Article

Conflict and oppositions in the development of peri‐urban agriculture: The case of the Greater São Paulo region

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

One of the main factors preventing food production in urban and peri‐urban areas is territorial oppositions between different land uses. The aim of this article is to address the question of conflicts close to large urban centers, taking the example of the São Paulo Metropolitan Region (SPMR), a representative urban area, which includes both food issues of the cities: the still important presence of a subsistence agriculture that serves to feed the local people, and the development of a much‐gentrified urban agriculture. Our study is based on expert interviews, an analysis of the regional daily press and a study of local information sites and blogs. First, we briefly depict peri‐urban agriculture, its main characteristics, and we stress the importance of land use occupation faced with competing uses. Then we present our method of analysis and the main agricultural characteristics of the SPMR. The third part is devoted to a study of the local conflicts, their location, their link to agriculture and the consumption of agricultural soils, and the typology of the opponents and supporters of this activity. We finally conclude with some lessons on the place of peri‐urban agriculture, drawn from this experiment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 emergency has revealed the extreme fragility of large cities to unexpected complex global risks and crises. City lockdown has led to increasing awareness of the vital importance of food availability for citizens. The combined effect of border closure and movement restrictions increased food losses and export costs, especially for vegetables and perishable goods exposing non-self-sufficient countries. We claim the idea that urban agriculture in developed countries should be fostered with emerging growing practices and edible green infrastructures, such as vertical farming, hydroponics, aeroponic, aquaponic, and rooftop greenhouses. Notwithstanding the limitations of traditional urban farming activities, innovative and disruptive solutions and short food supply chains of fresh agricultural products might play a positive role in lessening uncertainties from global systemic risks.
Article
Full-text available
The present food system faces major challenges in terms of sustainable development along social, economic and environmental dimensions. These challenges are often associated with industrialised production processes and longer and less transparent distribution chains. Thus, closer distribution systems through Short Food Supply Chains (SFSCs) may be considered as a sustainable alternative. This study explores the role of different types of SFSCs and their contribution to sustainability through participants’ (consumers, retailers and producers) views and perceptions. As part of the European H2020 project “Strength2Food” we conducted a cross-case analysis and examined 12 European SFSC cases from six countries: France, Hungary, Italy, Norway, Poland and the UK. We applied a mixed method approach including primary data collection, via in-depth interviews and customer surveys, as well as desk research. The findings suggest that, irrespective of the type of SFSC, a strong agreement among the participants were found on the contribution of SFSCs to social sustainability. However, participants’ views considerably differ regarding the economic and environmental dimensions of sustainability. These differences relate to the way the SFSCs were organised and to some degrees to regional differences attributed to the significance of SFSC in different parts of Europe. The article concludes that the spatial heterogeneity of SFSCs, including supply chain actor differences, different types and organisational forms of SFSCs as well as regional and territorial characteristics, must be taken into account and further emphasised in future policies aimed at strengthening European food chain sustainability.
