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Abstract and Figures

Within the H2020 project TRICK, in order to gather further useful information for the project vision definition, consumers’ needs, behaviours and barriers and expectations have been also investigated and outlined by means of a questionnaire-based survey carried out by Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna (SSSA) and administered to a representative sample of five European countries (France, Italy, Spain, Germany, Poland and Italy). After a brief overview of the textile-clothing sector and the role of the consumer plays in textile value chain transition towards the circular economy, with reference to the use of traceability technologies, such as the blockchain, this Report illustrates the main characteristics of the TRICK project, with particular reference to pilot projects in the textile-clothing and food supply chains and to the need for a more sustainable production and consumption system and the importance of having reliable information on the value chain of this sector. Then, the Report presents the methodology used for the construction of the above-mentioned survey developed by SSSA research team with the aim of investigating consumers' perceptions of the circularity of the textile-clothing sector and of information and traceability technologies. The results of the survey are then reported, divided by thematic area. In this context, the role that the consumer plays within this transition is of vital importance, acting as a lever for change and intervening in different phases of the product life cycle. In this context, the blockchain is configured as an enabling technology, able to transparently provides a large amount of information to the end user.
Sustainable fashion awareness (overall) .................................................................. 19 Figure 2 Sustainable fashion awareness (by country) ............................................................ 20 Figure 3 PCE in sustainable fashion (overall) ......................................................................... 21 Figure 4 PCE in sustainable fashion (by country) ................................................................... 21 Figure 5 Importance of clothing-related attributes (overall) ..................................................... 22 Figure 6 Importance of clothing-related attributes (countries' deviation from average) ......... 23 Figure 7 Sustainable fashion purchasing (overall) .................................................................. 25 Figure 8 Sustainable purchasing behaviour (by country -first part)....................................... 26 Figure 9 Sustainable purchasing behaviour (by country -second part) ................................. 27 Figure 10 Willingness to pay for sweatshirt made with recycled fibres ................................... 28 Figure 11 Details of willingness to pay for the sweatshirt made with recycled materials (+) .. 29 Figure 12 Details of willingness to pay for the sweatshirt made with recycled materials (-) .. 30 Figure 13 Sustainable fashion consumption (overall) ............................................................. 31 Figure 14 Sustainable fashion consumption (by country) ....................................................... 32 Figure 15 Motivations to buy/use sustainably produced clothes (overall) .............................. 34 Figure 16 Motivations to buy/use second-hand clothes (overall) ............................................ 34 Figure 17 Motivations to buy/use rented clothes (overall) ....................................................... 35 Figure 18 Motivations to buy/use sustainably produced clothes (by country) ........................ 36 Figure 19 Motivations to buy/use second-hand clothes (by country) ...................................... 37 Figure 20 Motivations to buy/use rented clothes (by country)................................................. 38 Figure 21 Barriers to buy/use sustainably produced clothes (overall) .................................... 40 Figure 22 Barriers to buy/use second-hand clothes (overall).................................................. 41 Figure 23 Barriers to buy/use rented clothes (overall) ............................................................ 41 Figure 24 Barriers to buy/use sustainably produced clothes (by country) .............................. 42 Figure 25 Barriers to buy/use second-hand clothes (by country) ........................................... 43 Figure 26 Barriers to buy/use rented clothes (by country) ...................................................... 44 Figure 27 Clothing care (overall)............................................................................................. 46 Figure 28 Clothing care (by country) ....................................................................................... 47 Figure 29 Repair in the use phase (overall) ............................................................................ 48 Figure 30 Repair (by country) .................................................................................................. 49 Figure 31 Post consumption in the after-use phase (overall).................................................. 50 Figure 32 Post consumption in the after-use phase (by country) ........................................... 51 Figure 33 Access to further information (overall) .................................................................... 53 Figure 34 Access to further information (by country) .............................................................. 53 Figure 35 Trust in environmental claims (overall).................................................................... 54 Figure 36 Trust in eco-labels (overall) ..................................................................................... 54 Figure 37 Trust in environmental claims (by country) ............................................................. 55 Figure 38 Trust in eco-labels (by country) ............................................................................... 55 Figure 39: Perceived usefulness of a QR-code associated with a garment (total) ................. 58 Figure 40: Perceived usefulness of a QR-code associated with a garment (by country) ....... 58 Figure 41: Perceived ease of use of a QR-code associated with a garment (total) ............... 59 Figure 42: Perceived ease of use of a QR-code associated with a garment (by country) ..... 59 Figure 43: Perceived quality of information obtainable by scanning a QR-code associated with a garment (total) ............................................................................................................... 60 Figure 44: Perceived quality of information obtainable by scanning a QR-code associated with a garment (by country)...................................................................................................... 61 Figure 45: Perceived quality of a QR-code associated with a garment (total) ........................ 61
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Content may be subject to copyright.
This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020
research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 958352.
