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The true identity of Strombus succinctus Linnaeus, 1767 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) with the description of a new Margistrombus species

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Gloria Maris 61(2): 85-96; Antwerp, 11 April 2022
The true identity of Strombus succinctus Linnaeus, 1767 (Mollusca: Gastropoda)
with the description of a new Margistrombus species
Goran VERTRIEST
Kruishoutemsesteenweg 217, Kruisem, Belgium
go.vertriest@gmail.com
Keywords: Caenogastropoda, Littorinimorpha,
Strombidae, Margistrombus, Margistrombus succinctus,
Margistrombus septimus, Margistrombus eloiseae sp.
nov.
Abstract: The identities of Strombus succinctus
Linnaeus, 1767 and Strombus septimus Duclos, 1844 are
compared and confirmed as being conspecific. This
results in the description of a new species in Margi-
strombus Bandel, 2007: Margistrombus eloiseae sp. nov.
Introduction: The name Strombus succinctus Linnaeus,
1767 is in current literature mostly attributed to the
elongated species known from India. This is further
supported by Abbott (1960) as he designated the type
locality of S. succinctus as Madras, India (Abbott, 1960:
p. 100). However, in Dodge (1956) a “holotype" for S.
succinctus is mentioned (Dodge, 1956: p. 279). The
specimen referred to is available in LSL with number
LSL.437 and is different from S. succinctus as used in
recent literature. This specimen (LSL.437) is a broad
shell in modern literature erroneously associated with the
name Strombus septimus Duclos, 1844 instead of the
usually slender shell associated with the name S.
succinctus by nearly all recent authors (e.g. Abbott, 1960;
Kreipl & Poppe, 1999; Kronenberg, 2008; Liverani,
2013; Liverani, 2014; Dekkers & Maxwell, 2020;
Vertriest & Braakman, 2021). The vision of Dodge’s
action, as stated by Kronenberg (2008), is deemed to be
the designation of a lectotype (ICZN Art. 74.6); a vision
here substantiated. Both the identities of S. succinctus
and S. septimus must be confirmed before a definitive
conclusion can be drawn.
A full discussion on the correct name of S. succinctus and
its identity was published by Kronenberg (2008). This
research helped in determining the correct name for the
species being uccinctus, accinctus or succinctus. The
correct name must be S. succinctus (see Kronenberg,
2008: p. 58-62). However, this research, although very
detailed, did not acknowledge the true identity of S.
succinctus. It was considered to be the elongated species
from India used by nearly all recent authors even when
the type material present in LSL and UUZM was seen
and considered (see Kronenberg, 2008; p. 61). The fact
that the lectotype is not a shell associated with the name
S. succinctus, but with S. septimus in all current literature
was also mentioned. However, this was deemed too big
of a change for the nomenclature, so it was left un-
touched. Although this approach secures a stable
nomenclature, it does not allow for a solid deduction on
species identification. The only correct way to identify a
species is to look at the type material, original drawings,
references, original description and the specimens seen
by the author (in this case Linnaeus) to form a clear
picture what the original vision on the said species was.
A case has reportedly been submitted to the ICZN (1999)
to set aside the designation by Dodge (1956) and instead
designate a neotype, which represents the elongated
species known as S. succinctus by all recent authors.
Nothing has been published about a neotype before this
research. This supposed neotype was located by the
curator in London in the supplementary materials
cabinet. These shells are indeed the slender morph
currently referred to as S. succinctus in recent literature.
Shells present in this cabinet have no sufficient evidence
that they where part of Linnaeus own collection and
because of this, are not to be considered syntypes for the
species.
Methods: The easier one to confirm is S. septimus. The
syntypes of S. septimus are present at MNHN, Paris
(MNHN-IM-2000-32464 and MNHN-IM-2000-32468).
Three syntypes are available and all three were almost
certainly seen by Duclos when he introduced the name S.
septimus, linked to the images in Duclos in Chenu (1844;
pl. 13, figs 9-10; pl. 15, fig. 11 and pl. 26, fig. 2). This
gives a clear vision of what species was originally
described as S. septimus. The specimens pictured match
the drawings in Duclos (1844) and can be assigned to the
same species. In the publication, however, there are only
plates accompanied by names. This form of description
was detailed enough at that time, so S. septimus Duclos,
1844 is an available name under ICZN (1999).
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Fig. 1: Strombus septimus in Duclos in Chenu (1843 1846)
A: Duclos, 1844: pl. 26 fig. 2.
B: Duclos, 1844: pl. 15 fig. 11.
C: Duclos, 1844: pl. 13 figs 9-10
For S. succinctus, the identification is a lot harder as no
drawings by Linnaeus exist. Luckily, several citations
were made by Linnaeus (1767: p. 1212) and an original
description was given.
