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Two new genera and four new species of jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae: Dendryphantini)

Authors:
  • National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET), Argentina
  • Instituto Misionero de Biodiversidad

Abstract

The new genera Ahijuna gen. n. and Lumptibiella gen. n. (Araneae, Salticidae) including four new species, A. patoruzito sp. n., L. camporum sp. n., L. chacoensis sp. n. and L. paranensis sp. n., are described from specimens recently discovered in areas endangered by wildfires in Argentina. The species of these new genera share the typical structure of the genitalia with many Dendryphantini Menge. However, the combination of a distinct atrium on the anterior half of epigynal field for both genera, a small body size, flattened carapace shape, and a distinctive dorsal coloration pattern in the case of Ahijuna gen. n., and the possession of a lump-shaped process on the middle of the male tibia retrolateral side in the case of Lumptibiella gen. n., are not found in other Neotropical dendryphantine. Available ecological data suggests that most of these species inhabit grasslands. Full colored photographs are provided.
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Two new genera and four new
species of jumping spiders
(Araneae: Salticidae:
Dendryphantini)
Gonzalo D. Rubio1,2*, Julián E.M. Baigorria3, Cristian E.
Stolar2
ABSTRACT
The new genera Ahijuna gen. n. and Lumptibiella gen. n. (Araneae, Salticidae)
including four new species, A. patoruzito sp. n., L. camporum sp. n., L. chacoensis
sp. n. and L. paranensis sp. n., are described from specimens recently
discovered in areas endangered by wildfires in Argentina. The species of these
new genera share the typical structure of the genitalia with many
Dendryphantini Menge. However, the combination of a distinct atrium on the
anterior half of epigynal field for both genera, a small body size, flattened
carapace shape, and a distinctive dorsal coloration pattern in the case of
Ahijuna gen. n., and the possession of a lump-shaped process on the middle of
the male tibia retrolateral side in the case of Lumptibiella gen. n., are not found
in other Neotropical dendryphantine. Available ecological data suggests that
most of these species inhabit grasslands. Full colored photographs are
provided.
Keywords: Argentina, Neotropical dendryphantine, salticid, taxonomy
1. INTRODUCTION
As the anthropic pressure on the planet increases, the threat to ecosystems
grows (Wood & Gillman 1998). Interest in the conservation of biodiversity is
increasing, while the resources and time available to achieve this are limited
(Hughes et al. 2000). The increased frequency of wildfires is among the most
visible threats, this cause catastrophic negative impacts on wildlife, it is
estimated that between 13 and 18 million small vertebrates (lizards, birds, and
rodents) died in almost four million hectares of burned land of the Brazilian
Pantanal between January and November 2020 (Tomas et al. 2021); in the same
year in which 1.1 million hectares burned in Argentina. However, during the
summer of 2022, there were many more outbreaks of forest fires in our
country, aggravated by extreme drought conditions. In the province of
Corrientes alone, by February 18, about 800 thousand hectares were burned
Species
23(71), 2022
To Cite:
Rubio GD, Baigorria JEM, Stolar CE. Two new genera and four new
species of jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae: Dendryphantini). Species,
2022, 23(71), 193-206
Author Affiliation:
1National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET),
Argentina
2Estación Experimental Agropecuaria Cerro Azul (EEACA, INTA), Cerro
Azul, Misiones, Argentina
3Fundación Azara, Buenos Aires, Argentina
*Corresponding author:
National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET),
Argentina
&
Estación Experimental Agropecuaria Cerro Azul (EEACA, INTA), Cerro
Azul, Misiones, Argentina
E-mail: grubio@conicet.gov.ar
Peer-Review History
Received: 11 March 2022
Reviewed & Revised: 15/March/2022 to 14/April/2022
Accepted: 15 April 2022
Published: 18 April 2022
Peer-Review Model
External peer-review was done through double-blind method.
© 2022 Discovery Scientific Society. This work is licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
DISCOVERY
SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY
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(8% of the province's territory) with an increasing rate of 29 thousand hectares per day (SNMF 2022).
The wildfires may have strong consequences also on arthropods (Jofré et al. 2022), the risk that species with limited or endemic
distribution and low vagility could become extinct is a reality, even before they are discovered and described. Faced this scenario of
species and habitats loss, it is necessary to intensify efforts to discover and reveal the new taxonomic entities as soon as possible.
Within the subtribe Dendryphantina Menge, 1879 (Dendryphantini Menge, 1879) there is a great diversity of genera, more than
fifty (Maddison 2015), and one of the greatest specific richness with hundreds of species that inhabit mainly the New World. The
boundaries of the tribe (three synapomorphies, see Maddison 1996) and subtribe are well characterized; however, each genus has
many problems in being correctly diagnosed (Scioscia 1990; Maddison 1996, 2015). The lack of distinctive morphological characters
due to the homogeneity across the subtribe (Maddison 1996), the high number of described species and proposed genera sharing
maintained reproductive structures, the little interspecifically and even among genera variability, lead us to look for greater effort
to understand this group, without dispensing to publicize the new taxonomic entities.
Many genera of Salticidae from Argentina have not been conclusively diagnosed or their descriptions are not adequate to enable
correct identification. Genera of dendryphantines are a notable example of this Polyphyletic "species hodgepodge" (Scioscia 1990;
Maddison 1996) that should not be supported or enhanced. Specimens of dendryphantine were repeatedly found in Argentina in
recent samplings, but could not be identified within existing genera. As a result of this context we prioritize the descriptions of new
taxa when they are taxonomically well supported, so two new genera of dendryphantines including four new species (three with
both sexes) are described in the present paper. These species share general genitalic characters with many genera of the subtribe, for
example Dendryphantes C. L. Koch, 1837, Naubolus Simon, 1901 and Pseudofluda Mello-Leitão, 1928. However, the combination of
distinctive reproductive structures, body characteristics, shapes and coloration patterns are not found in other Neotropical
dendryphantines.