Article
Full-text available
This research is aimed to analyse land use conflicts mainly caused by infrastructural development projects in the developing countries. For this purpose, qualitative data is gathered, which is repeatedly published on land use conflicts against the development related infrastructure projects in Brazil, China, India, Indonesia and Pakistan. It identifies and defines land use conflicts, their dynamic features and contestations. The results reveal as to how the conflicts have been germinated by the property and human right violators? Further, it also focuses on the governance roles and responsibilities, the institutional inconsistency towards justice, and the local population's mistrust in the respective case study areas. This analysis concludes with an overview of root causes and consequences of the land use conflicts, by indicating as to how land use decisions for infrastructural settings have changed rural economy, and induced local population to displace and oppose the projects. Finally, on the basis of the results, this article proposes some preventive measures to manage such conflicts. JEL Classification: D74, O16, H54
Article
Full-text available
Food security is becoming an increasingly relevant topic in the Global North, especially in urban areas. Because such areas do not always have good access to nutritionally adequate food, the question of how to supply them is an urgent priority in order to maintain a healthy population. Urban and peri-urban agriculture, as sources of local fresh food, could play an important role. Whereas some scholars do not differentiate between peri-urban and urban agriculture, seeing them as a single entity, our hypothesis is that they are distinct, and that this has important consequences for food security and other issues. This has knock-on effects for food system planning and has not yet been appropriately analysed. The objectives of this study are to provide a systematic understanding of urban and peri-urban agriculture in the Global North, showing their similarities and differences, and to analyse their impact on urban food security. To this end, an extensive literature review was conducted, resulting in the identification and comparison of their spatial, ecological and socio-economic characteristics. The findings are discussed in terms of their impact on food security in relation to the four levels of the food system: food production, processing, distribution and consumption. The results show that urban and peri-urban agriculture in the Global North indeed differ in most of their characteristics and consequently also in their ability to meet the food needs of urban inhabitants. While urban agriculture still meets food needs mainly at the household level, peri-urban agriculture can provide larger quantities and has broader distribution pathways, giving it a separate status in terms of food security. Nevertheless, both possess (unused) potential, making them valuable for urban food planning, and both face similar threats regarding urbanisation pressures, necessitating adequate planning measures.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this article is to help gain a better understanding of the conflicts over farmland uses and of their interdependence with the dynamics of territorial governance mechanisms that are emerging in metropolitan rural areas. The example retained is that of the conflicts over farmland uses observed in the Greater Paris Region, and of their links with the “Agri-urban programs” implemented on the region borders. In order to conduct this study we perform a critical examination of the conflicts that occur in the region and are reported in the daily regional press (DRP), before focusing more specifically on the case of agri-urban program zones, using methods such as direct interviews or document analysis. The first section, based on the result of the DRP census, highlights the diversity and nature of the conflicts that occur in the Greater Paris Region, and shows in the meantime that most of the conflicts are linked to a place-based collective effort to prevent or manage the negative impacts of urbanization on the agrarian landscapes and products. The second section further discusses the specificity of conflicts according to whether they are located within or outside an agri-urban program zone. The third section puts forward some hypothesis about the links between conflict processes and the creation of innovative mechanisms, based on an examination of the events and motivations that have led to the creation of agri-urban programs.
Article
Full-text available
Populations around the world are growing and becoming predominately urban, fueling the need to re-examine how urban spaces are developed and urban inhabitants are fed. One remedy that is increasingly being considered as a solution to inadequate food access in cities, is urban agriculture. As a practice, urban agriculture is beneficial in both post-industrial and developing cities because it touches on the three pillars of sustainability: economics, society, and the environment. Historically, as well as currently, economic and food security are two of the most common reasons for participation in urban agriculture. Urban agriculture not only provides a source of healthful sustenance that might otherwise be lacking, it can also contribute to a household's income, offset food expenditures, and create jobs. Social facets are another reason for populations to engage in urban agriculture. A garden or rooftop farm is a place where people come together for mutual benefit, often enhancing the common social and cultural identity for city residents. Larger urban farms also participate in community enrichment through job training and other educational programmes, many of which benefit underserved populations. Finally, urban agriculture can play an important role in the environmental sustainability of a city. As a form of green infrastructure, urban farms and community food gardens help reduce urban heat island effects, mitigate urban stormwater impacts and lower the energy embodied in food transportation. This paper will describe a multi-year study undertaken by the Urban Design Laboratory at the Earth Institute to assess the opportunities and challenges associated with the development of urban agriculture in New York City (NYC). The paper will present metrics on potential growing capacity within the City inclusive of both rooftop and land-based options, results from a survey of New York City based urban farmers that gathered information on the challenges and barriers to food production in NYC, with a focus on rooftop farming, and data from an environmental monitoring study on a commercial rooftop farm in Brooklyn. The paper will use the results of the multi-year study to provide insight into the potential role of urban agriculture to creating a more sustainable food system for New York City and cities elsewhere.