Original description: S.[trombus] testa labro
rotundato retuso, ventre laevi cingulis quatuor pallidis
lineari-punctatis
Testa laevis, testacea, dorso subcarinato cincto lineis
bigeminis albo-punctatis. Spirae anfractus striati
carinula crenata. Labrum exterius intus striatum;
Interius adnatum, laeve, gibbum, antice substriatum.
(After Linnaeus, 1767: p. 1212)
Loosely translated into English: “Shell with blunt
rounded lip, ventral side with four light, pale, spotted
lines”
“Lightweight shell, dorsum sub-keeled, surrounded with
double white pointed line. Spire with rough, beaded
spiral grooves. Lip externally grooved, internally grown
together (adnate), smooth, hump, old sub-grooved”
Discussion: This description is very vague and does not
mention any feature that can be linked to either the
slender shell or the broad shell. Both species posses the
described pattern, have a blunt, rounded lip and have an
externally grooved lip. Although this structure on the lip
is more present in the broader species from the western
Pacific, this is not sufficient enough to make a deduction
based on this description alone. Dodge (1956) also
discussed the original description in great detail (Dodge,
1956: p. 278)
Fig. 2: Syntypes of Strombus septimus Duclos, 1844, Courtesy of MNHN - P. Maestrati
A: Strombus septimus Duclos, 1844 MNHN-IM-2000-32464
B-C: Strombus septimus Duclos, 1844 MNHN-IM-2000-32468
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Fig. 3: The following images were cited by Linnaeus (1767: p. 1212)
A: Rumphius, 1705: plate 37, figure X.
B: Gualtieri, 1742: plate 33, figure B.
C: Dezallier D’Argenville, 1742 : plate 13, figure C
D: Seba, 1758: Thesaurus, vol. 3: plate 61, figure 15
E: Seba, 1758: Thesaurus, vol. 3: plate 62, figure 20
Citations: Five figures were cited by Linnaeus (1767: p.
1212). These citations are here discussed in more detail.
A: Rumphius, 1705: plate 37, fig. X: This figure
definite-ly shows the broader western Pacific species,
commonly known as S. septimus in recent literature. The
numbering of this figure backs this up: all shells added
by Rumphius himself are numbered by letters instead of
numbers. Rumphius only added shells collected in the
“Amboinian Sea” which is now referred to as Ambon
Island, Indonesia. This further solidifies the suspicion
that the shell figured is in fact this broader western
Pacific species.
B: Gualtieri, 1742: plate 33, fig. B: An attempt to locate
the specimen figured in Gualtieri (1742: plate 33, fig. B)
in Museo di Storia Naturale dell universita di Pisa by the
curator had no positive outcome.
C: Dezallier D’Argenville, 1742 : plate 13, figure C.
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D: Seba, 1758: Thesaurus, vol. 3: plate 61, figure 15:
Gualtieri (1742: pl. 33, fig. B), Dezallier D’Argenville
(1742: pl. 13, fig. C) and Seba (1758: pl. 61, fig. 15) show
the same species. This is possibly the broader western
Pacific species commonly known as S. septimus in recent
literature (as mentioned by Dance; notes accompanying
the specimen at LSL: PZ-0010811 PZ-0010812), but
also has some characteristics seen in the pyriform species
to which the name Strombus sowerbyorum Visser & Man
in ‘t Veld, 2005 is designated in recent literature. The
lines shown in the figure can be interpreted as faint
structure on the last whorl present in this pyriform morph.
While the broad western Pacific shell can also have this
decoration on the last whorl, it is mostly closer to the lip
and usually not along the entire shell. However, it can
occur along the entire last whorl in the broader species as
well (see Pl. 2, Fig. A & E). When compared to the
pyriform species one key feature is missing: the plication
on the left ventral side of the last whorl.
The slender morph to which the name S. succinctus is
commonly attributed in recent literature in error (cf.
infra), was also taken into consideration when comparing
shells to these depicted figures. The drawings show a
rather elongated shell, but the lines drawn on the last
whorl in between the pattern are absent in all specimens
of this elongated morph seen for this research. It is hereby
concluded that these figures do not show this specific
species.
Because the figures have characteristics of both the broad
western Pacific species and the pyriform species, it is
hereby concluded that these three figures show either one
of these two species. This is further supported by Dance
(LSL: PZ-0010811 PZ-0010812) and Kronenberg
(2008: p. 60) as both authors identified the figures as
belonging to the broad species, to which the name S.
septimus is designated by most recent authors, which is
one of the two possible species figured, as discussed
above. Kronenberg (2008) also mentioned the similarity
with the pyriform morph to which the name S.
sowerbyorum Visser & Man in ‘t Veld, 2005 is linked in
recent literature.