2. MATERIAL & METHODS
Specimens were examined from the collections of the Instituto de Biología Subtropical, Misiones, Argentina (IBSI-Ara, G. Rubio).
Descriptions style, terms, abbreviations and measurements follow recent studies on salticids (Edwards 2015). Female genitalia were
dissected as described by Levi (1965), examined after digestion in a hot ~15% NaOH solution, and cleared in clove oil to exam ine
their internal structure. Temporary preparations (on a slide) were observed and photographed using a Leica DM500 compound
microscope and a Leica M60 stereomicroscope. Measurements were taken directly from the microscope ocular lens with an ocular
micrometer and are expressed in millimeters. Photographs of live spiders were taken using a Nikon D3400 digital camera with a
Raynox 250 or a Micro-Nikkor 85 mm lenses. Plates were composed in Corel Draw X3.
Nomenclatural acts
This published work and the nomenclatural acts it contains have been registered in Zoobank:
http://zoobank.org/References/0BA64106-133E-4DD5-952C-6E5BA3CD1A65. The LSID for this publication is: urn:lsid:
zoobank.org:pub:0BA64106-133E-4DD5-952C-6E5BA3CD1A65
Acronyms used in the text and figures are as follows: aCP = anteriorly-opening coupling pocket, AE = anterior eye, ALE =
anterior lateral eye, At = atrium, CD = copulatory duct, CO = copulatory opening, Cy = cymbium, d = dorsal leg macrosetae, E =
embolus, FD = fertilization duct, H = haematodocha, p = prolateral leg macrosetae, pCP = posteriorly-opening coupling pocket, PE =
posterior eye, PLE = posterior lateral eye, RTA = retrolateral tibial apophysis, S = spermophore, Sp = spermathecae, v = ventral leg
macrosetae.
3. RESULTS / TAXONOMY
Salticidae Blackwall, 1841
Salticinae Blackwall, 1841
Dendryphantini Menge, 1879
Ahijuna Rubio, Baigorria & Stolar, gen. n.
http://zoobank.org/48AFD724-7E76-4127-A39D-D7572417F1C0
Type species
Ahijuna patoruzito sp. n., by monotypy.
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Etymology
“Ahijuna” is an expression of people who generally live in rural areas, it is used to express different feelings, especially
astonishment or admiration; gender feminine.
Figure 1. Male of Ahijuna patoruzito sp. n., holotype (IBSI-Ara 1699) (aj); subadult male (k): Habitus in frontal (a), dorsal (b) and
lateral (c) views; left palp in ventral (d, e), retrolateral (f), dorsal (g) and prolateral apical (h) views; habitus of live specimens (ik).
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Figure 2. Female of Ahijuna patoruzito sp. n., allotype (IBSI-Ara 1701): Habitus in frontal (a), dorsal (b) and lateral (c) views;
epigynum in ventral (d) view; same, cleared (e), same, different focus (f); habitus of live specimens (gi).
Remarks
The subtribe Dendryphantina generally consists of high-bodied and reasonably robust spiders, with the vast majority of species
exceeding 7 mm in length. Nevertheless, there is a series of less speciose lineages that include smaller, elongate or flattened spiders
such as some Naubolus, Pseudofluda (except for P. palachiyaxa Nadal, 2021 which is not a true congeneric) and maybe some South
American Dendryphantes (surely misplaced within this genus due to its reasonable distribution in the Old World). However, the
problem is that spiders of this subtribe share many characteristics mainly the structure of the genitalia typical of the
dendryphantines: male palps with a reduced spiral embolus and females with copulatory opening forming an “S” on the epigynal
plate (Maddison 1996); with sometimes imperceptible differences among genera.
Differential diagnosis
Specimens of Ahijuna gen. n. share the structure of the genitalia with the great majority of dendryphantines (see above), share the
small body sizes less than 5 millimeters with few dendryphantine genera (Naubolus, Pseudofluda and Lumptibiella gen. n.), and with
Pseudofluda their flattened bodies, but Ahijuna gen. n. can be easily distinguished from these genera and from all other
dendryphantines by having, in the case of males, a broad marginal dorsal ring of creamy yellow setae just dorsal to the AE and
ventral to the PLE, all around the carapace on a blackish background (Fig. 1ac, ik); both sexes are distinguished by having the
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elongate abdomen with a conspicuous longitudinal dorsal medial white stripe on an amber colored background (immatures and
females have three of this stripes; see figures 1k, 2gi).
Description
Male (holotype IBSI-Ara 1699). Carapace length 1.51; abdomen length 1.75. Carapace (Fig. 1ac, ik) dark brown to blackish, with a
marginal dorsal ring of creamy yellow setae just dorsal to the AE and ventral the PLE and all around the carapace. Clypeus dark
brown, very narrow with black setae (Fig. 1a). Chelicerae almost vertical; one promarginal and one retromarginal tooth (both large).
