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The Lanternfly genus Pyrops in Vietnam: A new species from Central Vietnam, taxonomic changes, checklist, identification key (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae)

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A new species of the genus Pyrops Spinola, 1839 (Fulgoridae), P. buomvoi sp. nov., is described from Ca Na, Ninh Thuan Province in Central Vietnam. It is attributed to the candelaria group and compared with the other species of the genus. Pyrops lathburii (Kirby, 1818) is proposed as a senior synonym of P. astarte (Distant, 1914), transferred back to the candelaria group from the pyrrhorhynchus group, and recorded from Laos for the first time. The candelaria and pyrorhynchus groups are defined and commented on. Intraspecific variation in the colour of the hind wings is recorded for the first time in Pyrops condorinus (Lallemand, 1960). A checklist of the 12 Vietnamese species of Pyrops and an illustrated key which can also be used for Laos, Cambodia and Southern Continental China, are given. Pyrops buomvoi sp. nov. is the first new species of Pyrops discovered in Indochina for more than 50 years. Intraspecific colour variation in the species of Pyrops is briefly discussed.
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European Journal of Taxonomy 813: 123–154 ISSN 2118-9773
https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2022.813.1741 www.europeanjournaloftaxonomy.eu
2022 · Constant J. & Pham H.T.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0).
Research article
urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:4957CF5B-38A4-45F6-8313-AA80C5091E50
The Lanterny genus Pyrops in Vietnam:
A new species from Central Vietnam,
taxonomic changes, checklist, identication key
(Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae)
Jérôme CONSTA NT  & Hong Thai PHAM 
1

2

2

Corresponding author: jerome.constant@naturalsciences.be
2 Email: phthai@misr.vast.vn; phamthai@vnmn.vast.vn
1 
2 
Abstract. A new species of the genus Pyrops P. buomvoi
  candelaria group and
compared with the other species of the genus. Pyrops lathburii
synonym of P. astartecandelaria group from the pyrrhorhynchus
candelaria and pyrorhynchus

in Pyrops condorinusPyrops and an

Pyrops buomvoiPyrops discovered in Indochina for more than 50
Pyrops
Keywords.
Pyrops
European Journal of
Taxonomy 813: 123–154. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2022.813.1741
Introduction



European Journal of Taxonomy 813: 123–154 (2022)
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
diversity of the family inhabit the Oriental Region (Bourgoin 2021). The Vietnamese fauna of Fulgoridae
Pyrops
2011; Constant & Pham 2017; Constant & Jiaranaisakul 2021). The genus Pyrops is widely distributed

history remain poorly documented except for a few species (Bourgoin 2021). The genus contains six
et al. (2017); the latter authors also provided
Pyrops were described more than a
P. condorinusP. itoi

Jiaranaisakul 2021) based on specimens collected in 2012.

recognition of a new species among Vietnamese Pyrops

P. condorinus in the collections of VNMN showed colour variation of the hind wings in this species. The

and provide a checklist of and an illustrated key to the Vietnamese species of Pyrops. It also proposes a

Material and methods
The male genitalia were dissected as follows: the pygofer was cut from the abdomen of the softened
     
hydroxide (KOH) at about 100°C. Some drops of saturated alcoholic Chlorazol black solution were added

the pinned specimen for preservation. Observations were made using a Leica MZ8 stereo microscope.

microscope with integrated camera was used for the male genitalia photographs. The photographs were


to separate the species of Pyrops.

marks.

et al. (2021).
The measurements were mainly taken as in Constant (2004) with the additions of Constant (2015) for
Pyrops and the following abbreviations are used:
BF = breadth of the frons
BPrH = breadth of the cephalic process at half length
BTg = breadth of the tegmen
LF = length of the frons
LPr = length of the cephalic process
LTg = length of the tegmen
TL = total length

CONSTANT J. & PHAM H.T., Pyrops from Vietnam: new species, checklist & key (Fulgoridae)
125
Acronyms used for the collections
  
  
  
  
Results
Taxonomy








Genus Pyrops 
PyropsPyrops candelaria 

HotinusPyrops candelaria 
designation.
The candelaria species group



(3) tegmina with transverse bands or transversely aligned spots or markings;
(4) hind wings variously coloured.
The group contains the type species of the genus PyropsP. candelaria
within the genus. Nagai & Porion (1996) listed 25 species in the group and more recently a number of
species were added: P. rogersipyrorhynchus species group by
P. maquilinganuseusus species group
by Constant (2015) and eight additional species were described: P. auratusP. azureus
P. jasminiP. jiangfenglingensis
P. kozloviP. nishiguroi
P. nishiyamaiP. priscillae
Pyrops lathburii candelaria
the pyrorrhynchus species group.