E: Seba, 1758: Thesaurus, vol. 3: plate 62, figure 20:
This figure was considered to be Strombus vittatus
Linnaeus, 1758 by Dance (LSL: PZ-0010811 PZ-
0010812) and Kronenberg (2008), a vision here
substantiated. This is a Doxander species and not a
Margistrombus species.
Conclusion: Only Rumphius (pl. 37, fig. X) and Seba
(pl. 62, fig. 20) show the shell clearly enough to allow for
identification at species level. The other citations made
by Linnaeus (1767: p. 1212) definitely refer to one
species. However, all these have characteristics that can
be linked to both the broader species, commonly called
S. septimus (see Dance, LSL: PZ-0010811 PZ-
0010812; Kronenberg: p. 60; Kronenberg & Wieneke,
2020: p. 95) or possibly to the pyriform species currently
referred to as S. sowerbyorum.
When the citations are considered, the identity of S.
succinctus would be the same as the broader western
Pacific species today commonly referred to as S.
septimus or the pyriform species today referred to as S.
sowerbyorum. Only one definitely shows the broad
morph associated with S. septimus (Rumphius: pl. 37, fig.
X) and one shows S. vittatus (Seba: pl. 62, fig. 20) while
three drawings depict the same shell here considered to
be either the species currently referred to as S. septimus
or S. sowerbyorum. One of these species must be the
correct identity to which the name S. succinctus must be
associated.
The actual type material: Many shells used by Linnaeus
to describe all of his species are currently in 2 very
important musea. One such location is the Linnean
Society London, the other is Uppsala University
Zoological Museum. S. succinctus is labelled “509”
(Linnaeus, 1767: p. 1212). In LSL only a single shell with
label “509” is present. This specific shell (LSL.437) was
designated as lectotype for S. succinctus by Dodge (p.
279; see Kronenberg: p. 59).
Shells from the collection of Queen Ludovica Ulrika
must also be taken into consideration, as Linnaeus
regularly visited this collection prior to the publication of
the 10th edition of his “Systema Naturae”, and again prior
to the publication of the 12th edition (Gentry, 2007). As
such, many shells of this collection were seen and used
by Linnaeus to describe species. This collection is mostly
present at UUZM. Unfortunately, the Queen needed to
sell off some of her double shells. Many of these have
somehow returned and are present at UUZM (Wallin,
2001). It is almost impossible to say for sure which shells
in these samples were actually part of the Queen’s
collection and which shells were added at a later stage.
Therefore, samples that do not directly come from the
Queen’s collection are here considered to be unsure and
are not taken into consideration. Samples 848 and 849 are
here considered to originate from the collection of Queen
Ludovica Ulrika with sufficient certainty. Samples 1231,
1234 and 1235ab were also seen by the author, but these
specimens cannot be linked to Queen Ludovica Ulrika
with sufficient certainty.
Both samples 848 and 849 were donated to UUZM by
Gustaf IV Adolf, who was the grandson of Queen
Ludovika Ulrika (see Wallin, 2001). These are highly
likely to have been seen by Linnaeus himself when
describing S. succinctus in the 12th edition of his Systema
Naturae (1767: p. 1212). Combined with the specimen
present in LSL (Number LSL.437), it provides a clear
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picture what Linnaeus had in mind. The shell linked to
sample 848 shows the broad western Pacific species
referred to as S. septimus in current literature. Sample
849 has the usual black spot on the columella associated
with Strombus variabilis Swainson, 1820 in current
literature. Kronenberg (2008) also identified this
specimen as belonging to the species commonly named
S. variabilis, which is hereby confirmed.
Within sample 1231, a shell with the number “509”
written in the aperture is present. This might be one of
the doubles sold by the Queen and a specimen Linnaeus
saw during his visits. However, this cannot be stated for
sure, so this is here regarded as a mere possibility. This
shell labelled with the “509” number, is the same species
as seen in sample 848 and LSL.437.
Within sample 1231 three shells of the slender Indian
species are also included in this six-shelled sample.
However, sample 1231 was donated to UUZM by Karl
XIII much later and did not necessarily originate from the
collection of Queen Ludovica Ulrika. These shells were
either added on later without Linnaeus knowing or were
indeed in the Queen’s collection and seen by Linnaeus.
There is no way to be sure about when these shells were
added to the lot. Therefore, it is here considered as too
unsure to take them into consideration for this research.
Plate 1: Syntypes of Strombus succinctus Linnaeus, 1767 compared to one of the syntypes of Strombus septimus Duclos, 1844
A: Strombus succinctus Linnaeus, 1767; Lectotype LSL.437
B: Strombus succinctus Linnaeus, 1767; UUZM Sample 848
C: Strombus succinctus Linnaeus, 1767; UUZM Sample 849 (= Strombus variabilis Swainson, 1820)
D: Strombus septimus Duclos, 1844 ; MNHN-IM-2000-32464
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Final conclusion: No conclusive evidence was found for
the elongated species to be associated with the name S.
succinctus as it is in today’s literature. Therefore, it is
hereby concluded that Dodge (1956) was correct in his
designation of a lectotype (LSL.437). This leads to the
conclusion that S. septimus is to be considered a junior
synonym of S. succinctus as discussed above.