Palp dark brown, almost black; cymbium with hairs scattered dorsally, but shorter and denser at the apex forming a brush (Fig. 1f,
g). Embolus short, thick, sclerotized with a curvature to the prolateral side (Fig. 1df). Legs II to IV amber colored; leg I much
stronger, black except for the tarsus that is amber colored like the other legs (Fig. 1ac). Macrosetae tibia I v2-2-2, metatarsus I v2-2;
tibia II v1-1-1, metatarsus II v2-2. Abdomen pale yellow; in life amber colored with one longitudinal dorsal medial band of creamy
yellow setae (Fig. 1ik).
Female (allotype IBSI-Ara 1701). Carapace length 1.41; abdomen length 1.69. Carapace (Fig. 2ac, gi) brown, somewhat orange,
with darker cephalic region; dorsally covered with white to translucent setae (greyish in life). Clypeus brown, very narrow with
pale setae (Fig. 2a). Chelicerae almost vertical; two promarginal teeth (one small) and one retromarginal tooth. Palps and legs II to
IV pale yellow; leg I slightly stronger, amber (Fig. 2ac). Macrosetae as in male. Abdomen as in male; in life amber colored with the
longitudinal dorsal medial stripe of creamy yellow setae plus two equal but lateral stripes (Fig. 2gi). Epigyne small plate, weakly
sclerotized; CDs relatively short, starting in two COs that enter anteriorly. Spermatheca small, not spherical, located posteriorly
(Fig. 2df).
Composition. Only the type species, A. patoruzito sp. n.
Ahijuna patoruzito Rubio, Baigorria & Stolar, sp. n.
http://zoobank.org/384CD127-7439-4E23-A7E4-4A57D7F79A7A
Type material
Male holotype (IBSI-Ara 1699) and female allotype (IBSI-Ara 1701) from Argentina, Misiones, Candelaria, Santa Cecilia Ranch (-
27.45046° S; -55.71637° W), 7 December 2021, Baigorria J.E. coll.
Etymology
The specific epithet refers to the famous Argentinian comics character “Patoruzito”, a young Native American boy with black hair
and a white headband, dressed with an amber “poncho” that resembles this new species.
Diagnosis and description. As for the genus (Figs. 1, 2).
Natural history
All specimen where collected at Santa Cecilia Ranch, southern Misiones, within the ecoregion known as Southern Cone
Mesopotamian Savanna. The species is apparently restricted to tall and well preserved humid grasslands, dominated by
Sorghastrum Nash and Andropogon Linneo grasses. All individuals were collected over these vegetal species, within the medial
section of the grass, where they are particularly thick and dense. One male was collected along with an immature female, which
might suggest a “mate guarding” behavior, observed in other dendryphantines. This species coexists with other salticid spiders,
like Pachomius areteguazu Rubio, Stolar & Baigorria, 2021, Maeota dorsalis Zhang & Maddison, 2012, and the new species Lumptibiella
camporum sp. n. (this paper) among others, but it is one of the few species within its size range inhabiting this environment. In
captivity, they accepted small culicid dipterans as prey. When disturbed, they behave like if they were death, retracting their legs
close to the body, without moving for almost a minute.
Distribution
Only known from northeastern Argentina, in Candelaria, Misiones.
Other material examined. Misiones province, Candelaria, Santa Cecilia Ranch (-27.45046° S; -55.71637° W), 1 male (IBSI-Ara 1522),
beating on grassland, 15 September 2020, Baigorria J.E. coll.
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Lumptibiella Rubio, Stolar & Baigorria, gen. n.
http://zoobank.org/179149F4-6628-40F7-9EED-746D8422D3FC
Type species. Lumptibiella chacoensis sp. n.
Etymology
“Lumptibiella” is a compound name in apposition combining the English and Latin words “lump” and “tibia”, meaning
"possessing tibia with lump", diagnosis for this genus; plus the ending “ella” typical of several genera of Salticidae. Gender
feminine.
Diagnosis
Specimens of Lumptibiella gen. n. share characteristics of typical genitalia with many dendryphantines: male palps with a reduced
spiral embolus and females with copulatory opening forming an “S” on the epigynal plate (Maddison 1996), share the small body
sizes less than 5 millimeters with few dendryphantine genera, for instance, Naubolus, Pseudofluda and Ahijuna gen. n. (this paper).
Nevertheless, Lumptibiella gen. n. can be easily distinguished from these genera and from all other small dendryphantines by
having a conspicuous lump-shaped process on the middle of the male tibia retrolateral side (Figs 3k, 5d, j, 6df, k); females can be
distinguished by having a small atrium on the anterior half of epigynal field, at least Pseudofluda and Ahijuna gen. n. have a
somewhat similar structure, but these genera have much more flattened bodies (figures 2d, 4h, 7e; compare with figs 1416 in Nadal
& Rubio 2019).
Description
Male (Figs 3, 5, 6). Total body length 3.42 to 4.05. Carapace mahogany, with lighter cephalic region, orange, with two round darker
spots in the middle between the ALE and PLE; covered with translucent scale-like setae, and isolated black hairs; eye area
trapezoidal with AE row narrower than PE row. Thoracic slope pronounced. Clypeus narrow. Chelicerae vertical; one promarginal
and one retromarginal tooth, claw with a medial anterior tooth. Palp dark brown, blackish; cymbium with black hairs scattered
dorsally, lighter and shorter at the apex forming a brush. RTA with nail shape, and another lump -shaped process on the middle of
the tibia retrolateral side. Embolus sclerotized, tip towards the prolateral side (Figs 3d, 5g, 6d). Legs brown to black colored, but leg
I stronger with the femur darker (Figs 3a, 5a, 6a). Abdomen pale to mahogany colored (Figs 3b, 5b, 6b).