European Journal of Taxonomy 813: 123–154 (2022)
126
The pyrorhynchus species group
The pyrorhynchus




(3) anteocular carina slightly extending on vertex;

P. incertusP. pyrorhynchus
1800) and P. pythicus

P. rogersi
from the pyrorhynchus to the candelariaP. lathburii
P. astartecandelaria group in the present work. As
pyrorhynchus group currently contains the following taxa: P. pythicus pythicusP. pythicus
incertus P. ruehliP. intricatusP. intricatus albobasalis
P. zephyriusP. dohrni


Pyrops buomvoi sp. nov.

Figs 1–3
Diagnosis
The species can be separated from all other species of Pyrops by the following combination of characters:

paler and narrower towards basosutural angle (Fig. 1B);

(3) head yellow with dorsum and sides of cephalic process reddish (Fig. 1);

elongate markings (Fig. 1B).
Dierential diagnosis
The other species of Pyrops showing white posterior wings with dark brown or black apical portion are
P. atroalbusP. condorinusP. connectensP. dohrni
P.horseldiiP. lathburiiP. vitalisius
and P. watanabei
the hind wing extending to the basosutural angle and none of them possess a very slender cephalic process.
All other species of PyropsP. hamdjahi
P. hashimotoiP. valerian

Etymology
The species epithet buomvoi is a Vietnamese name for the species of the genus Pyropscon] buom
con] voi
and is used as a name in apposition.
CONSTANT J. & PHAM H.T., Pyrops from Vietnam: new species, checklist & key (Fulgoridae)
127
Material examined
Holotype
            
Pinus merhusii

Paratype (Fig. 1)

Measurements and ratios

BPrH = 5.4; LPr/LF = 3.43; LPr/BPrH = 19.
Description
 Yellow with clypeus slightly darker; dorsum and sides of cephalic process reddish; back-side










with pedicel bulbous (Fig. 1E–G).


pronotum and on dorsal portion of lateral lobe of pronotum (Fig. 1E–F); elongate lateral marking along




brown marking extending laterad from intersection between peridiscal carina and posterior margin;


(Fig. 1C–F).
Fig. 1B). Brown with dense reticulum of pale yellow veins and cross-veins; corium with
subbasal transverse yellow band followed by two transverse rows of slightly transverse yellow markings


more intensely margined with brown membrane with about 12 irregular round yellow spots (including


Fig. 1B). Milky white with apex and sutural margin largely brown-black; brown-black
area getting paler and narrower from apex towards base along sutural margin and stopping at basosutural

basosutural angle; veins in milky white area concolourous. Hind wings strongly broader than tegmina.
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Fig. 1. Pyrops buomvoi AB
CDEF. Head and
G
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Fig. 2. Pyrops buomvoi A–F
A. Lateral view. B. Posterolateral view. CD. Ventral view. E. Posteroventral view. F. Caudal
view. G–J. Aedeagus. GH. Laterodorsal view. I. Lateral view. J. Ventral view. An = anal
tube; Ae = aedeagus; cv = connective; G = gonostyli; Pe = periandrium; Py = pygofer; td = tectiductus.
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Fig.

broader than corresponding tibiae. Metatibiae with 5–6 lateral spines.
Fig.
genital segments black-brown and yellowish.
Fig.




with pair of elongate ventral endosomal processes widening on distal half (Fig. 2 G–J); connective rod-





Distribution

Biology
Pinus merkusii
Jungh. & de Vriese (Pinaceae Spreng. ex Rudolphi). However it seems very unlikely that this tree could
be a host plant of the species as no species of Pyrops has ever been recorded feeding from conifers
(Bourgoin 2021).
Fig. 3. Pyrops buomvoi 
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Pyrops condorinus 
Figs 4–5
Fulgora spinolae f. condorina 
Fulgora spinolae condorina – Lallemand 1963: 76 (keyed).
Pyrops condorina – 
illustrated).
Pyrops spinolae condorinus – Liang 1998: 45 (taxonomic note).
Pyrops condorinus – Constant et al.
(live specimen).
Material examined
Holotype
Fulgora spinolae condorina 