Technical Report
Full-text available
The present study aims at describing the state-of-play of short food supply chains (SFSC) in the EU understood as being the chains in which foods involved are identified by, and traceable to a farmer and for which the number of intermediaries between farmer and consumer should be minimal or ideally nil. Several types of SFSCs can be identified, for example CSAs (Community-Supported Agriculture), on-farm sales, off-farm schemes (farmers markets, delivery schemes), collective sales in particular towards public institutions, being mostly local / proximity sales and in some cases distance sales. Such type of food chain has specific social impacts, economic impacts at regional and farm level as well as environmental impacts translating themselves into a clear interest of consumers. SFSCs are present throughout the EU, although there are some differences in the different MS in terms of dominating types of SFSCs. In general, they are dominantly small or microenterprises, composed of small-scale producers, often coupled to organic farming practices. Social values (quality products to consumers and direct contact with the producer) are the values usually highlighted by SFSCs before environmental or economic values. In terms of policy tools, there are pros and cons in developing a specific EU labelling scheme which could bring more recognition, clarity, protection and value added to SFSCs, while potential costs might be an obstacle. Anyhow, a possible labelling scheme should take into account the current different stages and situations of development of SFSCs in the EU and be flexible enough accommodate these differences. Other policy tools, in particular training and knowledge exchange in marketing and communication, are considered important and should continue to be funded by Rural Development programmes, as well as possibly other EU funds in view of the positive social and not specifically rural impacts.
Article
Full-text available
This text aims to present the methodology of study of land-use conflicts performed in recent years by a multidisciplinary team, and to reveal the methods of survey and data collection, as well as the structure of the resulting database. We first define the scope of our study by providing a definition of these conflicts, of their characteristics and motives, of the ways they manifest themselves and of the actors involved (I). We then present the methodology we have used to identify conflicts; it is based on a spatial analysis and the combined use of different data collection methods including surveys conducted by experts, analyses of the regional daily press and of data from the administrative litigation courts (II). Finally we present the resulting Conflicts © data base, with its tables and nomenclatures, in which the data collected in different fields are reconciled and analyzed (III), before providing a few examples of how this method can be used to analyze case studies in developed and developing countries (IV). D74; C83; K41.
Article
Full-text available
As contradições no desenvolvimento urbano pós-industrial, sobretudo em metrópoles do chamado Terceiro Mundo numa economia globalizada, acentuam velhas desigualdades sociais e abrem as portas para novas especializações, tanto entre as camadas ricas como entre as pobres. O presente trabalho apresenta uma primeira visão da segregação socioespacial. A estrutura intra-urbana do Município de São Paulo concentra suas camadas mais ricas nos anéis mais centrais, deixando que a pobreza domine a periferia. É o retrato de uma metrópole excludente, sem urbanidade, um tecido urbano em que se percebem enclaves de riqueza e de pobreza, no meio de uma malha indistinta, tecido fragmentado, verdadeira colcha de retalhos.
Article
Full-text available
Food production in cities has long been a tradition in many countries around the world and a mainstream activity for many developed countries. While urban agriculture plays an important role in increasing food security and social well-being, it comes with significant costs and constraints. Here, we review the growth of urban agriculture throughout the developed world in order to clarify the different benefits, risks, and hindrances associated with the practice. Through this analysis, we identify the need for better understanding of the following five aspects if urban agriculture is to make a meaningful contribution to food security and social well-being in the future: (1) the impacts of continued urban sprawl and loss of peri-urban agricultural land; (2) appropriate government and institutional support at local, regional, and country levels; (3) the role of urban agriculture in self-sufficiency of cities; (4) the risks posed by pollutants from agriculture to urban ecosystems and from urban ecosystems to agriculture; and (5) the carbon footprint of urban agriculture and use of “food miles.” If urban agriculture is to have a legitimate place in resolving the global food crisis as advocates claim, then it is time to take urban agriculture seriously and assess more rigorously both the positive and negative impacts, especially carbon emissions. Only then can the world’s limited resources be properly allocated to the development of urban agriculture.