Female (Figs 4, 7). Total body length 3.52 to 3.59. Carapace light brow to mahogany, remainder as in male; eye area and thoracic
slope as in male. Clypeus narrow with numerous scaly hairs. Chelicerae vertical; two promarginal teeth and one retromarginal
tooth. Palps and legs light or dark brown. Abdomen pale-brown colored, with some dark brown spots (Figs 4b, 7b). Epigyne small
plate, weakly sclerotized; with an atrium on the anterior half of epigynal field, and a small posterior pocket inverted U-shaped (Figs
4gn, 7di). CDs starting in two COs that enter anteriorly in a broad stretch and directed posteriorly with some coils. Spermathecae
small, not spherical, located posteriorly.
Composition. Three species: L. camporum sp. n., L. chacoensis sp. n. and L. paranensis sp. n.
Lumptibiella chacoensis Rubio, Stolar & Baigorria, sp. n.
http://zoobank.org/23CB13A3-CDBF-494E-90DE-CEA129F1739E
Type material
Male holotype (IBSI-Ara 1702), and one female, one male paratypes (IBSI-Ara 1703) from Argentina, Santiago del Estero, Beltran (-
27.82034° S; -64.10074° W), 25 November 2021, Stolar C.E. coll.
Etymology
The specific epithet is an adjective referring to the ecoregion Dry Chaco in which the type locality is located.
Diagnosis
Lumptibiella chacoensis sp. n. resembles L. camporum sp. n. in having the RTA with an elongated, double curved nail shape and the
lump tibial process pointed (Figs 3k, 6k), and the female anterior stretch of CD broad (Figs 4i, 7eg); but can be distinguished from
all other Lumptibiella gen. n. by having the distal part of the embolus shaped like a single helix blade (Fig 3d, j) (thick hook in L.
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paranensis sp. n.fig 5i, and long loop of one turn in L. camporum sp. n.fig 6d), an anterior coupling pocket (aCP) on the epigyne,
and a very sclerotized first stretch of the CDs (Fig 4gj).
Figure 3. Male of Lumptibiella chacoensis sp. n., holotype (IBSI-Ara 1702): Habitus in frontal (a), dorsal (b) and lateral (c) views; left
bulb in ventral (d, e), retrolateral (f), prolateral (g), dorsal (h) and apical (i) views; details of embolus (j) and palpal tibia (k); habitus
of live specimen (l, m).
Description
Male (holotype IBSI-Ara 1702). Carapace length 1.72; abdomen length 1.78. Carapace (Fig 3ac) mahogany, with lighter cephalic
region, orange, with two round darker spots in the middle between the ALE and PLE; covered in yellowish, translucent scale -like
setae, and a few isolated black hairs; eye area trapezoidal with AE wide 1.01 and PE wide 1.22. Thoracic slope pronounced. Cl ypeus
dark brown, narrow with long black hairs (18 to 20), somewhat aligned. Chelicerae vertical; one promarginal and one retromarginal
tooth (both large), claw with a small medial anterior tooth. Palp dark brown, blackish; cymbium with black hairs scattered do rsally,
but lighter, shorter and denser at the apex forming a brush. RTA with elongated nail shape, and another lump-shaped process on
the middle of the tibia retrolateral side. Embolus short, sclerotized with a thick basal part, and a distal part shaped like a single helix
blade, tip towards the prolateral side (Fig 3dh). Legs brown colored; leg I stronger, with the femur darker; the other legs with
scattered darker brown spots (Fig 3ac). Macrosetae femur I d1-1-1, p2 (distally), tibia I v2-2-2, metatarsus I v2-2; femur II d1-1-1, p1
(distally), tibia II v1-2, metatarsus II v2-2; femur III d1-1-3; femur IV d1-1-2. Abdomen pale yellow, with 4 slightly darker and
somewhat diffuse chevrons on the back half; in life it is uniformly pinkish orange (Fig 3b, l).
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Figure 4. Female of Lumptibiella chacoensis sp. n., paratype (IBSI-Ara 1703): Habitus in frontal (a), dorsal (b), lateral (c) and ventral
(d) views; habitus of live specimen (e, f); cleared epigyne in ventral view (g); same, different focus (h k); same, dorsal view (ln).
Arrow, atrium with spicules.
Female (paratype IBSI-Ara 1703). Carapace length 1.76; abdomen length 1.76. Carapace (Fig 4ac) as in male, covered in
yellowish, translucent scale-like setae (light brown, slightly pinkish in life), and a few isolated black hairs; eye area trapezoidal with
AE wide 1.02 and PE wide 1.25. Thoracic slope pronounced as in male. Clypeus narrow with numerous scaly white hairs.
Chelicerae vertical; two promarginal teeth and one retromarginal tooth. Palps and legs as in male but lighter. Macrosetae as in male,
except for femur IV d1-1-3. Abdomen as in male, but something wrinkled after preservation. Epigyne (Fig 4gn) small plate, weakly
sclerotized; with a small anterior V-shaped atrium leading to an anterior coupling pocket (U-shaped) on the median epigynal field,
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also with the typical dendryphantine inverted U-shaped posterior pocket; the anterior coupling pocket has a concave atrium with
spicules (Fig 4n). CDs starting in two COs that enter anteriorly in a very sclerotized stretch and directed posteriorly with some coils.
Spermatheca small, not spherical, located posteriorly.
Natural history
Individuals were collected at a region known as Chaco Serrano within the Dry Chaco, over fragmented and altered habitats with
predominance of crops and borders of secondary forest, on shrubs one-meter high.
Distribution. Known from northwestern Argentina.