Additional material


Remark



Pyrops lathburii

Fulgora lathburiiPyrops rogersi
BMNH].
Fulgora astartesyn. nov.
Fulgora lathburii
Fulgora lathburyiPyrops candelaria


FulgoraPyrops (as
a variety of Fulgora (Pyrops) candelariaFulgora
lothburiiPyrops cyanirostrisFulgora
lathburiPyrops philippinus
Fulgora lalhburi

Fulgora lathburi
Fulgora lathburiPyrops peguensis
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Fig. 4. Pyrops condorinusAB
ventral view. CDE. Labels and genitalia tube.
FG
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Fig. 5. Pyrops condorinus
ABCD
view. EF.
to scale.
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Schmidt 1919: 126 (as “Fulgora lathburi
(keyed inside the candelaria
pyrorhynchus

Flata lathburii – Germar 1830: 46 (described).
Hotinus lathburii – Amyot & Audinet-Serville 1843: 491 (transferred to Hotinus Amyot & Audinet-

57 (listed in catalogue as “Hotinus lathburiH. lathburi
Pyrops lathburii – Schaum 1850: 64 (transferred to Pyrops


et al.
et al.

Pyrops philippinus

Thailand).
Laternaria lathburii – Metcalf 1947: 197 (transferred to Laternaria
Fulgora astartePyrops vitalisius
pyrorhynchus
Laternaria astarte – Metcalf 1947: 186 (transferred to Laternaria
Fig. 6. Pyrops lathburiiAB
view. C. Labels.
CONSTANT J. & PHAM H.T., Pyrops from Vietnam: new species, checklist & key (Fulgoridae)
135
Pyrops astarte – Nagai & Porion 1996: 25 (transferred to Pyrops


14 (compared with Pyrops philippinus
et al. (2018) erroneously mentioned that the species was attributed to the pyrorhynchus group
in Constant & Pham (2017).
Material examined
Lectotype of Fulgora lathburii
for the taxonomy of the group



Fig. 7. Pyrops astarteAB
view. C. Labels.
European Journal of Taxonomy 813: 123–154 (2022)
136

Jul. 2021).
Holotype of Fulgora astarte



Additional material

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I.G. 31.467; RBINS.
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
Fig. 8. Pyrops lathburii
CONSTANT J. & PHAM H.T., Pyrops from Vietnam: new species, checklist & key (Fulgoridae)
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



Remark








both type specimens is also very convincing.
Distribution


Checklist of the Vietnamese species of Pyrops Spinola, 1839
Pyrops atroalbus
Pyrops buomvoi sp. nov.
Pyrops candelaria
Pyrops clavatus
Pyrops coelestinus
Pyrops condorinus
Pyrops ducalis
Pyrops itoi
Pyrops lathburii
Pyrops spinolae
Pyrops viridirostris
Pyrops vitalisius
European Journal of Taxonomy 813: 123–154 (2022)
138
Identication key to the species of Pyrops of Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and Southern
Continental China
  ................................................................... 2
  ........................................................... 3
2. Abdomen black ventrally (Fig. 9B); tegmina pale yellow-white on disc and with 3 black spots in
costal area before nodal line (Fig. 9A); cephalic process yellow (Fig. 9) ..........................................
........................................................................................................ Pyrops atroalbus
 

red-brown to black (Figs 10–11) .................................................Pyrops clavatus 
  ..... 4
  ............................ 5
4. Hind wings bright yellow with apical third black (Fig. 12A); ground colour of distal half of tegmina
black (Fig. 12A); anterior and median legs largely black (Fig. 12A–C) ............................................
................................................................................................Pyrops viridirostris 
Hind wings entirely bright yellow-orange (Fig. 13A); ground colour of distal half of tegmina green
(Fig. 13A); anterior and median legs green (Fig. 13A–C) ............ Pyrops itoi
 
 .................................... 6
 

19) ..................................................................................................................................................... 8
  ................................. 7
  ........................
............................................................................................................Pyrops lathburii 
 

