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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the use of diagnostic assessment tools in pediatric physical therapy practice in Spain. Best practice recommendations indicate the timely use of key assessment tools to reduce the age of diagnosis of cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: Pediatric physical therapists currently working in Spain in early intervention were recruited through targeted physical therapy entities. They were invited to complete the purpose-developed electronic survey, consisting of 45 multiple-choice questions, with 5 thematic blocks. Results: Results from 140 anonymous respondents were analyzed. The average reported age when CP was suspected was 12.6 months. Most used the child's clinical history (88.1%), the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (41.3%), and Vojta Assessment Procedure (32.1%) to assess and detect CP. General Movements Assessment (25.7%) and Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (28.4%) were used infrequently. Conclusions: Currently, pediatric physical therapists in Spain rely on clinical history and outdated tools to identify children with CP. Digital Abstract available at: http://links.lww.com/PPT/A361 (English).Digital Abstract available at: http://links.lww.com/PPT/A362 (Spanish).

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Importance Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common childhood physical disability. Early intervention for children younger than 2 years with or at risk of CP is critical. Now that an evidence-based guideline for early accurate diagnosis of CP exists, there is a need to summarize effective, CP-specific early intervention and conduct new trials that harness plasticity to improve function and increase participation. Our recommendations apply primarily to children at high risk of CP or with a diagnosis of CP, aged 0 to 2 years. Objective To systematically review the best available evidence about CP-specific early interventions across 9 domains promoting motor function, cognitive skills, communication, eating and drinking, vision, sleep, managing muscle tone, musculoskeletal health, and parental support. Evidence Review The literature was systematically searched for the best available evidence for intervention for children aged 0 to 2 years at high risk of or with CP. Databases included CINAHL, Cochrane, Embase, MEDLINE, PsycInfo, and Scopus. Systematic reviews and randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were appraised by A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) or Cochrane Risk of Bias tools. Recommendations were formed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework and reported according to the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research, and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument. Findings Sixteen systematic reviews and 27 RCTs met inclusion criteria. Quality varied. Three best-practice principles were supported for the 9 domains: (1) immediate referral for intervention after a diagnosis of high risk of CP, (2) building parental capacity for attachment, and (3) parental goal-setting at the commencement of intervention. Twenty-eight recommendations (24 for and 4 against) specific to the 9 domains are supported with key evidence: motor function (4 recommendations), cognitive skills (2), communication (7), eating and drinking (2), vision (4), sleep (7), tone (1), musculoskeletal health (2), and parent support (5). Conclusions and Relevance When a child meets the criteria of high risk of CP, intervention should start as soon as possible. Parents want an early diagnosis and treatment and support implementation as soon as possible. Early intervention builds on a critical developmental time for plasticity of developing systems. Referrals for intervention across the 9 domains should be specific as per recommendations in this guideline.
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Birth prevalence of cerebral palsy (CP) is declining in high‐income countries, to as low as 1.4 per 1000 live births in the most recent international reports. This represents a 35% reduction in birth prevalence over a 15‐year period. This reduction is underpinned by a heightened focus of attention towards all aspects of CP, including: increased awareness, better data collection, development of national networks and registries, an explosion of research in basic science, perinatal care, neonatal neurology, public health, early detection, and targeted early intervention. Quick uptake of evidence into practice has ensued and overall improvements in clinical care occurred concurrently. It is anticipated that with continued partnerships with families, ongoing research driving further clinical improvement and vice versa, birth prevalence and severity of CP will further decline and the focus will shift to prevention in low‐ and middle‐income countries.
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Background and objectives: Early diagnosis of cerebral palsy (CP) is critical in obtaining evidence-based interventions when plasticity is greatest. In 2017, international guidelines for early detection of CP were published on the basis of a systematic review of evidence. Our study aim was to reduce the age at CP diagnosis throughout a network of 5 diverse US high-risk infant follow-up programs through consistent implementation of these guidelines. Methods: The study leveraged plan-do-study-act and Lean methodologies. The primary outcome was age at CP diagnosis. Data were acquired during the corresponding 9-month baseline and quarterly throughout study. Balancing measures were clinic no-show rates and parent perception of the diagnosis visit. Clinic teams conducted strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analyses, process flow evaluations, standardized assessments training, and parent questionnaires. Performance of a 3- to 4-month clinic visit was a critical process step because it included a Hammersmith Infant Neurologic Examination, a General Movements Assessment, and standardized assessments of motor function. Results: The age at CP diagnosis decreased from a weighted average of 19.5 (95% confidence interval 16.2 to 22.8) to 9.5 months (95% confidence interval 4.5 to 14.6), with P = .008; 3- to 4-month visits per site increased from the median (interquartile range) 14 (5.2-73.7) to 54 (34.5-152.0), with P < .001; and no-show rates were not different. Parent questionnaires revealed positive provider perception with improvement opportunities for information content and understandability. Conclusions: Large-scale implementation of international guidelines for early detection of CP is feasible in diverse high-risk infant follow-up clinics. The initiative was received positively by families and without adversely affecting clinic operational flow. Additional parent support and education are necessary.