This leaves the elongated species nameless as no other
names were found linked to this predominantly Indian
shell in literature. All other consulted literature contains
misidentification of S. succinctus. Therefore, the name
Margistrombus eloiseae sp. nov. is here proposed for this
elongated species.
Abbreviations:
LSL: Linnean Society of London, United Kingdom
MNHN: Museum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris
UUZM: Uppsala University Zoological Museum,
Sweden
AMD: Aart Marinus Dekkers Collection
DMC: David Monsecour Collection
GKC: Gijs Kronenberg Collection
GVC: Goran Vertriest Collection
KDT: Koenraad De Turck Collection
MIVC: Leo Man in ‘t Veld Collection
SMC: Stephen Maxwell Collection
UWC: Ulrich Wieneke Collection
VLC: Virgilio Liverani Collection
Systematics
Kingdom: Animalia Linnaeus, 1758
Phylum: Mollusca Linnaeus, 1758
Class: Gastropoda Cuvier, 1795
Subclass: Caenogastropoda Cox, 1960
Order: Littorinimorpha Golikov &
Starobogatov, 1975
Superfamily: Stromboidea Rafinesque, 1815
Family: Strombidae Rafinesque, 1815
Genus: Margistrombus Bandel, 2007
Type Species: Strombus marginatus
Linnaeus, 1758 (by original designation)
Margistrombus succinctus (Linnaeus, 1767)
(Plate 2)
Synonymy: Strombus septimus Duclos, 1844 syn. nov.
as listed by Duclos, 1844: pl. 13, fig 9 & 10; pl. 15, fig.
11; pl.26, fig. 2
Records in literature (amongst others):
Strombus marginatus septimus Duclos, 1844 as listed by
Abbott (1960): p. 39, pl. 18, figs. 10-11.
Strombus (Dolomena) marginatus septimus Duclos,
1844 as listed by Kreipl & Poppe (1999): pl. 86, figs. 4-
7 and Visser & Man in ’t Veld (2005): p. 64, pl. 1, figs.
7-8; p. 66: pl. 2, fig. 4; p. 68, pl. 3, fig. 8
Margistrombus septimus (Duclos, 1844) as listed by
Liverani (2014): pl. 153, fig. 2 and Vertriest & Braakman
(2021): p. 138, pl. 3, fig. D
Neodilatilabrum septimus (Duclos, 1844) as listed by:
Dekkers (2008a) p. 59-60, pls. 12-13, right fig.; p. 60-61,
pl. 14-15, left fig and Dekkers (2008b): p. 79, pl. 16-17,
left fig.
Neodilatilabrum septimum (Duclos, 1844) as listed by
Dekkers & Maxwell (2020): p. 57, fig. 3I.
Type material: Lectotype: LSL 437 Designated by
Dodge (1956: p. 279). Further syntypes: UUZM Sample
848, 1231 (1 specimen labelled “509” inside the
aperture).
Type locality: “in India” Linnaeus (1767: p. 1212) and
later refined to “Madras Island, India” by Abbott (1960:
p. 100). However, this species is not found in India at all.
Locations from that time have to be interpreted with care.
The locality “India” has to be erroneous as S. succinctus
here considered as Margistrombus succinctus has not
been found as far westwards as India. The type locality
of S. septimus, the taxon that is hereby synonymised with
M. succinctus, is here designated as the type locality for
M. succinctus. That type locality was designated as
“Luzong, Bataan Peninsula, Luzon Island, Philippines”
by Abbott (1960: p 102).
Comparison: Margistrombus eloiseae sp. nov.: For a
full comparison, see the discussion of M. eloiseae sp.
nov..
Margistrombus marginatus (Linnaeus, 1758): M. margi-
natus is easily distinguishable from all other Margi-
strombus species due to its sharp keel on the shoulder.
This keel is not present in any other species in the genus,
including M. succinctus.
Margistrombus robustus (G. B. Sowerby III, 1875):
Closely related to M. succinctus. Both species are very
variable in decoration of the body whorl. The posterior
siphon is longer and even sometimes bent around the
spire unlike in M. succinctus. The shell shape differs
greatly in typical specimens, but can be hard to
distinguish in extreme cases. This will be reviewed in a
later research.
