All things bio : A conceptual domain-based approach to mapping practice within the landscape of biologically informed disciplines

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The research presented in this article tackles the problem of terminological disharmony within biologically informed disciplines (BID). Lexical semantic theories and methods are applied to corpus-based investigations to assess the scope of BID terminology. The results are analysed using statistical and qualitative methods and mapped against known academic domains. The resulting map is evaluated via the analysis and consequent positioning of biologically informed textile research. The findings suggest that the experimental framework embodies an alternative approach to mapping practice within BID landscape that overrides the need for broad, generic terms. Instead presents the work within an established network of theories and concepts with transparent interdisciplinary connections.

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Statistical analysis of the mechanisms and processes in biological organisms (derived from published, peer-reviewed, research papers) reveals that there are ‘design’ rules which could be used to facilitate technical design, thus producing biologically inspired design without the necessity for the designer using such a system to invoke biology or biological expertise since this has already been done when the rules were extracted. Even so, this is not a necessary and sufficient condition for good design. Four principles derived from the Russian system TRIZ (widely used in technology as an objective system for solving problems inventively) are highlighted and summarised as Local Quality; Consolidation or Merging; Dynamics; Prior Cushioning. More design rules, derived in the same way, are needed to expand the importance of information (sensu lato) and materials, two aspects that the TRIZ system currently does not deal with adequately.
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This article offers a complementary approach to research and education in biologically informed disciplines through the lens of bionics, biomimetics, and biomimicry terminology. For the purpose of developing this approach, we look at past and current contexts in which the three fields have emerged and identify three issues: an absence of common ground that unites the fields of bionics, biomimetics, and biomimicry while recognizing their contextual differences, a non-standardized use of the terminology that leads to ambiguity within the field of biologically informed disciplines, an incomplete and disorganized historical and contextual knowledge about the field that inhibits a common starting ground for collaboration, and confuses non-scientists who seek biological understanding. We offer a fundamental understanding of the fields from theoretical perspective by bringing together opinions of researchers and practitioners of bionics, biomimetics, biomimicry, bio-inspiration and offering a comprehensive analysis of terms culminating in the introduction of an overarching term 'biologically informed disciplines'.
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Does life (for the living) differ from that of the non-living? If so, how? and how, in that case, does biology as the study of living things differ from other sciences? These questions are examined through an exploration of episodes in the history of biology and philosophy.
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The concept of using ideas from nature to further technology has been given a number of names such as “Biomimetics”, “Biomimesis”, “Biognosis” and “Bionics”. In each instance it’s probably fair to adopt the attitude of Lewis Carroll’s Humpty Dumpty and say that the meaning of all four words is whatever I want it to be — and in this instance I shall define the meaning of all four words as the same. Biomimetics is the technological outcome of the act of borrowing or stealing ideas from nature. It is difficult to trace the origins of this approach, since man has looked to nature for inspiration for more than 3000 years (when the Chinese hankered after an artificial silk). In modern times, the word “bionics” was coined by Jack Steele of the US Air Force in 1960 at a meeting at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio. He defined it as the science of systems which have some function copied from nature, or which represent characteristics of natural systems or their analogues. In 1966 R-G Busnel, of the animal acoustics laboratory in Jouy-en-Josas in France, organised a meeting on the theme “Biological models of animal sonar systems” in which the Office of Naval Research of the USA was involved. They had already funded other work in the general area of biological engineering, such as Torkel Weis-Fogh’s work on resilin (a rubbery type of insect cuticle) and elastin in Cambridge. Busnel’s meeting was one of the first at which these problems were discussed by biologists, engineers and mathematicians in order to discover general principles of technology.
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Biomimetics is a research field that is achieving particular prominence through an explosion of new discoveries in biology and engineering. The field concerns novel technologies developed through the transfer of function from biological systems. To analyze the impact of this field within engineering and related sciences, we compiled an extensive database of publications for study with network-based information analysis techniques. Criteria included publications by year and journal or conference, and subject areas judged by popular and common terms in titles. Our results reveal that this research area has expanded rapidly from less than 100 papers per year in the 1990s to several thousand papers per year in the first decade of this century. Moreover, this research is having impact across a variety of research themes, spanning robotics, computer science and bioengineering. In consequence, biomimetics is becoming a leading paradigm for the development of new technologies that will potentially lead to significant scientific, societal and economic impact in the near future.