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Aim: To study whether early intervention services (EI) and a follow-up program (FU) influence outcomes of children with cerebral palsy (CP) in Moldova. Methods: Records from 351 children with CP in Moldova born during 2009 and 2010 were retrieved from hospital and orphanage archives between 1 July 2016 and 30 September 2017. We investigated the proportion enrolled in EI and FU at the Early Intervention Centre Voinicel and at the Institute of Mother and Child in 2009-2012. Logistic regression analyses were applied to calculate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for outcomes in children enrolled and not enrolled. Results: Among all children with CP, 166 (47%) were enrolled in EI and FU. Of the 51 children born extremely preterm (gestational age ≤ 31 weeks), 46 (90%) were enrolled, compared to 97 (39%) of the 250 children born at term. Among 110 non-walking children with CP, 82 (74%) were enrolled into EI and FU, compared to 84 (35%) of 241 able to walk. There was no difference in outcomes of cognition, communication, vision and hearing impairments between those enrolled or not enrolled in EI and FU. However, the subgroup analyses showed that the risk of contractures was 11 times higher among non-walking children who were not enrolled in EI and FU programs (OR = 10.931, 95% CI 2.328-51.328, p = 0.002). Conclusion: In Moldova, EI and FU seem to be offered mostly to extremely preterm and non-walking children with CP. The results indicate a decreased risk for contractures in these children.
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Introduction: Clinical guidelines recommend using neuroimaging, Prechtls' General Movements Assessment (GMA), and Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (HINE) to diagnose cerebral palsy (CP) in infancy. Previous studies provided excellent sensitivity and specificity for each test in isolation, but no study has examined the pooled predictive power for early diagnosis. Methods: We performed a retrospective case-control study of 441 high-risk infants born between 2003 and 2014, from three Italian hospitals. Infants with either a normal outcome, mild disability, or CP at two years, were matched for birth year, gender, and gestational age. Three-month HINE, GMA, and neuroimaging were retrieved from medical records. Logistic regression was conducted with log-likelihood and used to determine the model fit and Area Under the Curve (AUC) for accuracy. Results: Sensitivity and specificity for detecting CP were 88% and 62% for three-month HINE, 95% and 97% for absent fidgety GMs, and 79% and 99% for neuroimaging. The combined predictive power of all three assessments gave sensitivity and specificity values of 97.86% and 99.22% (PPV 98.56%, NPV 98.84%). Conclusion: CP can be accurately detected in high-risk infants when these test findings triangulate. Clinical implementation of these tools is likely to reduce the average age when CP is diagnosed, and intervention is started.
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Background: Cerebral palsy is the most common physical disability in childhood, and is mostly diagnosed after age 2 years. Delays in diagnosis can have negative long-term consequences for children and parents. New guidelines for early cerebral palsy diagnosis and intervention were recently published, after systematic review of the evidence by international multidisciplinary experts aiming to decrease age at diagnosis. The current study tested the feasibility of implementing these guidelines in an American clinical setting. Methods: We designed a stepwise implementation process in a neonatal intensive care follow-up clinic. Efficacy was tested by comparing 10-month pre- and post-implementation periods. Clinic visit types, cerebral palsy diagnosis, provider competencies and perspectives, and balancing measures were analyzed. Results: Changes to infrastructure, assessments, scheduling algorithms, documentation and supports in diagnosis or counseling were successfully implemented. Number of three- to four-month screening visits increased (255 to 499, P < 0.001); mean age at diagnosis decreased (18 to 13 months, P < 0.001). Clinic team awareness of early diagnosis and interventions increased (P < 0.001). There was no decrease in family satisfaction with overall clinic function. Opportunities for improvements included documentation for transitioning patients, generalizabilty across hospital clinics, systematic identification of high-risk status during hospitalization, and need for cerebral palsy care guidelines for infants under age 2 years. Conclusions: We demonstrated for the first time in a US clinical setting the feasibility of implementation of international early diagnosis and treatment guidelines for cerebral palsy. This process is adaptable to other settings and underscores the necessity of future research on cerebral palsy treatments in infancy.