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Plate 2: Variation in Margistrombus succinctus (Linnaeus, 1767)
A: Manila Bay, Luzon Island, Philippines. 41.03 mm (GVC)
B: Bantanyan Island, Philippines. 41.58 mm (GVC)
C: Honiara, Solomon Islands. 41.26 mm (DMC 490B)
D: Sogod, Cebu, Philippines. 46.61 mm (DMC 490C)
E: Buckner Bay, Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. 47.62 mm (DMC 490D)
F: Masbate, Philippines. 43.97 mm (GVC)
G: Negros Island, Philippines. 54.71 mm (GVC C7214)
Margistrombus simanoki Liverani, 2013: No specimens
were seen during this research. Only the available
pictures on the internet were used. Any differences seen,
can be interpreted differently due to the angle of the
picture. Therefore no comparison has been made between
M. simanoki and M. succinctus.
Margistrombus sowerbyorum (Visser & Man in ’t Veld,
2005): Pyriform in shape and with a concave spire, un-
like M. succinctus, which has a broader shape with a
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Plate 3: Paratypes of Margistrombus eloiseae sp. nov.
A: Madras, India. Paratype 1. 51.2 mm (GVC)
B: Colachel, India. Paratype 3. 56.4 mm (GVC)
C: Madras, India. Paratype 5. 46.6 mm (GVC)
D: Madras, India. Paratype 6. 46.4 mm (GVC)
E: Madras, India. Paratype 7. 49.5 mm (GVC)
F: Trincomalee, Sri Lanka; Paratype 13. 46 mm
(KDT KDT003)
G: Madras, India. Paratype 14. 50 mm (KDT KDT004)
H: Auroville, India. Paratype 15. 58 mm (KDT KDT005)
I: Madras, India. Paratype 16. 44 mm (KDT KDT008)
J: Madras, India. Paratype 18. 36.8 mm (AMD STR2592)
K: Cuddalore, India. Paratype 19. 50.68 mm
(AMD STR3566)
L: Madras, India; Paratype 21. 47 mm (SMC 70.001a)
cone-shaped spire. M. sowerbyorum also has a plication
on the ventral left side. This plication is absent in M.
succinctus.
Variation: The decoration on the last whorl is very
variable. A smooth and a decorated form are present
within the species. The posterior siphon is usually short,
little variable and only touches the previous whorl.
During this research, shells that closely resemble S.
robustus and S. sowerbyorum including the longer
posterior siphon and general pyriform shape were
observed. The location data on these shells (Philippines)
suggest them to be S. succinctus, as typical specimens of
S. robustus, thus with one or more plication(s) on the last
whorl, are not known to be present in the Philippines. The
spire of these specimens is indeed more cone-shaped
instead of the usual concave spire seen in S. sowerby-
orum. For this research, these specimens were classified
together with typical morphs here proven to be S.
succinctus. More research and material are needed to
draw a definitive conclusion.
93
Distribution: Western Pacific species, most commonly
found in the Philippines. Other specimens were recorded
from Brunei, Indonesia, New Caledonia, Papua New
Guinea, Ryukyu Islands, Solomon Islands, Taiwan and
Vanuatu. Other authors have published more records for
S. succinctus from Micronesia (see Dekkers & Maxwell,
2020).
Fig. 4: Distribution of Margistrombus succinctus
(Duclos, 1844)
Material examined: Brunei (GVC x1); Indonesia,
Ambon Island (VLC x1); Japan, Okinawa (DMC x1);
New Caledonia, Touho (VLC x1); Papua New Guinea
(SMC x4); Philippines: no further data (AMD x1, VLC x
6), Balicasag Island (SMC x1), Bantanyan Island (AMD
x1), Bohol (AMD x3), Caridad, Panay (AMD x1), Cebu,
Sogod (DMC x1), Leyte Island, Albuera (AMD x1),
Manila Bay (AMD x3, DMC x1, GVC x4), Marinduque
(SMC x1), Negros (AMD x7), “Rasal Island” (AMD x1);
Solomon Islands: no further data (SMC x1; VLC x5),
Honiara (DMC x1), Kakaboma (VLC x3), Lunga River
(SMC x2); Taiwan (SMC x1): Anping (AMD x1),
Lavinia (AMD x1); Vanuatu (VLC x2).
Margistrombus eloiseae sp. nov.
(Plate 3)
Strombus succinctus Linnaeus, 1767 as listed by G. B.
Sowerby II, 1842: pl. VI, figs. 20-21; Kiener, 1843: pl.
10, fig. 2; Duclos, 1844: pl. 12, figs. 5-6 and pl. 21, figs
6-7.
Strombus marginatus succinctus Linnaeus, 1767 as listed
by Abbott, 1960: p. 39, pl. 18, figs. 13-14.
Strombus (Dolomena) marginatus succinctus Linnaeus,
1767 as listed by: Kreipl & Poppe, 1999: pl. 86, figs. 1-
3; Visser & Man in ’t Veld, 2005: p. 64, pl. 1, figs. 5-6
and p. 66, pl. 2, fig. 3 and p. 68, pl. 3, fig. 7.