Other material examined. Argentina, Salta province, Cerrillos, near La Merced (-25.0501º S; -65.4962º W), 3 males (IBSI-Ara 0966),
sampling with G-Vac (garden-vacuum) on vegetation, 15 March 2007, Rubio G.D. coll.
Lumptibiella paranensis Rubio, Baigorria & Stolar, sp. n.
http://zoobank.org/9DB751F9-78A2-4B84-9E38-23A9F3AE5466
Type material
Male holotype (IBSI-Ara 1416) from Argentina, Misiones, San Pedro, Cruce Caballero, Forestal Belga encampment (-26.57236° S; -
53.80167° W), 22 October 2019, Rubio G.D., Stolar C.E. & Toro A. coll.
Etymology
The specific epithet is an adjective referring to the ecoregion Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest in which the type locality is located.
Diagnosis
Lumptibiella paranensis sp. n. can be distinguished from all other species of Lumptibiella gen. n. by having an embolus thick, very
sclerotized, hook-shaped with a curvature to the prolateral ventral side (Fig 5fi) (single helix blade in L. chacoensis sp. n.fig 3d,
and long loop of one turn in L. camporum sp. n.fig 6d) and a lump-shaped process rounded, blunt (Fig 5j) (pointed in L. chacoensis
sp. n.fig 3k, and L. camporum sp. n.fig 6k).
Description
Male (holotype IBSI-Ara 1416). Carapace length 1.66; abdomen length 1.76. Carapace (Fig 5ac) mahogany, with lighter cephalic
region, orange, with two round darker spots in the middle between the ALE and PLE; covered in yellowish, translucent scale-like
setae, and a few isolated black hairs; eye area trapezoidal with AE wide 0.97 and PE wide 1.19. Thoracic slope pronounced. Cl ypeus
narrow, covered with numerous white scale-like setae, conspicuous (Fig 5a, d). Chelicerae vertical; one promarginal and one
retromarginal tooth (large), claw with a small medial anterior tooth. Palp dark brown, blackish; cymbium with black hairs sca ttered
dorsally, lighter and shorter at the apex. RTA with nail shape, and another conspicuous lump-shaped process on the middle of the
tibia retrolateral side. Embolus thick, very sclerotized with a curvature to the prolateral ventral side (Fig 5fi). Legs II to IV amber
colored; leg I much stronger, black, covered with a lot of long and translucent white hairs (Fig 5ac, e). Macrosetae femur I d1-1-1,
p1 (distally), tibia I v2-2-2, metatarsus I v2-2; femur II d1-1-1, p1 (distally), tibia II v1-2(1distal), metatarsus II v1-2; femur III d1-1-3;
femur IV d1-1-3. Abdomen pale brown, dorsally and laterally covered with numerous homogeneously arranged dark dots (Fig 5b,
c), dark orange in life with a conspicuous lateral white band bordering the entire abdomen except posterior tip (Fig 5ln).
Female unknown.
Natural history. Specimens were collected from the foliage of rainforest at medium height.
Distribution. Known from northeastern Misiones, Argentina.
Other material examined. Misiones province, San Pedro, Piñalito Sur (-26.42234ºS; -53.83769ºW), 1 male (IBSI-Ara 1705), direct
observation on the plant, 30 July 2020, Baigorria J.E. coll.
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Figure 5. Male of Lumptibiella paranensis sp. n., holotype (IBSI-Ara 1416): Habitus in frontal (a), dorsal (b), lateral (c), detail, frontal
(d) and ventral (e) views; left palp in prolateral (f), ventral (g), retrolateral (h), ventral, bulb only (i), dorsal (j) and apical (k) views;
habitus of live specimen (ln).
Lumptibiella camporum Rubio, Baigorria & Stolar, sp. n.
http://zoobank.org/46575AA1-A1CF-4594-A98C-FA18F99C9120
Type material
Male holotype (IBSI-Ara 1704) from Argentina, Misiones, Candelaria, Santa Cecilia Ranch (-27.45046º S; -55.71637º W), 2 November
2021, Baigorria J.E. coll., and female allotype (IBSI-Ara 1630) from Candelaria, Urutaú Natural Reserve (-27.48024º S; -55.79254º W),
5 February 2021, Rubio G.D., Stolar C.E. & Baigorria J.E. coll.
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Figure 6. Male of Lumptibiella camporum sp. n., holotype (IBSI-Ara 1704): Habitus in frontal (a), dorsal (b) and lateral (c) views; left
palp in ventral (d, e), ventral-retrolateral (f), retrolateral (g), prolateral (h), retrolateral (i) and apical (j) views; detail of palpal tibia
(k); habitus of live specimen (ln). Palp in (d, g), partially expanded.
Etymology. The specific name, “camporum”, is a Latin word that means “live in grassland fields” (campo = field).
Diagnosis
Lumptibiella camporum sp. n. resembles L. chacoensis sp. n. in having the RTA with an elongated, double curved nail shape and the
lump tibial process pointed (Figs 3k, 6k), and the female anterior stretch of CD broad (Figs 4i, 7eg); but can be distinguished from
all other Lumptibiella gen. n. by having the embolus longer, with a loop of almost one turn (Fig 6dg) (single helix blade in L.
SPECIES l RESEARCH ARTICLE
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chacoensis sp. n.fig 3d, and thick hook in L. paranensis sp. n.fig 5i), the non-sclerotized stretch of the CDs and an atrium that
does not have a visible aCP (Fig 7dg).