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Importance Cerebral palsy describes the most common physical disability in childhood and occurs in 1 in 500 live births. Historically, the diagnosis has been made between age 12 and 24 months but now can be made before 6 months’ corrected age. Objectives To systematically review best available evidence for early, accurate diagnosis of cerebral palsy and to summarize best available evidence about cerebral palsy–specific early intervention that should follow early diagnosis to optimize neuroplasticity and function. Evidence Review This study systematically searched the literature about early diagnosis of cerebral palsy in MEDLINE (1956-2016), EMBASE (1980-2016), CINAHL (1983-2016), and the Cochrane Library (1988-2016) and by hand searching. Search terms included cerebral palsy, diagnosis, detection, prediction, identification, predictive validity, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The study included systematic reviews with or without meta-analyses, criteria of diagnostic accuracy, and evidence-based clinical guidelines. Findings are reported according to the PRISMA statement, and recommendations are reported according to the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument. Findings Six systematic reviews and 2 evidence-based clinical guidelines met inclusion criteria. All included articles had high methodological Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) ratings. In infants, clinical signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy emerge and evolve before age 2 years; therefore, a combination of standardized tools should be used to predict risk in conjunction with clinical history. Before 5 months’ corrected age, the most predictive tools for detecting risk are term-age magnetic resonance imaging (86%-89% sensitivity), the Prechtl Qualitative Assessment of General Movements (98% sensitivity), and the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (90% sensitivity). After 5 months’ corrected age, the most predictive tools for detecting risk are magnetic resonance imaging (86%-89% sensitivity) (where safe and feasible), the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (90% sensitivity), and the Developmental Assessment of Young Children (83% C index). Topography and severity of cerebral palsy are more difficult to ascertain in infancy, and magnetic resonance imaging and the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination may be helpful in assisting clinical decisions. In high-income countries, 2 in 3 individuals with cerebral palsy will walk, 3 in 4 will talk, and 1 in 2 will have normal intelligence. Conclusions and Relevance Early diagnosis begins with a medical history and involves using neuroimaging, standardized neurological, and standardized motor assessments that indicate congruent abnormal findings indicative of cerebral palsy. Clinicians should understand the importance of prompt referral to diagnostic-specific early intervention to optimize infant motor and cognitive plasticity, prevent secondary complications, and enhance caregiver well-being.
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Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common motor disability in childhood. This syndrome is the manifestation of intrauterine pathologies, intrapartum complications, and the postnatal sequel, especially among preterm neonates. A double hit model theory is proposed suggesting that an intrauterine condition along with intrapartum or postnatal insult lead to the development of CP. Recent reports demonstrated that treatment during the process of preterm birth such as magnesium sulfate and postnatal modalities such as cooling may prevent or reduce the prevalence of this syndrome. Moreover, animal models demonstrated that postnatal treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs coupled with nanoparticles may affect the course of the disease in pups with neuroinflammation. This review will describe the changes in the epidemiology of this disease, the underlying prenatal mechanisms, and possible treatments that may reduce the prevalence of CP and alter the course of the disease.
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AimTo investigate whether standardized motor development screening and assessment tools that are used to evaluate motor abilities of children aged 0 to 2 years are valid in cultures other than those in which the normative sample was established. Method This was a systematic review in which six databases were searched. Studies were selected based on inclusion/exclusion criteria and appraised for evidence level and quality. Study variables were extracted. ResultsTwenty-three studies representing six motor development screening and assessment tools in 16 cultural contexts met the inclusion criteria: Alberta Infant Motor Scale (n=7), Ages and Stages Questionnaire, 3rd edition (n=2), Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd edition (n=8), Denver Developmental Screening Test, 2nd edition (n=4), Harris Infant Neuromotor Test (n=1), and Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, 2nd edition (n=1). Thirteen studies found significant differences between the cultural context and normative sample. Two studies established reliability and/or validity of standardized motor development assessments in high-risk infants from different cultural contexts. Five studies established new population norms. Eight studies described the cross-cultural adaptation of a standardized motor development assessment. InterpretationStandardized motor development assessments have limited validity in cultures other than that in which the normative sample was established. Their use can result in under- or over-referral for services.