Article
Full-text available
Urban agriculture is receiving increasing attention throughout the developing world, but debate rages as to whether it is a blessing or a curse. Some see it as savior for the poor, providing food and livelihoods, yet to others it is responsible for harboring and vectoring pathogenic diseases and is an archaic practice that has no place along the path toward development. Consequently, the activity receives a mixed reception, and despite much support in many instances, it certainly does not enjoy universal unimpeded progress. Here we undertake a global tour of urban agriculture throughout the developing world in an attempt to elucidate the various benefits, costs, and hindrances associated with the practice. Through this analysis we identify the need for better understanding of the following six aspects if urban agriculture is to make a meaningful contribution to food security and sustenance of livelihoods in the future: (1) the global and regional extent of urban agriculture; (2) the contribution of urban agriculture to communicable diseases, especially malaria but also diarrheal disease; (3) the role that urban agriculture does and/or could play in abating both malnutrition and obesity; (4) the impacts of urban agriculture on women; (5) appropriate methods of achieving governance and institutional support; and (6) the risks posed by chemical pollutants, particularly as Africa becomes increasingly industrialized. Overlaying these, we suggest that the time is ripe to extend the debate about urban agriculture’s positive and negative environmental impacts—especially in relation to carbon emissions—from primarily a developed world concern to the developing world, particularly since it is the developing world where population growth and consequent resource use is increasing most rapidly.
Article
Full-text available
Food issues are generally regarded as agricultural and rural issues. The urban food system is less visible than such other systems as transportation, housing, employment, or even the environment. The reasons for its low visibility include the historic process by which issues and policies came to be defined as urban; the spread of processing, refrigeration, and transportation technology together with cheap, abundant energy that rendered invisible the loss of farmland around older cities; and the continuing institutional separation of urban and rural policy. Despite its low visibility, the urban food system nonetheless contributes significantly to community health and welfare; to metropolitan economies; connects to other urban systems such as housing, transportation, land use, and economic development; and impacts the urban environment. We examine existing or potential city institutions that could offer a more comprehensive look at the urban food system. These include the city department of food, the food policy council, and the city-planning department.
Article
Despite a 2.3% increase in world cereal production in 2019 over 2018, the number of people facing severe food insecurity may double from 135 million in January 2020 to 265 million by the end of 2020. The problem of food and nutritional insecurity is severe in urban centers, where the global population is projected to increase (%/year) by 1.84, 1.63, and 1.44 between 2015 to 2020, 2020 to 2025, and 2025 to 2030, and it will increase overall from 54% in 2016 to 60% by 2030. The number of megacities (>10 million people) will increase from 34 in 2015 to 41 by 2030. The COVID-19 pandemic has aggravated food insecurity in urban centers because of the disruption in the food supply chain, aggravation of the physical and economic barriers that restrict access to food, and the catastrophic increase in food waste because of labor shortages. Thus, there is a need to adopt more resilient food systems, reduce food waste, and strengthen local food production. Enhancing availability at the household and community levels through home gardening and urban agriculture is an important strategy. Food production within the cities include small land farming in households, local community gardens, indoor and rooftop gardens, vertical farming, etc. Home gardening can play an important role in advancing food and nutritional security during and after the COVD-19 pandemic, while also strengthening the provisioning of numerous ecosystem services (i.e., plant biodiversity, microclimate, water runoff, water quality, human health). However, risks of soil contamination by heavy metals must be addressed.
Article
Peri-urban agriculture has preserved around central cities a land-use mosaic and contributes to the sustainable growth of metropolitan regions constituting green infrastructures, supplying urban markets, and improving social inclusion. The present study provides a quali-quantitative overview of peri-urban agriculture vis à vis urban expansion investigating the recent evolution of peri-urban farms (1988-2010) in Toulouse, the fourth largest metropolitan region in France. Socioeconomic dynamics in the study area, are representative of latent spatial and functional relationships between urban growth and peri-urban agriculture in contemporary European cities. Two complementary approaches were developed (i) identifying and analysing socioeconomic and environmental indicators that characterize changes over time in peri-urban agriculture by linking urban expansion with the evolution of fringe land-use; and (ii) carrying out a qualitative survey on a sample of farmers with the aim to relate farms' evolution strategies and land-use dynamics. Results of the present study indicate that urban expansion affects the characteristics of peri-urban farms, altering economic size, crop productions and social characteristics of farmers, and widening the spatial divide between large enterprises located in the peri-urban periphery and smaller farms in the immediate surroundings of urban areas. The qualitative survey investigates farmers' strategies to maintain their business in peri-urban areas. By recognizing that structural and functional characteristics of urban growth are interpretative keys to identify sustainable land management strategies, the role of peri-urban agriculture is finally outlined according to the empirical evidence from different socioeconomic contexts in the study area.