(Fig. 4A) or white basally (Fig. 5A) ......................................Pyrops condorinus
Tegmina broader: LTg/BTg = 2.53 (Fig. 15A); spots on basal half of tegmina fused into transverse
bands (Fig. 15A); cephalic process broader (LPr/BPrH < 8) (Fig. 15); hind wings always bright yellow
basally (Fig. 15A) ....................................................................... Pyrops spinolae 
8. Hind wings white with sutural margin bordered with black up to the anal lobe (Fig. 1A); cephalic
process very narrow (LPr/BPrH = 19) (Fig. 1) ............................................Pyrops buomvoi sp. nov.
  
cephalic process broader (LPr/BPrH < 10) (Figs 16–19) ................................................................. 9
 
yellow spots on membrane of tegmina (Fig. 16A) .........................Pyrops candelaria 
 

tegmina (Figs 18–19) or not (Fig. 17) ............................................................................................ 10
CONSTANT J. & PHAM H.T., Pyrops from Vietnam: new species, checklist & key (Fulgoridae)
139
            
ventrally and at apex (Fig. 17); hind wings pale blue to white basally (Fig. 17A); basal half of

(Fig. 17A) ............................................................................................... Pyrops ducalis
 
red ventrally (Figs 18–19); hind wings white or blue basally; basal half of tegmina dark green or dark
 ................................................................................11
11. Hind wings blue basally (sometimes faded to nearly white in collections specimens) (Fig. 18A);
cephalic process very elongate and strongly curved dorsad (Fig. 18); ground colour of tegmina dark
blue-green (Fig. 18A) ....................................................................... Pyrops coelestinus 
Hind wings white basally (Fig. 19A); cephalic process very elongate and curved dorsad (Fig. 19);
ground colour of tegmina green (Fig. 19A) .................................... Pyrops vitalisius
Discussion

Pyrops


Pyrops is documented for seven species so far: P. clavatus
P. condorinusP. ishiharaiP. lathburii
P. peguensisP. sultanusP. watanabei



(1) head: from nearly black to reddish (P. clavatus – Constant & Pham 2017);
(2) tegmina: basal third black or reddish (P. sultanus – Nagai & Porion 1996);
(3) tegmina: from nearly all black to nearly all white (P. clavatus and P. lathburii – present study; Nagai &

(P. watanabei – Constant & Pham 2017);
P. peguensis 
(P. ishiharai – Nagai & Porion 1996);
(5) posterior wings: bright yellow or white (P. condorinus and P. lathburii – present study; Nagai &
Porion 1996).




some clues leading to a better understanding.
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Fig. 9. Pyrops atroalbus
2011 (VNMN). ABCD. Head and
EF

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Fig. 10. Pyrops clavatus A–E
specimen with cephalic process brown ventrally. AB
CDEF–G
specimen with black cephalic process. FG

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Fig. 11. Pyrops clavatus A–E. Pale
specimen. ABCD
perpendicular view of frons. EF. Intermediate specimen with cephalic process

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Fig. 12. Pyrops viridirostris
2003 (RBINS). ABCD. Head and
EF

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Fig. 13. Pyrops itoi 
(RBINS). ABCD
lateral view. E
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Fig. 14. Pyrops lathburii
ABCD
view. E
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Fig. 15. Pyrops spinolae
20–24 Aug. 2010 (RBINS). ABC
DEF

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Fig. 16. Pyrops candelaria
20–24 Aug. 2010 (RBINS). ABC
DEF

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Fig. 17. Pyrops ducalis
(RBINS). ABC D. Head and
EF

CONSTANT J. & PHAM H.T., Pyrops from Vietnam: new species, checklist & key (Fulgoridae)
149
Fig. 18. Pyrops coelestinus
(VNMN). ABCD. Head and
EF

European Journal of Taxonomy 813: 123–154 (2022)
150
Fig. 19. Pyrops vitalisius
2010 (RBINS). ABCD. Head and
EF

CONSTANT J. & PHAM H.T., Pyrops from Vietnam: new species, checklist & key (Fulgoridae)
151
Acknowledgements
      








Initiative projects in Vietnam; Prof. Thierry Bourgoin (MNHN) and Prof. Murray J. Fletcher (Orange


Programme of the Belgian Global Taxonomy Initiative National Focal Point that runs under the CEBioS