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Background: High-risk infant follow-up programs provide early identification and referral for treatment of neurodevelopmental delays and impairments. In these programs, a standardized neurological examination is a critical component of evaluation for clinical and research purposes. Methods: To address primary challenges of provider educational diversity and standardized documentation, we designed an approach to training and implementation of the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination with precourse materials, a workshop model, and adaptation of the electronic medical record. Conclusions: Provider completion and documentation of a neurological examination were evaluated before and after Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination training. Standardized training and implementation of the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination in a large high-risk infant follow-up is feasible and effective and allows for quantitative evaluation of neurological findings and developmental trajectories.
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Survey research is an important form of scientific inquiry1 that merits rigorous design and analysis. 2 The aim of a survey is to gather reliable and unbiased data from a representative sample of respondents. 3 Increasingly, investigators administer questionnaires to clinicians about their knowledge, attitudes and practice2,4,5 to generate or refine research questions and to evaluate the impact of clinical research on practice. Questionnaires can be descriptive (reporting factual data) or explanatory (drawing inferences between constructs or concepts) and can explore several constructs at a time. Questionnaires can be informal, conducted as preparatory work for future studies, or formal, with specific objectives and outcomes. Rigorous questionnaires can be challenging and labour- intensive to develop, test and administer without the help of a systematic approach. 5 In this article, we outline steps to design, develop, test and administer valid questionnaires with minimal bias and optimal response rates. We focus on selfadministered postal and electronic surveys of clinicians that are amenable to quantitative analysis. We highlight differences between postal and electronic administration of surveys and review strategies that enhance response rates and reporting transparency. Although intended to assist in the conduct of rigorous self- administered surveys, our article may also help clinicians in the appraisal of published surveys.
Article
Aim A diagnosis of cerebral palsy (CP) can, and should, be made as early as possible. This work describes current clinical practice around the awareness and use of diagnostic tools for the detection of CP in New Zealand (NZ). Methods A purpose‐developed survey distributed electronically to NZ clinicians working with young children with or at risk of CP. Results A total of 159 clinicians (including paediatricians, physiotherapists and occupational therapists) participated in this cross‐sectional study. Ninety‐six percent were aware that a diagnosis of CP can be made by 12 months of age, with high levels of awareness of the use of magnetic resonance imaging (94%), Prechtl's qualitative assessment of general movements (GMs) (70%) and Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (HINE) (77%). Only 40% were aware of the HINE optimality scoring. Fifty‐four clinicians provided a diagnosis of CP as part of their role: 48% never used the GMs or HINE to assess children <1 year, and 57% never used the HINE for children between 1 and 2 years. Clinicians not providing a diagnosis within their professional role (n = 104) also indicated infrequent use of assessment tools with 74% and 54% never using the GM's or HINE (respectively) in their assessment of children at risk of CP. Barriers to use included lack of time and funding, lack of clear pathways and management support. Conclusion Despite high awareness, current use of international best practice tools in NZ clinical practice appears low. Multiple barriers are reported to the use of these tools, which need to be addressed to improve the timeliness of diagnosis.
Article
Background: Preterm infants have a high risk of neurodevelopmental disability, including cerebral palsy (CP). Often, CP is not diagnosed until after 12 months, leading to delay in targeted interventions. The General Movements assessment (GM) evaluates the spontaneous movements of high-risk infants from birth to 20 weeks corrected postnatal age (CPA), and accurately predicts the risk of CP. This allows for earlier diagnosis and intervention, potentially changing the trajectory of disability, yet routine use of GM is not well established in New Zealand. Aim: To describe the process of setting up GM in a tertiary neonatal unit. Methods: We reviewed the process and progress made to date setting up GM in our service. Results: Challenges and potential solutions for the implementation of GM were identified. Key areas of development included staff training and support, IT services, resources, medical documentation, inter-departmental communication and establishing clinical pathways. Conclusion: GM has become successfully integrated into the assessment of high-risk infants in our neonatal unit, with the aim to provide valuable information to health professionals and families to optimise intervention and improve outcomes. Efforts will continue to ensure there is robust and sustainable system for using GM in our service.