Consumer Behavior relating to
Circular fashion, Innovation and
Usage of QR code
Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies
Management Institute
March 2022
Copyright © 2021 TRICK | Survey presentation Page 2 of 133
Consumer Behavior relating to
Circular fashion, Innovation and
Usage of QR code
Survey Presentation
Institute of Management
Scuola Superiore di Studi Universitari
e Perfezionamento Sant’Anna
Piazza Martiri della Libertà, 24
I-56127 Pisa (Italy) T
Tel.: +39 (0)50 883 805
Fax: +39 (0)50 883 839
Authors:
Prof. Francesco Testa f.testa@santannapisa.it
Dr. Natalia Marzia Gusmerotti n.gusmerotti@santannapisa.it
Dr. Micol Batelli m.batelli@santannapisa.it
Dr. Serena Carlesi s.carlesi@santannapisa.it
Dr. Vinicio Di Iorio v.diiorio@santannapisa.it
Dr. Tiziana Iannuzzi t.iannuzzi@santannapisa.it
Dr. Sara Limone s.limone@santannapisa.it
Copyright © 2021 TRICK | Survey presentation Page 3 of 133
Table of Contents
1 Report introduction .............................................................................................................. 8
1.1 Purpose and objectives of the TRICK project ............................................................. 8
1.2 Textile-clothing sector .................................................................................................. 9
1.3 Consumer behaviour .................................................................................................. 10
2 Methodology ...................................................................................................................... 12
2.1 Context and design .................................................................................................... 12
2.2 Sample description..................................................................................................... 14
3 Circular Fashion behaviours ............................................................................................. 16
3.1 Awareness and Involvement ...................................................................................... 18
3.1.1 Sustainable fashion awareness ........................................................................ 18
3.1.2 Perception of self-effectiveness in sustainable fashion ................................... 20
3.1.3 Product-related attributes ................................................................................. 22
3.2 Purchasing and consumption behaviours ................................................................. 24
3.2.1 Sustainable fashion purchasing ....................................................................... 24
3.2.2 Willingness to pay ............................................................................................. 28
3.2.3 Sustainable fashion consumption..................................................................... 30
3.2.4 Motivation to buy/use sustainable fashion ....................................................... 33
3.2.5 Barriers to buy/use sustainable fashion ........................................................... 39
3.3 Use and after-use behaviours .................................................................................... 45
3.3.1 Clothing care ..................................................................................................... 46
3.3.2 Repair................................................................................................................ 48
3.3.3 Post consumption ............................................................................................. 50
3.4 Trust in information .................................................................................................... 52
3.4.1 Access to further information ............................................................................ 52
3.4.2 Trust in environmental claims and eco-labels .................................................. 53
4 Innovation and QR-code ................................................................................................... 56
4.1 Drivers to use the QR-code ....................................................................................... 56
4.1.1 Perceived Characteristics of technology: perceived usefulness, perceived
ease of use, perceived quality information and system quality........................................ 57
4.1.2 Facilitating Conditions ...................................................................................... 62
4.1.3 Users’ characteristics: habit and novelty seeking ............................................ 64
4.2 Intention to use the QR-code ..................................................................................... 67
4.3 Attitude toward blockchain technology ...................................................................... 70
5 Conflicts and paradoxes in consumers’ minds on circular fashion .................................. 76
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5.1 Perceived tensions ..................................................................................................... 76
5.3 Paradox mindset ........................................................................................................ 79
5.4 Types of tensions ....................................................................................................... 79
5.4.1 Performing tensions .......................................................................................... 81
5.4.2 Learning tensions ............................................................................................. 82
5.4.3 Belonging tensions ........................................................................................... 83
6 Exploring relations among variables................................................................................. 85
7 The experimental study: circular fashion, blockchain technology and perceived value .. 93
7.1 Context ....................................................................................................................... 93
7.2 Experimental design................................................................................................... 94
7.2.1 Circular fashion ................................................................................................. 94
7.2.2 Blockchain technology ...................................................................................... 95
7.2.3 Perceived value: meaningfulness and uniqueness .......................................... 96
7.3 Methods ...................................................................................................................... 96
7.3.1 Vignettes ........................................................................................................... 96
7.4 Results........................................................................................................................ 98
7.5 Behavioural implications .......................................................................................... 104
7.6 Conclusions .............................................................................................................. 104
8 Conclusions ..................................................................................................................... 105
Appendix A The Questionnaire ........................................................................................... 111
Appendix B The Experiment ............................................................................................... 127
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List of Figures
Figure 1 Sustainable fashion awareness (overall) .................................................................. 19
Figure 2 Sustainable fashion awareness (by country) ............................................................ 20
Figure 3 PCE in sustainable fashion (overall) ......................................................................... 21
Figure 4 PCE in sustainable fashion (by country) ................................................................... 21