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
Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 8: 133–337. Available from
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  
Ofversigt af Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar. Stockholm 27: 607–776.
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List of the Specimens of Homopterous Insects in the Collection of the British Museum.
Vol. 2
Pyrops Spinola (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae)
from China with description of a new species. Entomotaxonomia 40 (4): 296–309.
https://doi.org/10.11680/entomotax.2018031

and phylogenetic implications of mitogenomes of Fulgoridae (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha). Genes
1185: 1–18. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12081185
European Journal of Taxonomy 813: 123–154 (2022)
154
Fulgora of Linnaeus.
The Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. Second series. Zoology 18: 133–153.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.1838.tb00167.x
Annals and
Magazine of Natural History 14: 422–426. https://doi.org/10.1080/037454809495213
polillensisPyrops:
Belgian Journal of Entomology 55: 1–14.
Manuscript received: 28 November 2021
Manuscript accepted: 19 January 2022
Published on: 15 April 2022
Topic editor: Tony Robillard
Section editor: Christopher H. Dietrich
Desk editor: Radka Rosenbaumová
Printed versions of all papers are also deposited in the libraries of the institutes that are members of the
EJT
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The complete mitogenomes of nine fulgorid species were sequenced and annotated to explore their mitogenome diversity and the phylogenetics of Fulgoridae. All species are from China and belong to five genera: Dichoptera Spinola, 1839 (Dichoptera sp.); Neoalcathous Wang and Huang, 1989 (Neoalcathous huangshanana Wang and Huang, 1989); Limois Stål, 1863 (Limois sp.); Penthicodes Blanchard, 1840 (Penthicodes atomaria (Weber, 1801), Penthicodes caja (Walker, 1851), Penthicodes variegata (Guérin-Méneville, 1829)); Pyrops Spinola, 1839 (Pyrops clavatus (Westwood, 1839), Pyrops lathburii (Kirby, 1818), Pyrops spinolae (Westwood, 1842)). The nine mitogenomes were 15,803 to 16,510 bp in length with 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs) and a control region (A + T-rich region). Combined with previously reported fulgorid mitogenomes, all PCGs initiate with either the standard start codon of ATN or the nonstandard GTG. The TAA codon was used for termination more often than the TAG codon and the incomplete T codon. The nad1 and nad4 genes varied in length within the same genus. A high percentage of F residues were found in the nad4 and nad5 genes of all fulgorid mitogenomes. The DHU stem of trnV was absent in the mitogenomes of all fulgorids sequenced except Dichoptera sp. Moreover, in most fulgorid mitogenomes, the trnL2, trnR, and trnT genes had an unpaired base in the aminoacyl stem and trnS1 had an unpaired base in the anticodon stem. The similar tandem repeat regions of the control region were found in the same genus. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted based on 13 PCGs and two rRNA genes from 53 species of Fulgoroidea and seven outgroups. The Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood trees had a similar topological structure. The major results show that Fulgoroidea was divided into two groups: Delphacidae and ((Achilidae + (Lophopidae + (Issidae + (Flatidae + Ricaniidae)))) + Fulgoridae). Furthermore, the monophyly of Fulgoridae was robustly supported, and Aphaeninae was divided into Aphaenini and Pyropsini, which includes Neoalcathous, Pyrops, Datua Schmidt, 1911, and Saiva Distant, 1906. The genus Limois is recovered in the Aphaeninae, and the Limoisini needs further confirmation; Dichoptera sp. was the earliest branch in the Fulgoridae.
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An annotated list of eighteen species of the family Fulgoridae from Khao Krachom Mountain, Ratchaburi Province of Thailand is given. Three species, Pyrops connectens (Atkinson, 1885), Pyrops spinolae (Westwood, 1842) and Zanna nobilis (Westwood, 1838), are recorded from Thailand for the first time and two species of the genus Dichoptera Spinola, 1839 represent a new country record or even a species new to science. Data on the preferred habitat and host plants of lanternflies are also provided and briefly discussed.