Strombus (Margistrombus) succinctus Linnaeus, 1767 as
listed by Bandel, 2007: p. 154, fig. 20-a
Margistrombus succinctus (Linnaeus, 1767) as listed by
Liverani, 2014: pl. 153, fig. 1; Vertriest & Braakman,
2021: p. 138, pl. 3, fig. B
Neodilatilabrum succinctum (Linnaeus, 1767) as listed
by Dekkers & Maxwell, 2020: p. 57, fig. 3-K
Type Material: Holotype (Pl. 3, Fig. B): MNHN:
MNHN-IM-2000-37645, India, Tamil Nadu, Madras,
48.5 mm. Paratypes: Paratype 1: GVC, same locality,
51.2 mm (Pl. 3, Fig. A); Paratype 2: GVC, India, Tamil
Nadu, Rameswaram, 53.5 mm; Paratypes 3-4: GVC,
India, Tamil Nadu, Colachel, 56.4 & 48.8 mm (Paratype
3: Pl. 3, Fig. B); Paratype 5-7: GVC, India, Tamil Nadu,
Madras, 46.6 mm, 46.4 mm, 49.5 mm (Pl. 3, Fig. C; Pl.
3, Fig. D and Pl. 3, Fig; E); Paratypes 8-12: GVC, Sri
Lanka, Trincomalee, 51.8 mm, 43.0 mm, 44.4 mm, 43.6
mm, 41.9 mm; Paratype 13: KDT, same locality, 46
mm, KDT003 (Pl. 3, Fig. F); Paratype 14: KDT, India,
Tamil Nadu, Madras, 50 mm, KDT004 (Pl. 3, Fig. G);
Paratype 15: KDT, India, Tamil Nadu, Auroville, 58
mm, KDT005 (Pl. 3, Fig. H); Paratype 16-17: KDT,
India, Tamil Nadu, Madras, 44 mm, 62.5 mm, KDT008,
KDT010 (Pl. 3, Fig. I, Fig. 8: B); Paratype 18: AMD,
same locality, 36.8 mm, STR2592 (Pl. 3, Fig. J);
Paratype 19: AMD, India, Tamil Nadu, Cuddalore,
50.68 mm, STR3566 (Pl. 3, Fig. K); Paratype 20: AMD,
India, Tamil Nadu, Madras, 33.5 mm, STR2248a (Fig. 8:
A); Paratype 21-23: SMC, same locality, 47 mm, 52
mm, 54 mm, 70.001a, 70.001b, 70.001c (paratype 21: Pl.
3, Fig. L); Paratype 24: DMC, India, Tamil Nadu,
Madras, 55.11 mm; Paratype 25: DMC, Sri Lanka,
Jaffna, 53.51 mm; Paratype 26: VLC, India, Tamil
Nadu, Cuddalore, 56.4 mm, 2700-08/4; Paratype 27:
UWC, India, Tamil Nadu, Madras, 42.2 mm.
Type locality: “Madras, Tamil Nadu, South East India”
is hereby designated as the type locality. This also
matches the type locality given by Abbott (1960) to this
elongated species (p. 100).
Diagnosis: The key diagnostic features are the slender
shape of the shell, its pale colouring and rounded
shoulder with a dorsal knob.
Description: Shell very slender and elongated, shell
width usually less than ½ of shell height. Shell size usual
for the genus, between 33 mm and 62 mm. Coloration
between pale orange brown and brown with 3 4 white
lines on the last whorl, interrupted by a zig-zag pattern.
Columella white and smooth in the centre. Faint striae
present on the upper and lower columella near the siphon
and posterior siphon. Aperture white with clear striae not
94
running until the edge of the lip. Stromboid notch very
shallow. 7-9 whorls with multiple varices on the spire.
Top heavily structured up until around the 5th whorl. Last
2-3 whorls with faint structure. Last whorl smooth or
with very faint structure up until the lip, which is faintly
structured on the outside. Faint rounded dorsal keel with
a knob located approximately in the centre of the dorsum.
Posterior canal variable in length: from short and
reaching the body whorl only to long and running up the
spire for 2-3 whorls.
Etymology: The species is named in honour of the
author’s best friend, Eloïse Cromphaut, who was a big
emotional support in hard times.
Variation: Although the shell shape is mostly elongated
and slender, broader specimens exist. The coloration can
range from pale brown to dark brown, while completely
white and orange shells with a faint pattern are known,
but rare. Pattern variable, but always of the same
composition of 4-5 brownish bands on a white shell,
creating a mostly brown appearance with some white
lines covered with zig-zag pattern. Posterior siphon long
and running up the spire. In some cases, the posterior
siphon runs along the spire when seen from the ventral
side. This variation is quite uncommon. The posterior
siphon is variable in length. Sometimes only touching the
previous whorl, but in other specimens it runs up the spire
for several whorls. Size ranges from 33.5 mm (Paratype
15, AMD STR2248a) to 62.5 mm (Paratype 17, KDT
KDT010).
