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Echo words in Tamil /

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Abstract

Supervisor: John Coleman. Thesis (D. Phil.)--University of Oxford, 2001. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 205-216).

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... Similar patterns occur for other varieties of English and also in different languages, and the pair-wise variability index has recently been applied by a large number of studies in different domains within the broad field of phonetics. These studies include Whitworth's study of rhythm in German English [3], Jian's study of rhythm in Taiwan English [4] and Keane's studies into rhythm in Tamil [5], [6]. Further, Sandgren [7] used the pair-wise variability index to assess the rhythmic deviations among Swedish learners of French. ...
... Consider for instance reduplications with fi xed segmentism affecting the fi rst consonant of the second member of a compound. They frequently involve strong segments such as labial or velar consonants: Tamil (paampu-kiimpu from {paampu} "snake" Keane, 2001), Khalkha Mongolian (japon-mapon from {Japon} "Japan", Kubo, 1997), Basque (handi mandi from {handi} "big", Lafi tte, 1978), Turkish (çocuk mocuk from {çocuk} "child"), Russian (sifilis-pifilis from {sifi lis} "syphilis" Waugh & Jakobson, 1979), etc., or marked segments combinations such as shm in English (table-shmable). Moreover, Cooper & Ross (1975) argue that second position constituents in English irreversible compounds and word phrases contain a more obstruent initial segment, a claim which has been confi rmed by subsequent studies (Pinker & Birdsong, 1979, Wright, Hay & Bent, 2005. ...
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Reduplication has played a central role in the development of phonological theories for 30 years. The introduction of Classical Optimality Theory (OT) in the 1990s sparked intensive research into the typology and analysis of reduplicative patterns, as reduplication was a key testing area both for OT and for theories critical of OT. Now, after some 20 years of research within the OT model, it is appropriate to assess the leading ideas on reduplication that have come out of this period of concentrated research. This pair of articles serves this purpose. The first article presents a typological survey of the function and form of reduplication, covering classic forms of reduplication as well as less well-studied forms, such as phrasal reduplication, morphologically-complex reduplicants, and reduplication without phonological identity. The second article surveys recent formal approaches, such as Base-Reduplicant Correspondence and Morphological Doubling, covering debates such as the morphological status of the reduplicant, exfixation, semantically empty, a-templatic, and compensatory reduplication.
153 5.2.1. Phonology, phonetics and orthography of the Tamil obstruents Correlates of gemination cross-linguistically
  • ........................................................................................................................................................................... Overview Of The Literature
Overview of the literature............................................................................153 5.2.1. Phonology, phonetics and orthography of the Tamil obstruents.........153 5.2.2. Gemination in Tamil.........................................................................155 5.2.3. Correlates of gemination cross-linguistically.....................................158
90 3.3.1. Distribution of scores 90 3.3.2 Morphological constituency of echo bases
  • ....................................................................................................................................................................... Results....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Data
Data analysis................................................................................................ 90 3.3.1. Distribution of scores......................................................................... 90 3.3.2. Results............................................................................................... 92 3.3.2.1. Context................................................................................. 92 3.3.2.2. Which lexical categories can be echoed?............................... 93 3.3.2.3. Morphological constituency of echo bases............................. 94 3.3.2.3.1. Case markers......................................................... 94 3.3.2.3.2. Postpositions.......................................................... 96 3.3.2.3.3. Verbal forms.......................................................... 96
110 4.3.2. Description and analysis of data
  • ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Vowel Reduction
Vowel reduction..........................................................................................110 4.3.1. Data collection..................................................................................110 4.3.2. Description and analysis of data........................................................112 4.3.2.1. Analysis of /a/ tokens...........................................................116 4.3.2.2. Analysis of /i/ tokens............................................................119 4.3.2.3. Analysis of /u/ tokens...........................................................121
47 2.2.1. Points of difference
  • ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Survey Of Reduplicated Forms
Survey of reduplicated forms........................................................................ 47 2.2.1. Points of difference............................................................................ 47 2.2.2. Onomatopoeic expressions................................................................. 47 2.2.3. Expressives........................................................................................ 48 2.2.4. Paired words...................................................................................... 50 2.2.5. Complete reduplication...................................................................... 52 2.2.6. Syntactic reduplication....................................................................... 54
63 2.4.2.1. Which lexical categories can be echoed?
  • Bengali.................................................................................................................................................................................................. Hindi
Hindi and Bengali.............................................................................. 63 2.4.2.1. Which lexical categories can be echoed?............................... 63 2.4.2.2. Morphological constituency of echo bases............................. 64 2.4.2.3. Compounds and complex predicates...................................... 66 2.4.2.4. Phrases................................................................................. 68
71 3.2.2. Design of the questionnaire
  • .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Data Collection
Data collection............................................................................................. 71 3.2.1. Subjects............................................................................................. 71 3.2.2. Design of the questionnaire................................................................ 72 3.2.3. Issues addressed by the questionnaire................................................. 74 3.2.3.1. Context................................................................................. 74 3.2.3.2. Which lexical categories can be echoed?............................... 75 3.2.3.2.1. Nouns.................................................................... 75 3.2.3.2.2. Pronouns................................................................ 76 3.2.3.2.3. Verbs..................................................................... 76 3.2.3.2.4. Adjectives and adverbs......................................... 77