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The species of Pyrops Spinola, 1839 recorded from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are reviewed with a new species, P. azureus sp. nov. is described from North Andaman and recorded from South Andaman and Long Island based on photographs in nature. A distribution map of the species is given. The three Pyrops species currently known in the Archipelago, P. andamanensis (Distant, 1880), P. rogersi (Distant, 1906) and P. azureus sp. nov. are comprehensively illustrated, including the male genitalia. Pyrops rogersi is transferred from the P. pyrorhynchus group to the P. candelaria group. Penthicodes (Ereosoma) atomaria (Weber, 1801) is recorded from Andamans for the first time. New records based on photographs are given as well as an illustrated identification key to all Fulgoridae from the Andaman and Nicobar Archipelago. Together with Penthicodes (Penthicodes) nicobarica (Stål, 1869), Penthicodes (Ereosoma) pulchella (Guérin-Méneville, 1838) and Polydictya negrito Distant, 1906, seven species of Fulgoridae are currently recorded from the treated area.
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The clavatus group of Pyrops Spinola, 1839 is reviewed and redefined. The new combination Pyrops atroalbus (Distant, 1918) comb. nov. is proposed, as atroalbus is reinstated as a full species from status of subspecies of Pyrops watanabei (Matsumura, 1913). Pyrops nigripennis (Chou & Wang, 1985) and Pyrops clavatus mizunumai (Sato & Nagai, 1994) are proposed as junior synonyms of P. clavatus (Westwood, 1839). The Philippine species P. polillensis (Baker, 1925) is removed from the group and not attributed to any of the currently defined species groups. Hence, the clavatus group is restricted to continental Southeast Asia and Taiwan and contains three species: P. atroalbus comb. nov., P. clavatus and P. watanabei. A key to the species of the group and illustrations of the male genitalia are provided. The intraspecific colour variation in the group is discussed and illustrated. The genus Pyrops is removed from the subfamily Fulgorinae and not attributed to any of the currently defined subfamilies of Fulgoridae.
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The first checklist of the species of Fulgoridae occurring in Cambodia is provided and commented on. For this inventory, involvement of citizen science, notably via the use of the social network Facebook to collect faunistic data allowed to update this list from 5 to 17 species with 12 of them being new records for the country: Aphaena sp., Dichoptera sp., Kalidasa nigromaculata (Gray, 1832), Penthicodes variegata (Guérin-Méneville, 1829), Polydictya tricolor (Westwood, 1845), Polydictya sp., Pyrops condorinus (Lallemand, 1960), P. peguensis (Schmidt, 1911), P. spinolae (Westwood, 1842), P. viridirostris (Westwood, 1848), Saiva gemmata (Westwood, 1848) and Zanna sp. Four species are only recorded from citizen science sources, the relevance of which in such study is explained and discussed. First records of trophobiotic interactions with Blattodea are given and illustrated for Penthicodes atomaria (Weber, 1801) and Saiva gemmata. The nymph of S. gemmata is illustrated for the first time and host-plants are documented for several species. Pyrops condorinus (Lallemand, 1960) is reinstated as a valid species from previous status of subspecies of P. spinolae (Westwood, 1842). In order to provide wider and longer term access to the data, and to anchor the scientific knowledge of such a project, a selection of photographs used in the present study have also been made available in FLOW website (BOURGOIN, 2016) on the webpage of the corresponding species.
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the species group effusus of the genus Pyrops spinola, 1839 is reviewed and the nomenclatural history of the genus Pyrops is briefly summarized. One new species from eastern Borneo, Pyrops synavei sp. nov., is described. P. gunjii (satô & nagai, 1994) stat. nov. is proposed as a valid species instead of a subspecies of P. whiteheadi (Distant, 1889). P. maquilinganus (Baker, 1925) is removed from the effusus group and placed back into the candelaria group. P. cyanirostris (Guérin-Méneville, 1845) is removed from the group and not attributed to any of the currently defined species groups. An illustrated key to the species of the group with the addition of P. intricatus (Walker, 1857) and a distribution map are given. the effusus group is restricted to Borneo and adjacent Laut Island and presently contains 4 species: P. effusus (Distant, 1891), P. gunjii (satô & nagai, 1994) stat.nov., P. synavei sp. nov. and P. whiteheadi (Distant, 1889). trophobiosis observations with the gecko Gehyra mutilata (Wiegmann, 1835) (Reptilia: squamata: Gekkonidae) and two species of cockroaches (Insecta: Blattodea), one Dorylaea sp. and an unidentified species of Pseudophyllodromiinae, are reported and illustrated for P. whiteheadi; observation with a cockroach, Dorylaea sp., is reported for P. intricatus.