Comparison: M. marginatus: M. marginatus is easily
distinguishable from all other Margistrombus species
thanks to its sharp keel on the shoulder. This keel is not
present in any other species in the genus including M.
eloiseae. Some studied Indian specimens of M.
marginatus have a similar shape to M. eloiseae. This
variation is still recognisable as belonging to the M.
marginatus as the sharp keel is present and no dorsal
knob is present in the elongated M. marginatus.
M. robustus differs in having a more robust shell. The
posterior siphon is very variable: some have a short
posterior siphon, others have a long one running up the
spire or in front of it. All specimens have multiple
plications on the body whorl, which are absent in M.
eloiseae.
M. simanoki: No specimens were seen during this
research. Only the available pictures on the Internet were
used. Any differences seen, can be interpreted differently
due to the angle of the picture. Therefore, no comparison
with M. eloiseae has been made.
M. sowerbyorum: Pyriform in shape and with a concave
spire, unlike M. eloiseae; which has a slender shape with
a cone-shaped spire. M. sowerbyorum also has a plication
on the ventral left side. This plication is absent in all
studied specimens of M. eloiseae.
Fig. 6: Comparison of M. succinctus and M. eloiseae sp. nov.
A: Lectotype of Strombus succinctus. LSL.437.
B: Holotype of Margistrombus eloiseae sp. nov.
MNHN-IM-2000-37645.
M. succinctus is broader in shape and is generally darker,
although dark specimens of M. eloiseae and pale
specimens of M. succinctus do exist. The posterior siphon
is shorter than in most specimens of M. eloiseae. The
shell of M. succinctus is very variable in decoration on
the last whorl. The outside of the lip is decorated in all
specimens seen during this research. However, M.
eloiseae has a smooth shell and is not variable in
decoration. Some faint decoration is present on the
outside of the lip in M. eloiseae, but never spread over
the entire last whorl. All studied specimens of M.
eloiseae have a dorsal knob, while M. succinctus has an
almost smooth, round shell with very faint plications. The
lip in M. succinctus is more flared out in comparison to
the lip of M. eloiseae.
Fig. 7: Size range of M. succinctus
A:“Philippines”. 34.4 mm (AMD STR2488)
B: Luzon, Philippines. 73.0 mm (KDT)
Material examined: India: Tamil Nadu (UWC x3),
Auroville (KDT x1), Colachel (GVC x2), Cuddalore
(AMD x2; VLC x6), Kottaipattinam (AMD x5), Madras
95
(holotype, MNHN-IM-2000-37645; AMD x13; DMC
x1; GVC x4; KDT x5; SMC x5; VLC x3; UWC x4),
Rameswaram (GVC x1), Thondi (VLC x1), Tuticorin
(AMD x2); Singapore: southwestern side (GKC x1); Sri
Lanka: No details (AMD x1; SMC x1), Colombo (UWC
x1), Galle (AMD x1), Jaffnah (DMC x1), Kalkudah
(VLC x1), Kuchchaveli (UWC x6), Lavinia (AMD x1),
Matara (KDT x2), Trincomalee (GVC x6; KDT x1);
Thailand: Andaman Sea, Ko Chan Island (GKC x1).
Fig. 8: Size range of M. eloiseae sp. nov.
A: Madras, India. Paratype 20. 33.5 mm (AMD STR2248a)
B: Madras, India. Paratype 17. 62.5 mm (KDT KDT010
ex MIVC)
Distribution: M. eloiseae sp. nov. is most commonly
found around the type locality in India. The species
seems to be restricted to India and Sri Lanka. One
specimen from Thailand and one from Singapore were
also recorded in the collection of Gijs Kronenberg.
Thailand and Singapore are seen as possible extensions
of the range, but without more material it is impossible to
be sure one or more populations are thriving at these
locations.
Fig. 5: Distribution of M. eloiseae sp. nov.,
including Thailand and Singapore.
Acknowledgments: The author wishes to thank Chris
Vos, F. L. S. (Belgium) for his continuous support and
supervision from start to finish during this research. This
proved to be extremely valuable for the quality and
overall thoroughness of the research, especially in this
case. Secondly, the author wants to thank Andrea Deneau
(LSL) for the permission to use the pictures of the
lectotype of Strombus succinctus. The author also wants
to thank Philippe Maestrati for the permission to use the
pictures of the syntypes of Strombus septimus (MNHN-
IM-2000-32464 and MNHN-IM-2000-32468) and
Marco Dellacasa, curator of Museo di Storia Naturale
dell universita di Pisa, for checking for the shell figured
in Gualtieri (1742: plate 33, figure B). The author also
wants to thank all people who helped this research by
giving access to their personal specimens for a better
understanding of the variability within both species
discussed in this research. In particular, the author wants
to thank Koenraad de Turck, Aart Dekkers, Ulrich
Wieneke, Virgilio Liverani and David Monsecour for the
use of their material, via pictures or in personal
communication. The author also wants to thank Ulrich
Wieneke, who was kind enough to review an earlier draft
of this article and made the author aware of the shells in
the supplementary collection in London. Finally, the
author wants to thank Oliver Crimmen, curator of the
Linnean collection at LSL, for checking the location of
the supposed neotype and confirming this to be part of
the supplementary material cabinet.