Article
Background: The early identification of cerebral palsy (CP) in the primary care context is often problematic and referral for diagnosis often delayed. This study aimed to identify clinical features associated with the early detection of CP that can be used by the primary care provider. Methods: We performed a scoping review by searching six electronic databases. We included English language articles that addressed the diagnosis of CP and/or its differential diagnosis in children and ways of detecting CP before the diagnosis is established (i.e., early clinical signs of CP) via (1) questions on the patient's clinical history, (2) developmental screening and/or health questionnaires, or (3) physical or neurological examination. Results: Included studies (n = 41; 27 overview studies and 14 original studies) were grouped into the three themes. Most of the overview articles relied on expert opinion, and all original studies included patients at high risk of developing CP. The most commonly identified features from each theme were early hand preference on clinical history, delayed or absent achievement of motor developmental milestones on developmental screening, and persistent primitive reflexes on neurological examination. Conclusions: Overall, the literature on the early observable clinical signs that should prompt referral for investigation of possible CP in the specific context of well-baby care surveillance was sparse and inconsistent. Further research should focus on evaluating the contribution of readily identifiable clinical features.
Article
Aim: This study aims to identify characteristics at 2 years of age that differ between children with confirmed cerebral palsy (CP) and a non-CP diagnosis by 5 years of age. Method: This was a retrospective cohort analysis. A CP diagnosis may be considered a 'probable' diagnosis at 2 years, which is often 'confirmed' at 4 or 5 years, particularly in the context of CP registries. A total of 1683 children with a diagnosis of CP or probable CP at 2 years of age were identified from the Canadian Cerebral Palsy Registry, of whom 48 received a non-CP diagnosis at 5 years ('non-confirmed CP'). Perinatal adversity, preterm birth status, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level, presence of comorbidities, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and initial CP motor type were compared between the two groups by univariate and logistic regression analyses. Results: χ2 analysis and multivariate analysis both confirmed that children with a non-CP diagnosis by 5 years of age were more likely to have a normal MRI (χ2 odds ratio [OR]=7.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]=3.8-16.1; OR=5.4, 95% CI=2.4-12.5), ataxic-hypotonic (χ2 OR=10.1, 95% CI=4.9-21.2; OR=6.1, 95% CI=2.2-16.2) or dyskinetic CP (χ2 OR=2.7, 95% CI=1.2-5.9; OR=2.9, 95% CI=1.0-7.6), born at term (χ2 OR=3.7, 95% CI=1.7-8.0; OR=3.6, 95% CI=1.0-12.1), and lack perinatal adversity (χ2 OR=4.1, 95% CI=1.6-10.7; OR=3.4, 95% CI=1.0-11.7). Interpretation: Normal MRI, ataxic-hypotonic or dyskinetic CP, lack of perinatal adversity, and term birth are associated with a higher odds of non-CP diagnosis by 5 years of age, thus potentially enhancing diagnostic work-up. What this paper adds: Normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2 years was associated with a non-cerebral palsy (CP) diagnosis by 5 years. Diagnosis of ataxic-hypotonic or dyskinetic CP motor subtype at 2 years was associated with a non-CP diagnosis by 5 years. Perinatal adversity and preterm birth were rarer with a non-CP diagnosis by 5 years.
Article
Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the practices physical therapists and occupational therapists use in early intervention (EI) for infants with or at risk for cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: A survey was disseminated nationally to EI providers using an online anonymous link. Results: Two hundred sixty-nine therapists completed at least 50% of the survey. Four percent of therapists use the General Movement Assessment to predict CP, 57% reported infants at risk for CP receive therapy once a week, 89% identified parents' goals as the most important factor in customizing the EI program, and 75% provide parents with home programs. However, 73% never or rarely use outcome measures to prioritize parents' goals; 31% provide parents with individualized home program and more than 60% never assess environmental enrichment. Conclusion: Therapists do not incorporate sufficient strategies for goal-oriented interventions, comprehensive parent education, and optimum environmental enrichment.