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This article offers a critical analysis and overview of terminology theories with special reference to scientific and technical translation. The study of specialized language is undergoing a cognitive shift, which is conducive to a greater emphasis on meaning as well as conceptual structures underlying texts and language in general. Terminology theory seems to be evolving from prescriptive to descriptive with a growing focus on the study of specialized language units from a social, linguistic and cognitive perspective. In consonance with this, new voices are beginning to be heard, which offer different and complementary perspectives on specialized language and translation. Este artículo propone un análisis crítico y una visión global de las teorías terminológicas con especial atención a la traducción científica y técnica. El estudio de los tecnolectos está sometido en la actualidad a un cambio hacia el cognitivismo, que a su vez conduce a un énfasis mucho mayor tanto en el significado como en las estructuras conceptuales que subyacen en los textos y en la lengua en general. La terminología parece estar pasando del prescriptivismo al descriptivismo, con un interés creciente por enfocar el estudio de las unidades de los tecnolectos desde una perspectiva social, lingüística y cognitiva. En esta misma línea, comienzan a oírse nuevas voces que ofrecen perspectivas diferentes y complementarias en torno a los tecnolectos y la traducción.
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Biomimetics, a name coined by Otto Schmitt in the 1950s for the transfer of ideas and analogues from biology to technology, has produced some significant and successful devices and concepts in the past 50 years, but is still empirical. We show that TRIZ, the Russian system of problem solving, can be adapted to illuminate and manipulate this process of transfer. Analysis using TRIZ shows that there is only 12% similarity between biology and technology in the principles which solutions to problems illustrate, and while technology solves problems largely by manipulating usage of energy, biology uses information and structure, two factors largely ignored by technology.
The terminology of a particular field of science or technology is highly specialized structure. At each historical stage in the development of geology, the number of lexical units of geological terminology is commensurate with the mass of acquired knowledge. With the growth of knowledge, the need for new terms increases, which is partially offset by borrowing terms from other areas of knowledge and to some extent satisfied by the formation of new terms. The article is about the term system of geology. It tries to describe the phenomena inherent in Geology and the problems of their their translation. Texts related to geological science are very difficult to study, and not only ordinary people experience difficulties in acquaintance with one of these texts, but also difficulties arise among specialists. Geological systems of terms are of great importance not only for our country, but also for the whole world. , since the development of the earth's crust is carried out in all corners of the globe.
Applying Properties of Animals Skins to Inspire Architectural Envelopes Biology influences design projects in many ways; the related discipline is known as biomimetics or biomimicry. Using the animal kingdom as a source of inspiration, Ilaria Mazzoleni seeks to instill a shift in thinking about the application of biological principles to design and architecture. She focuses on the analysis of how organisms have adapted to different environments and translates the learned principles into the built environment. To illustrate the methodology, Mazzoleni draws inspiration from the diversity of animal coverings, referred to broadly as skin, and applies them to the design of building envelopes through a series of twelve case studies. Skin is a complex organ that performs a multitude of functions; namely, it serves as a link between the body and the environment. Similarly, building envelopes act as interfaces between their inhabitants and external elements. The resulting architectural designs illustrate an integrative methodology that allows architecture to follow nature. “Ilaria Mazzoleni, in collaboration with biologist Shauna Price, has developed a profound methodology for architectural and design incentives that anticipates and proposes novel ways to explore undiscovered biological inspirations for various audiences.” -Yoseph Bar-Cohen.