Future Research: This article is the start of a deep and
thorough research within Margistrombus Bandel, 2007
especially the M. robustus complex and the relation
between this and very similar taxa like M. sowerbyorum
and Margistrombus boucheti Thach, 2016.
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Article
Full-text available
We examined the collection in the Museum der Natur Gotha (mng) for specimens of Stromboidea, once in the collection of the German physicist Joachim Friedrich Bol-ten, first described in a sales catalogue by Peter Friedrich Röding in 1798 and subsequently auctioned in 1819. We were able to recognize nine specimens of Stromboidea originating from the Bolten collection with certainty, all once in the private collection of Friedrich Christian Schmidt, that is indicated as ex Bolten in the collection catalogue of mng. Apart from that, we discovered 45 specimens acquired possibly once being part of the Bolten collection. A critical listing of all Stromboidea we encountered in Röding's sales catalogue is added. Names attributed to Bolten (= Röding) by the compiler of the catalogue in mng are discussed. Turris operosa Röding, 1798 is the first available name for Strombus turritus Lamarck, 1822 (non Röding, 1798 nec Link, 1807) and is here recombined to Doxander operosus (Röding, 1798) comb. nov.. The family-level taxon Seraphsi-dae should be attributed to Gray, 1853 and the genus-level taxon Terebellum should be attributed to Bruguière, 1798. Lectotypes are designated for: Lambis velum; Lambis con torta; Tibia indiarum; Turris operosa; and Terebellum lin eatum all of Röding, 1798. There are two different printings of the Museum Boltenianum by Röding. Possible future research is briefly addressed.
The origin of the family Strombidae (Gastropoda)
  • A M Dekkers
Dekkers, A. M. (2008b) The origin of the family Strombidae (Gastropoda). Part one: an analysis derived from literature. De Kreukel 44(3): 65-87.
An examination of the relationships between extant Dolomena Wenz
  • A M Dekkers
  • S J Maxwell
Dekkers, A. M. & Maxwell, S. J. (2020) An examination of the relationships between extant Dolomena Wenz, 1940, Doxander Wenz, 1940, Mirabilistrombus Kronenberg, 1998, Neodilatilabrum Dekkers, 2008 and Labiostrombus Oostingh, 1925 (Stromboidea: Neostromboidae: Strombidae). The Festivus 52(1): 39-59.
Illustrations conchyliologiques ou description et figures de toutes les coquilles connues vivantes et fossiles, classées suivant le système de Lamarck modifié d'après les progrès de la science et comprenant les genres nouveaux et les espèces récemment découvertes: 1-8, pls 8, 4, 28
  • P L Duclos
Duclos, P. L. (1844-1845) Strombus. In: J.C. Chenu, Illustrations conchyliologiques ou description et figures de toutes les coquilles connues vivantes et fossiles, classées suivant le système de Lamarck modifié d'après les progrès de la science et comprenant les genres nouveaux et les espèces récemment découvertes: 1-8, pls 8, 4, 28, 30, 12, 18 [1844]; 17, pls 7, 6, 21, 15 [1845].
Linnaeus' specimens of mammals and birds. The Linnean. Special issue no 8
  • A Gentry
Gentry, A. (2007) Linnaeus' specimens of mammals and birds. The Linnean. Special issue no 8. pp. 145-152.
Index testarvm conchyliorvm qvae adservantvr in mvseo Nicolai Gvaltieri (...) et methodice distribvta exhibentvr
  • N Gualtieri
Gualtieri, N. (1742) Index testarvm conchyliorvm qvae adservantvr in mvseo Nicolai Gvaltieri (...) et methodice distribvta exhibentvr. Tabvlis CX. -pp. I-XXIII [= 1-23], I-CX [= 1-110], I-CX [= 1-110].
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Fourth Edition. The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature
  • Iczn
ICZN (1999) International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Fourth Edition. The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London, UK.
Gastropoda: Strombidae) with some comments to the genus
  • V Liverani
Liverani, V. (2013) A new species of Margistrombus Bandel, 2007 (Gastropoda: Strombidae) with some comments to the genus. Visaya 4(1): 77-83.