Article
Short food supply chains (SFSCs) have undergone significant developments for roughly a decade, spurring the interest of producers, consumers and governments. A thorough review of the literature shows the various economic, social and environmental benefits associated with SFSCs across much of Europe and North America. However, these benefits have generally been analyzed in isolation from each other, with very few studies attempting to characterize them as a whole in a systemic fashion.This article aims to evaluate the contributions of SFSCs to territorial development in three contrasting Quebec territories. For this, we developed a model that is organized around four dimensions that are interlinked through systemic relations: farmers' welfare, local development, welfare of the community, and environmental protection. For each of these dimensions, we determined criteria and indicators in order to compare, whenever possible, the results obtained in this research with the available provincial data.Overall, our results show that, when considering the indicators chosen for this research, SFSCs mostly have a positive effect on the three territories targeted by our research. The most positive aspects of these systems are job creation, skills development for farmers, job satisfaction, and the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices. The most neutral elements relate to revenues for farmers engaged in SFSCs, the economic weight of SFSCs within the local economy, the influence of SFSCs on the access to fresh and healthy food, and their effects on social cohesion.
Article
A comparative analysis of some western European cities with peri-urban vegetable production was realized in order to identify the characteristics of this vegetable production system (actors, products, agronomical practices, commercialization, land and agro-urban policies) and to evaluate the incidence of these characteristics on the sustainability of the peri-urban vegetable production development. The most part of the study has been conducted with the collaboration of the universities of Lisbon, Munich and Valencia, during an intensive Socrates program over 3 years (2001-2004): the "ceinture verte" of Paris, the "Huerta" of Valencia and the green belt of Lisbon. Three other French places have also been studied: Bordeaux, Lille, and Lyon. For a given city, the data were collected during a week in middle spring through visits of farms, companies, markets and meetings with vegetable chain officials and public authorities. Although different stages in the vegetable production development around the studied cities were noted, Paris, Valencia, and Lisbon presented common points due to their peri-urban situation such as the level of growing technicity or the land pressure. Nevertheless, they had some specificity about products, area concentration, and water management. Different strategies to insure the sustainable development of peri-urban vegetable production were developed.
Article
Agriculture was always part of city landscapes. However, it has been widely depreciated by urban planning and city management. The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate that like many land use trends, urban agriculture is currently increasing both in rich and poor regions, in every possible latitudes. Research results from a diversity of countries, namely Brazil, Mozambique and Portugal have proved that local policy options for city farming as an environmentally sustainable land use are a new phenomenon and a welcomed initiative by a diversity of peoples. Conclusions will show that there is a wide acceptance of idle public inner and peri-urban land occupation, with horticulture practiced by less wealthy families. The vast majority of food growers inquired use organic fertilisers and produce healthy food. There are also examples of pedagogical gardens in kindergartens and schools where youngsters are stimulated to plant, weed compost, water and harvest the produce they eat in the schools canteens, whereas City Farms existent all over Europe tend to happily associate the urbanites with green spaces and animal keeping within city boundaries. The aims of the programmes are to ameliorate people bonds with nature and other living creatures and give consumers, in general, the possibility to enhance food security with less expensive goods, improving altogether the quality of nutrition in urban settlements.