In Languages for Specific Purposes (LSPs), variation and term formation are often seen as related phenomena, variation being interpreted as a sign of neology. In scientific discourse though, variation can play specific roles, thereby giving a different dimension to neology as a linguistic process than generally implied in terminological studies. The well-known referential function, consisting of creating new designations for naming new concepts, can be set aside in scientific texts to create space for what we define as the cognitive function: a situation where a scientist purposefully employs term variation as a means for theorising and better explaining a given concept. We argue that Halliday’s “grammatical metaphor” and “given-new” information theory provide an interesting background for understanding scientific term formation processes, and the ensuing issue of terminological variation. Consequently, in this article, we try to place the phenomenon of neology and of terminological variation within the framework of discourse analysis, by devising a method for probing sequential behaviour of terminological variants across text sections. Additionally, this study aims to improve building lexical resources within the ARTES terminological and phraseological multilingual database project, which serves as a support for developing lexicographical and translational skills in students in specialised translation.
Lexical semantics is an academic discipline concerned with the meaning of words.
This work recounts the life of Otto Herbert Schmitt who is most widely known as the inventor of the Schmitt trigger, which he developed as a graduate student in the mid-1930s. Schmitt remained an active scientist, engineer, and intellectual until the mid-1990s - six decades that brimmed with energy, effort, and insights. Viewing his life in full context suggests that the Schmitt trigger was a mere prelude to his greatest innovation, which Schmitt fully articulated near the end of his career: the concept of a biomimetic approach to science and engineering - an idea rather than a gadget. Schmitt played instrumental roles in establishing a number of the professional associations that continue to provide vital means of interchange among biophysicists and biomedical engineers.
Man-machine systems may be highly unified and tightly coupled so that they operate practically as a single entity or they may be loosely coupled so that the interfaces are easily discernible and the interaction easily understood whether the interface be close to the biological organism, as in the case of bio-transducers or close to the machine as in conventional digital computers. In most existing cases, however, there is an unnecessary degree of formalization of the intercommunication in terms of an over-simplified clumsy physical or mathematical model or code. It appears possible to develop communication codes based on mathematical models more closely in conformity with indwelling biological codes and thus to facilitate man-machine and other bio-engineering interactions with expected simplification and performance improvement of machine systems and subsequent development of much more tightly knit, effectively functional man-machine systems.
Tissue Engineered Textiles; ‘Can the Integration of Textile Craft with Tissue-Engineering Techniques Lead to the Development of a New Materiality for Future Design Applications?’” Doctoral diss
  • A Congdon
Congdon, A. 2020. "Tissue Engineered Textiles; 'Can the Integration of Textile Craft with Tissue-Engineering Techniques Lead to the Development of a New Materiality for Future Design Applications?'" Doctoral diss., University of the Arts London.
Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature
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Benyus, J. M. 1997. Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature. New York: HarperCollins. Caso, A. L. 1980. "The Production of New Scientific Terms." American Speech 55 (2): 101-111. doi:10.2307/3050500.
Lexicology: An International Handbook on the Nature and Structure of Words and Vocabularies
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Cruse, D. A., F. Hundsnurscher, M. Job, and P. R. Lutzeier. 2002. Lexicology: An International Handbook on the Nature and Structure of Words and Vocabularies. Berlin & New York: Walter de Gruyter.
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Kapsali, V. 2016. Biomimetics for Designers. London: Thames & Hudson.
Paper presented at the Acadia 2016 Posthuman Frontiers: Data, Designers, and Cognitive Machines: Projects Catalog of the 36th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture
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Scott, J. 2016. "Programmable Knitting." Paper presented at the Acadia 2016 Posthuman Frontiers: Data, Designers, and Cognitive Machines: Projects Catalog of the 36th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, October, 276-281. Acadia Publishing Company.
Biological Engineering
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How Do We Get There?
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Steele, J. E. 1960. "How Do We Get There?" In Bionics Symposium: Living Prototypes, the Key to New Technology, September 13-15. WADD, Technical Report, Wright Air Development Division, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH, 488-489.
Bionics vs. Biomimicry: From Control of Nature to Sustainable Participation in Nature
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Wahl, D. C. 2006. "Bionics vs. Biomimicry: From Control of Nature to Sustainable Participation in Nature." Design and Nature III 87: 289-298.