Article
Aim To establish international expert recommendations on clinical features to prompt referral for diagnostic assessment of cerebral palsy (CP). Method An online Delphi survey was conducted with international experts in early identification and intervention for children with CP, to validate the results obtained in two previous consensus groups with Canadian content experts and knowledge users. We sent two rounds of questionnaires by e‐mail. Participants rated their agreement using a 4‐point Likert scale, along with optional open‐ended questions for additional feedback. Additionally, a panel of experts and knowledge‐users reviewed the results of each round and determined the content of subsequent surveys. Results Overall, there was high‐level of agreement on: (1) six clinical features that should prompt referral for diagnosis; (2) two ‘warning sign’ features that warrant monitoring rather than immediate referral for diagnosis; and (3) five referral recommendations to other healthcare professionals to occur simultaneously with referral for diagnosis. Interpretation There was high agreement among international experts, suggesting that the features and referral recommendations proposed for primary care physicians for early detection of CP were broadly generalizable. These results will inform the content of educational tools to improve the early detection of CP in the primary care context. What this paper adds • International experts provide strong agreement on clinical features to detect cerebral palsy. • Consensus on clinical ‘warning signs’ to monitor over time. • Referral recommendations from primary care to specialized health services are identified.
Article
Aim To investigate trends in birth prevalence of cerebral palsy (CP) overall and by gestational age, and examine the distribution of motor type, spastic topography, and severity using Australian CP Register data from 1995 to 2009. Method Prenatal and perinatal CP data were collated from state/territory CP registers. Birth prevalence estimates per 1000 live births and per 1000 neonatal survivors (NNS) were calculated in five epochs. Data from three state registers with population‐level ascertainment were used to investigate birth prevalence trends by gestational age using Poisson regression. Distribution of motor type, spastic topography, and moderate to severe disability (IQ≤50 and/or Gross Motor Function Classification System levels III–V) were evaluated within birthweight categories. Results Birth prevalence of CP varied across population‐level states but within each state declined significantly over time (p<0.05). Birth prevalence per 1000 neonatal survivors declined amongst children born before 28 weeks (South Australia, Victoria p<0.001) and those born at or after 37 weeks (Victoria p<0.001, Western Australia p<0.002). Across Australia the percentage of children with bilateral spastic CP declined amongst those born less than 1000g. The percentage of children with moderate to severe disability decreased (48%–34%, p<0.001). Interpretation Birth prevalence of CP declined. Encouragingly, the percentage of children with CP whose disability was moderate to severe also decreased. What this paper adds • Birth prevalence of cerebral palsy (CP) differed but declined across Australian states (1995–2009). • Australian CP birth prevalence declined significantly amongst children born before 28 weeks and those born at or after 37 weeks. • The percentage of children with moderate to severe disability decreased.
Article
Introduction: Cerebral palsy describes a group of developmental and posture disorders, which cause a limitation of activity due to non-progressive damage occurring in the developing brain. A population register facilitates the identification of cerebral palsy cases within a specific geographic population. Its usefulness is recognized in the world literature but in Spain, published databases focus on the treatment or complications of cerebral palsy. Aims: To propose a population register that can be useful in different areas of our environment and to evaluate its validity through its application in two differentiated and geographically delimited health areas. Subjects and methods: The registry consists of 124 items divided into seven sections: data on the child filiations, maternal history and parents' information, pregnancy and neonatal period data, diagnoses and classification, neuroimaging tests, therapeutic interventions and others. Patients attended in external consultations in Navarre and Andorra were included. Results: In the register, 53 patients (52.8% females) were evaluated. 56.5% were premature. Spastic cerebral palsy is the most frequent presentation. 42% have associated epilepsy. Conclusions: The use of population registers allows a better knowledge of cerebral palsy as well as the evaluation and development of prevention strategies and optimization of care resources with objective data. It is necessary to generalize the use of this type of records in our environment.
Article
Infants born preterm are at increased risk of cerebral palsy (CP), with the risk increasing with decreasing gestational age. Although preterm children are at increased risk of CP compared with their term-born peers, most preterm children do not have CP and thus, it is important to have a standardized process for detecting those children at high risk of CP early. A combination of clinical history, neuroimaging, and physical examination is recommended to ensure early, accurate diagnosis. Early detection of CP is essential for timely early intervention to optimize outcomes for children and their families.
