorporating green spaces and environment management strategies into housing developments. This paper will contribute to the development of urban planning and management policies to create environments that support people's positive mental health.