Figure 7. Female allotype (IBSI-Ara 1630) (ag, jl) and female (IBSI-Ara 1626) (h, i) of Lumptibiella camporum sp. n.: Habitus in
frontal (a), dorsal (b) and lateral (c) views; epigyne in ventral view (d); cleared epigyne in ventral view (eg); same, different focus
(h, i); habitus of live specimen (jl).
Description
Male (holotype IBSI-Ara 1704). Carapace length 1.95; abdomen length 2.10. Carapace (Fig 6ac) dark mahogany, with lighter
cephalic region, orange, with two round darker spots in the middle between the ALE and PLE; covered with a few translucent
scale-like setae and isolated black hairs; eye area trapezoidal with AE wide 1.12 and PE wide 1.34. Thoracic slope pronounced.
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Clypeus dark brown, very narrow with long black hairs (~18), somewhat aligned. Chelicerae vertical; one promarginal (thicker) and
one retromarginal tooth (longer), claw with a conspicuous medial anterior tooth (Fig 6a). Palp dark brown, blackish; cymbium with
black scattered hairs, lighter, shorter and denser at the apex forming a brush, with a conspicuous groove where the embolus fits (Fig
6dj). RTA with nail shape, and another lump-shaped process on the middle of the tibia retrolateral side. Embolus long, with a loop
of almost one turn, sclerotized with a somewhat spherical basal part, tip towards the prolateral side (Fig 6dg). Legs II to IV light
brown colored; leg I much stronger, femur dark brown, same on ventral side of tibia and metatarsus, tarsus yellow (Fig 6ac).
Macrosetae femur I d1-1-1, p2 (distally), tibia I v2-2-2 (short and thick), metatarsus I v2-2; femur II d1-1-1, p1 (distally), tibia II v2-2,
metatarsus II v2-2; femur III d1-1-3; femur IV d1-1-3. Abdomen mahogany, with 4 slightly darker and chevrons on the back half,
and two lighter parallel longitudinal stripes (somewhat diffuse) on anterior half; in life it is evenly spotted with light and dark
brown setae (Fig 6ln).
Female (allotype IBSI-Ara 1630). Carapace length 1.64; abdomen length 1.95. Carapace (Fig 7ac) light brown, orange, with two
darker spots in the middle between the ALE and PLE; covered with a few translucent scale-like setae and isolated black hairs
(evenly spotted with light and dark brown in life); eye area trapezoidal with AE wide 1.00 and PE wide 1.21. Thoracic slope
pronounced. Clypeus narrow with numerous scaly yellow hairs. Chelicerae vertical; two promarginal teeth and one retromarginal
tooth. Palps and legs light brown, legs I slightly darker. Macrosetae as in male except for femur I d1-1-1, p1 (distally); tibia II v1;
femur III d1-1-1, p1 (distally); femur IV d1-1-1. Abdomen pale, with symmetrically distributed dark brown spots (similar in life).
Epigyne (Fig 7dg) small plate, weakly sclerotized; with a small atrium on the anterior half of epigynal field, and a small posterior
pocket inverted U-shaped (Fig 7d). CDs starting in two COs that enter anteriorly in a broad stretch and directed posteriorly with
some coils. Spermatheca small, not spherical, located posteriorly.
Natural history
Specimen where collected at southern Misiones, within the ecoregion known as Southern Cone Mesopotamian Savanna. The species
is apparently restricted to tall and well preserved humid grasslands, dominated by Sorghastrum and Andropogon grasses.
Individuals were collected within the medial section of these grass plants, where they are particularly thick and dense. This new
species coexists with other salticid spiders, like Pachomius areteguazu, Maeota dorsalis and the new species Ahijuna patoruzito sp. n.
(this paper).
Distribution. Only known from northeastern Argentina, in Candelaria, Misiones.
Other material examined. Misiones province, Candelaria, Urutaú Natural Reserve (-27.48024º S; -55.79254º W), 1 female (IBSI-Ara
1626), beating on grassland, 5 February 2021, Rubio G.D., Stolar C.E. & Baigorria J.E. coll.
Acknowledgements
We wish to especially thank the anonymous reviewers for the improvements to the original manuscript; Carlos Navajas for his help
in Santa Cecilia Ranch; and our families for their support. Many thanks are also extended to Temaikèn Foundation for proposing,
facilitating and financing this work, especially to Jerónimo Torresin for the support and efforts and to ranger Gabriel Ruiz Diaz for
his assistance and logistics in Urutaú Nature Reserve. The samplings were possible with the permits of the Instituto Misionero de
Biodiversidad (IMiBio) and the Entidad Binacional Yacyretá (EBY).
Funding
This study has received funding from Temaikèn Foundation.
Conflicts of interests
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interests.
Data and materials availability
All data associated with this study are present in the paper.
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Book
Full-text available
En esta obra se listan un total de 161 nuevas especies, 94 fósiles y 67 vivientes, dadas a conocer a lo largo de dos décadas por investigadores de la Fundación Azara —en varios casos conjuntamente con colegas de otras instituciones— que al momento de la publicación continuaban siendo consideradas válidas para la ciencia.
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A key principle of the extended phenotype concept is that the benefit of the structures that an animal builds exceeds its cost. However, some contexts may enhance the costs of structures that often represent a benefit, reversing their adaptive nature. In leaf-cutting ant nests, thatched mounds are extended phenotypes that offer a stable microclimate for the growth of the fungus culture. We hypothesized that fires will affect the species that build external, easily flammable thatch mounds (Acromyrmex lobicornis) more than colonies that build subterranean nests in the less-flammable bare ground (Amoimyrmex striatus). We use a stochastic matrix demographic model parameterized with 4 years of data in pre- and post-fire scenarios. Before fires, Ac. lobicornis showed higher stochastic population rate (λs) than Am. striatus. However, fire frequency every 2 years completely reversed this trend, showing population decline only in Ac. lobicornis. Small nests were the stage that most contributed to λs and the most sensitive in all the species and fire scenarios. This illustrates a novel effect of disturbances; the reversion of the adaptive nature of extended phenotypes, which may have strong consequences on population dynamics and assemblage structure through the invert of dominance relationships.