Article
Background: General movements (GM) are used in academic settings to predict developmental outcome in infants born preterm. However, little is known about the implementation and predictive value of GM in non-academic settings. Aims: The aim of this study is twofold: To document the implementation of GM assessment (GMA) in a non-academic setting and to assess its predictive value in infants born preterm. Methods and procedures: We documented the process of implementing GMA in a non-academic outpatient clinic. In addition, we assessed the predictive value of GMA at 1 and 3 months' corrected age for motor and cognitive development at 2 years in 122 children born <33 weeks' gestation. Outcome at two years was based upon the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (mental/psychomotor developmental index (MDI, PDI)) and a neurological examination. The infants' odds of atypical outcome (MDI or PDI ≤70 or diagnosis CP) and the predictive accuracy of abnormal GMA were calculated in a clinical routine scenario, which used all available GM information (primarily at 3 months or at 1 month, when 3 months were not available). In addition, separate analysis was undertaken for the samples of GMA at 1 and 3 months. Outcomes and results: Tips to facilitate GMA implementation are described. In our clinical routine scenario, children with definitely abnormal GM were more likely to have an atypical two-year outcome than children with normal GM (OR 13.2 (95% CI 1.56; 112.5); sensitivity 55.6%, specificity 82.1%). Definitely abnormal GM were associated with reduced MDI (-12.0, 95% CI -23.2; -0.87) and identified all children with cerebral palsy (CP) in the sample of GMA at 3 months only. Conclusions and implications: GMA can be successfully implemented in a non-academic outpatient setting. In our clinical routine scenario, GMA allowed for adequate prediction of neurodevelopment in infants born preterm, thereby allaying concerns about diagnostic accuracy in non-academic settings.
Article
Surveys are one of the most frequently employed study designs in healthcare epidemiology research. Generally easier to undertake and less costly than many other study designs, surveys can be invaluable to gain insights into opinions and practices in large samples and may be descriptive and/or be used to test associations. In this context, qualitative research methods may complement this study design either at the survey development phase and/or at the interpretation/extension of results stage. This methods article focuses on key considerations for designing and deploying surveys in healthcare epidemiology and antibiotic stewardship, including identification of whether or not de novo survey development is necessary, ways to optimally lay out and display a survey, denominator measurement, discussion of biases to keep in mind particularly in research using surveys, and the role of qualitative research methods to complement surveys. We review examples of surveys in healthcare epidemiology and antimicrobial stewardship and review the pros and cons of methods used. A checklist is provided to help aid design and deployment of surveys in healthcare epidemiology and antimicrobial stewardship. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1–6
Article
Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most severe physical disability within the spectrum of developmental delay. CP is an umbrella term describing a group of motor disorders, accompanied by many associated impairments. The disability is a result of injuries to the developing brain occurring any time from the first trimester of pregnancy through to early childhood. However, for the great majority, their full etiological causal pathway remains unclear. It is important to discriminate as early as possible between: (a) mild or nonspecific motor delay, (b) developmental coordination disorder, (c) syndromes, (d) metabolic and progressive conditions, and (e) CP with its various motor types and distributions. The most promising predictive tool for CP is the general movements assessment, which assesses the quality of spontaneous movements of infants in the first 4 months of life. We propose a change in diagnostic practice. We recommend a shift away from referral for intervention following a formal (most often late) description of CP, to one of referral for intervention whichoccurs immediately once an infant is considered "at risk" of CP. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Disabil Res Rev 2011;17:114-129.
Article
Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common cause of motor disability in the paediatric age. For several decades, a number of developed countries have kept registers that have been used to conduct population-based studies of CP. In Spain, however, little attention has been paid to the epidemiology of CP. To review the concept of CP today and to stimulate greater interest in researching into CP based on the experience of other countries. The different definitions of CP cover motor sequelae secondary to an isolated brain injury that occurs in a developing brain. CP registers were started as a means of monitoring the prevalence of CP and planning suitable care for patients. Over the last decade projects have been carried out that involve the coordinated efforts of several centres; this provides a larger population for study and reduces the chances of confusion with respect to the terminology employed. In this regard, one notable line of work is that of the European CP group (SCPE), which gathers information about children with CP in 15 countries. Spain has been taking part in this project since 2003 through a group of researchers from the Hospital 12 de Octubre in Madrid. From the very definition of the disorder, CP is a complex condition. A population-based study of CP in Spain should help to arouse a renewed interest in this condition in our country.
Using Multivariate Statistics
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Situación Temprana en España: Análisis de la figura profesional del fisioterapeuta
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Situación Temprana en Españ: Análisis de la figura profesional del fisioterapeuta
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