Article
This paper describes how cities can be transformed from being only consumers of food and other agricultural products into important resource-conserving, health-improving, sustainable generators of these products. In particular, agriculture in towns, cities and metropolitan areas can convert urban wastes into resources, put vacant and under-utilized areas into productive use, and conserve natural resources outside cities while improving the environment for urban living. Agriculture within urban and peri-urban areas is defined as a common and beneficial land use. This paper also gives examples of urban agriculture programmes which help alleviate poverty while creating these benefits. -Authors
Article
Metropolitan areas officially defined by the U.S. Census Bureau now encompass 16 percent of land area in the United States, including 29 percent of all farms and almost 20 percent of harvested cropland. Agriculture has adapted to the urbanizing environment through the working of smaller farms, more intensive production, a focus on high-value crops and livestock, and greater off-farm employment. Such adaptations are further advanced in older metro counties than in newer ones. This article shows how the more dispersed settlement pattern in newer metropolitan areas, emerging environmental and lifestyle trends, and recent developments in agricultural policy and the agricultural economy favor the survival of metro farming.
Article
Urbanization refers to the complex interaction of different processes which transform landscapes formed by rural life styles into urban like ones. Urbanization causes profound changes in the ecological functioning of the landscape and gradually results in a changing spatial structure, i.e. forms new landscape patterns. The existing cities and urban network form the framework for this change, which is affecting increasingly larger areas in the countryside. Urbanization is mainly studied from social and economical viewpoints. Urban planners think about optimization of the land use and about aesthetics when reshaping the environment. Landscape ecology is lacking in urban planning because of different goals and concepts, but mostly because of missing significant information about these highly dynamical landscapes.
Article
The broad pattern of rural land ownership exhibits quite modest change over the past 30 years, but this impression is misleading. It understates substantial changes in property rights, evidence of which is not readily available from published statistics. These changes reflect the growing urbanisation of the countryside, which has required owners to pay more attention to consumption interests, sometimes at the expense of traditional agricultural and forestry interests, which in turn have experienced mixed fortunes. Rural land is expected to supply, and is increasingly valued in terms of, multiple goods and services.Major trends in ownership, occupancy and land prices are reviewed, noting that the divisibility and flexibility of the bundle of rights which constitute ownership have allowed holders to respond to urban pressures and farming difficulties with practices including short-term leasing, contracting, supplying life-style residential properties and accommodating increased environmental regulation. But linking land use to land ownership type is difficult, not least because there are many other drivers of land-use change. Moreover, local and individual circumstances are now more significant than in the past, not least the ageing occupational structure of farming. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of some of the political, economic and environmental drivers that may affect future land ownership patterns.
Article
In periurban belts, landowners expect agricultural parcels to be converted to urban use and so farmland prices fall with distance from cities, owing to premiums reflecting potential capital gains from such future development. This is shown, first, by analysing residential and agricultural land prices via a theoretical microeconomic residential location model and, second, by an econometric model based on individual transactions with random spatial effects. Results show that farmland prices fall sharply close to the city and then gently further away; premiums for development are decomposed and allocated to several factors and the expected time of urban conversion are evaluated. Copyright 2003, Oxford University Press.
The integration of agriculture in urban policies. Growing cities, growing food
  • De Zeeuw H.
  • Dubbeling M.
Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística
  • Ibge
Milan Urban Food Policy Pact
  • Mufpp
Decreto N° 56.913 de 5 de Abril de 2016. Regulamenta a Lei n° 16.140 de 17 de março de 2015 que dispõe sobre obrigatoriedade de inclusão de alimentos orgânicos ou de base agroecológica na alimentação escolar no âmbito do Sistema Municipal de Ensino de São Paulo
  • Paulo São
Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística-IBGE. Fundação Sistema Estadual de Análise de Dados. Governo do Estado de São Paulo Secretaria de Planejamento e Gestão
  • Seade
Cities farming for the future. Urban agriculture for green and productive cities. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre
  • R Vanvan Veenhuizen
Sobre a RMSP. Empresa Paulista de Planejamento Metropolitano S/A. EMPLASA GIP/CDI 2019
  • Região Metropolitana De São
Estadão imóveis. Guia de bairros. Parelheiros: patrimônio ambiental
  • Estadão
The place of urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) in national food security programmes
  • Fao
Comment nourrir le monde en 2050. Sommaire exécutive du sommet mondial sur la sécurité alimentaire
  • Fao
Food security and sovereignty (base for discussion
  • Fao