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Recently the first records of the genus Pseudofluda Mello-Leitão, 1928 were reported in Argentina; represented by a single species, P. pulcherrima, known only by the male. Two new species of this salticid genus are described from Argentina: P. capandegui sp. nov. and P. pergeri sp. nov., and the females of P. pulcherrima (first description of female) are here described. Drawings and full color photographs are provided. Several new geographic records of Pseudofluda are also given.
Article
The classification of jumping spiders (Salticidae) is revised to bring it into accord with recent phylogenetic work. Of the 610 recognized extant and fossil genera, 588 are placed at least to subfamily, most to tribe, based on both molecular and morphological information. The new subfamilies Onomastinae, Asemoneinae, and Eupoinae, and the new tribes Lapsiini, Tisanibini, Neonini, Mopsini, and Nannenini, are described. A new unranked clade, the Simonida, is recognized. Most other family-group taxa formerly ranked as subfamilies are given new status as tribes or subtribes. The large long-recognized clade recently called the Salticoida is ranked as a subfamily, the Salticinae, with the name Salticoida reassigned to its major subgroup (the sister group to the Amycoida). Heliophaninae Petrunkevitch and Pelleninae Petrunkevitch are considered junior synonyms of Chrysillini Simon and Harmochirina Simon respectively. Spartaeinae Wanless and Euophryini Simon are preserved despite older synonyms. The genus Meata Żabka is synonymized with Gedea Simon, and Diagondas Simon with Carrhotus Thorell. The proposed relationships indicate that a strongly ant-like body has evolved at least 12 times in salticids, and a strongly beetle-like body at least 8 times. Photographs of living specimens of all 7 subfamilies, 30 tribes, and 13 subtribes are presented.
Article
Freyinae, new subfamily, is described for a group of genera of Neotropical jumping spiders that can be distinguished from other non-ant mimic salticoid Neotropical salticids by having the following three morphological features: a slightly more elongate carapace, a distinctive prolateral tibial macrosetae arrangement (medially placed subdistal and subproximal macrosetae, with a subdorsal medial macroseta in some males), and an unusual dorsoventrally thick tegulum basal division (although one or two of these features are sometimes lost). It includes 20 genera previously considered valid, of which 19 are retained: Akela Peckham & Peckham, 1896, Aphirape C.L. Koch, 1850, Asaracus C.L. Koch, 1846, Capidava Simon, 1902, Chira Peckham & Peckham, 1896, Edilemma Ruiz & Brescovit, 2006, Eustiromastix Simon, 1902, Freya C.L. Koch, 1850, Frigga C.L. Koch, 1850, Kalcerrytus Galiano, 2000, Nycerella Galiano, 1982, Onofre Ruiz & Brescovit, 2007, Pachomius Peckham & Peckham, 1896, Phiale C.L. Koch, 1846, Rishaschia Makhan, 2006, Sumampattus Galiano, 1983, Trydarssus Galiano, 1995, Tullgrenella Mello-Leitão, 1941, and Wedoquella Galiano, 1984. Romitia Caporiacco, 1947 (and its synonym Uspachus Galiano, 1995) is synonymized with Pachomius, new synonymy. New genera described in the subfamily are: Drizztius, Leptofreya, Megafreya, Philira, Tarkas, Triggella, and Xanthofreya. The following nomenclatorial changes are made: New synonyms: Freya demarcata Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 = Freya (sub Cyrene) albosignata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901); Freya (sub Cyrene) grisea (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Freya (sub Cyrene) infuscata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901); Freya (sub Cyrene) emarginata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) and Nycerella (sub Heraclea) sanguinea paradoxa (Peckham & Peckham, 1896) = Nycerella (sub Heraclea) sanguinea (Peckham & Peckham, 1896); Pachomius (sub Phiale) maculosus (Chickering, 1946) = Phiale (sub Cyrene) bilobata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901); Phiale (sub Cyrene) mediocava (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Freya (sub Cyrene) maculatipes (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901); Phiale (sub Cyrene) simplicicava (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Freya (sub Cyrene) bifurcata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901). New combinations: Capidava rufithorax Simon, 1902 = Drizztius rufithorax; Freya frontalis Banks, 1929 = Eustiromastix frontalis; Chira (sub Attus) spinipes (Taczanowski, 1872) = Eustiromastix spinipes; Freya (sub Euophrys) ambigua (C.L. Koch, 1846) = Leptofreya ambigua; Freya (sub Cyrene) bifurcata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Leptofreya bifurcata; Freya (sub Cyrene) laticava (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Leptofreya laticava; Freya (sub Cyrene) longispina (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Leptofreya longispina; Phiale (sub Cyrene) bilobata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Pachomius bilobatus; Phiale (sub Cyrene) hieroglyphica (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Pachomius hieroglyphicus; Phiale (sub Cyrene) niveoguttata(F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Pachomius niveoguttatus; Romitia (sub Euophrys) albipalpis (Taczanowski, 1878) = Pachomius albipalpis; Romitia (sub Euophrys) andina (Taczanowski, 1878) = Pachomius andinus; Romitia (sub Uspachus) bahiensis (Galiano, 1995) = Pachomius bahiensis; Romitia (sub Uspachus) columbiana (Galiano, 1995) = Pachomius columbianus; Romitia (sub Uspachus) juquiaensis (Galiano, 1995) = Pachomius juquiaensis; Romitia (sub Phiale) ministerialis (C.L. Koch, 1846) = Pachomius ministerialis; Romitia (sub Uspachus) misionensis (Galiano, 1995) = Pachomius misionensis; Romitia nigra Caporiacco, 1947 = Pachomius nigrus; Romitia (sub Uspachus) patellaris (Galiano, 1995) = Pachomius patellaris; Chira (sub Diagondas) micans (Simon, 1902) = Philira micans; Chira superba Caporiacco, 1947 = Philira superba; Freya (sub Cyrene) maculatipes (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Tarkas maculatipes; Freya (sub Cyrene) bifida (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Triggella bifida; Freya infuscata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Triggella infuscata; Freya (sub Cyrene) minuta (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Triggella minuta; Freya (sub Cyrene) albosignata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Xanthofreya albosignata; Freya arraijanica Chickering, 1946 = Xanthofreya arraijanica; Phiale (sub Cyrene) bicuspidata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Xanthofreya bicuspidata; Freya chionopogon Simon, 1902 = Xanthofreya chionopogon; Freya (sub Heraclea) rustica (Peckham & Peckham, 1896) = Xanthofreya rustica. Combinations restored: Phiale (sub Pachomius) flavescens (Peckham & Peckham, 1896) = Pachomius flavescens; Phiale (sub Pachomius) similis (Peckham & Peckham, 1896) = Pachomius similis. Invalid name: Freya dyali Roewer 1951 is an invalid replacement name for Euophrys trifasciata "Dyal 1935", which was a redescription of Euophrys trifasciata C.L. Koch, 1846, not a homonym. New species: Drizztius geminensis. First female descriptions and transfers of mismatched females: First descriptions for Asaracus megacephalus C.L. Koch, 1846, Capidava biuncata Simon, 1902, and Phiale formosa (Banks, 1909); the true female of Eustiromastix spinipes is described, and its mismatched female is identified as the female of Eustiromastix falcatus Galiano, 1981; the mismatched female of Freya (sub Cyrene) prominens (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) is identified as the female of Xanthofreya rustica; the misidentified female of X. rustica is identified as the female of Leptofreya bifurcata. Lectotypes: designated for Cyrene bifida F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901 and Cyrene formosa Banks, 1909. New synapomorphy: a constricted proximal end of the cymbium of the male palp is an apparent new synapomorphy for Salticoida.
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Neither time nor resources exist to design conservation plans for every species, particularly for little-studied, noncharismatic, but ecologically important taxa that make up most of biodiversity. To explore the feasibility of basing conservation action on community-level biogeography, we sampled a montane insect community. We addressed three issues: (1) the appropriate scale for sampling insect communities; (2) the association of habitat specialization—perhaps a measure of extinction vulnerability—with other ecological or physical traits; and (3) the correlation of diversity across major insect groups. Using malaise traps in Gunnison County, Colorado, we captured 8847 Diptera (identified to family and morphospecies), 1822 Hymenoptera (identified to morphospecies), and 2107 other insects (identified to order). We sampled in three habitat types—meadow, aspen, and conifer—defined on the basis of the dominant vegetation at the scale of hundreds of meters. Dipteran communities were clearly differentiated by habitat type rather than geographic proximity. This result also holds true for hymenopteran communities. Body size and feeding habits were associated with habitat specialization at the family level. In particular, habitat generalists at the family level—taxa perhaps more likely to survive anthropogenic habitat alteration—tended to be trophic generalists. Dipteran species richness was marginally correlated with hymenopteran species richness and was significantly correlated with the total number of insect orders sampled by site. Because these correlations result from differences in richness among habitat types, insect taxa may be reasonable surrogates for one another when sampling is done across habitat types. In sum, community-wide studies appear to offer a practical way to gather information about the diversity and distribution of little-known taxa.
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The butterfly assemblages of pairs of forest habitats, differing in disturbance level, within the Victoria Mayaro reserve of South-East Trinidad, are described using walk-and-count transects and canopy and understorey fruit traps. The concurrent use of these two butterfly censusing techniques, revealed major but conflicting differences in species accumulation rates under different disturbance conditions. The disturbed evergreen habitat had the significantly highest accumulation rate from walk-and-count data but the significantly lowest from fruit trap data. This reflects the specificity of much of the fruit-feeding guild for closed canopy forest. Disturbed habitats were found to lack a distinct canopy fauna. These results are discussed in light of the intermediate disturbance hypothesis. Within a region of forest, butterflies were found to be more characteristic of a disturbance level than of a particular forest type, lending weight to the belief that butterfly faunas can be used as bioindicators of forest disturbance. Several restricted geographic range species were not adversely affected by forest disturbance, at these levels of disturbance. The butterfly censuses in this study suggest that the optimal strategy for safeguarding butterfly species richness under natural forest management regimes would be to maintain a mosaic of habitats that included areas of undisturbed primary forest and a network of other forest patches, that varied in management regime and level of disturbance.
1879) Preussische Spinnen. X. Fortsetzung; XI. Fortsetzung und Schluss. Schriften der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Danzig
  • A Menge
Menge, A. (1879) Preussische Spinnen. X. Fortsetzung; XI. Fortsetzung und Schluss. Schriften der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Danzig (N.F.), 4, 543-560.