Figure 5 Importance of clothing-related attributes (overall) ..................................................... 22
Figure 6 Importance of clothing-related attributes (countries’ deviation from average) ......... 23
Figure 7 Sustainable fashion purchasing (overall) .................................................................. 25
Figure 8 Sustainable purchasing behaviour (by country first part)....................................... 26
Figure 9 Sustainable purchasing behaviour (by country second part) ................................. 27
Figure 10 Willingness to pay for sweatshirt made with recycled fibres ................................... 28
Figure 11 Details of willingness to pay for the sweatshirt made with recycled materials (+) .. 29
Figure 12 Details of willingness to pay for the sweatshirt made with recycled materials (-) .. 30
Figure 13 Sustainable fashion consumption (overall) ............................................................. 31
Figure 14 Sustainable fashion consumption (by country) ....................................................... 32
Figure 15 Motivations to buy/use sustainably produced clothes (overall) .............................. 34
Figure 16 Motivations to buy/use second-hand clothes (overall) ............................................ 34
Figure 17 Motivations to buy/use rented clothes (overall) ....................................................... 35
Figure 18 Motivations to buy/use sustainably produced clothes (by country) ........................ 36
Figure 19 Motivations to buy/use second-hand clothes (by country) ...................................... 37
Figure 20 Motivations to buy/use rented clothes (by country)................................................. 38
Figure 21 Barriers to buy/use sustainably produced clothes (overall) .................................... 40
Figure 22 Barriers to buy/use second-hand clothes (overall).................................................. 41
Figure 23 Barriers to buy/use rented clothes (overall) ............................................................ 41
Figure 24 Barriers to buy/use sustainably produced clothes (by country) .............................. 42
Figure 25 Barriers to buy/use second-hand clothes (by country) ........................................... 43
Figure 26 Barriers to buy/use rented clothes (by country) ...................................................... 44
Figure 27 Clothing care (overall)............................................................................................. 46
Figure 28 Clothing care (by country) ....................................................................................... 47
Figure 29 Repair in the use phase (overall) ............................................................................ 48
Figure 30 Repair (by country) .................................................................................................. 49
Figure 31 Post consumption in the after-use phase (overall).................................................. 50
Figure 32 Post consumption in the after-use phase (by country) ........................................... 51
Figure 33 Access to further information (overall) .................................................................... 53
Figure 34 Access to further information (by country) .............................................................. 53
Figure 35 Trust in environmental claims (overall).................................................................... 54
Figure 36 Trust in eco-labels (overall) ..................................................................................... 54
Figure 37 Trust in environmental claims (by country) ............................................................. 55
Figure 38 Trust in eco-labels (by country) ............................................................................... 55
Figure 39: Perceived usefulness of a QR-code associated with a garment (total) ................. 58
Figure 40: Perceived usefulness of a QR-code associated with a garment (by country) ....... 58
Figure 41: Perceived ease of use of a QR-code associated with a garment (total) ............... 59
Figure 42: Perceived ease of use of a QR-code associated with a garment (by country) ..... 59
Figure 43: Perceived quality of information obtainable by scanning a QR-code associated
with a garment (total) ............................................................................................................... 60
Figure 44: Perceived quality of information obtainable by scanning a QR-code associated
with a garment (by country)...................................................................................................... 61
Figure 45: Perceived quality of a QR-code associated with a garment (total) ........................ 61
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Figure 46: Perceived Quality of a QR-code associated with a garment (by country) ............. 62
Figure 47: Facilitating conditions that support the use of QR-code perceived by respondents
(total)......................................................................................................................................... 63
Figure 48: Facilitating conditions that support the use of QR-code perceived by respondents
(by country) ............................................................................................................................... 63
Figure 49: Type of QR-code user (total) .................................................................................. 65
Figure 50: Type of QR-code user (by country) ........................................................................ 65
Figure 51: Habit to use QR-code (total) ................................................................................... 66
Figure 52: Novelty seeking by respondents (total) .................................................................. 67
Figure 53: Novelty seeking by respondents (by country) ........................................................ 67
Figure 54: Attitude toward use of a QR-code associated with a garment (total) .................... 68
Figure 55: Attitude toward use of a QR-code associated with a garment (by country) .......... 69
Figure 56: Intention to use a QR-code associated with a garment (total) ............................... 69
Figure 57: Intention to use a QR-code associated with a garment (by country) ..................... 70
Figure 58: Knowledge of blockchain technology (total) ........................................................... 71
Figure 59: Knowledge of blockchain technology (Italy) ........................................................... 71
Figure 60: Knowledge of blockchain technology (Spain) ........................................................ 72
Figure 61: Knowledge of blockchain technology (France) ...................................................... 72
Figure 62: Knowledge of blockchain technology (Germany)................................................... 73
Figure 63: Knowledge of blockchain technology (Poland) ...................................................... 73
Figure 64: Trust toward blockchain technology (total)............................................................. 74
Figure 65: Trust toward blockchain technology (by country)................................................... 75
Figure 66: The broad set of scenarios where people can experience tensions while shopping
for clothes ................................................................................................................................. 77
Figure 67: Experiencing tensions (country level) .................................................................... 77
Figure 68: Different scenarios of experiencing tensions while shopping clothes (country level)
.................................................................................................................................................. 78
Figure 69: Overall differences in paradox mindset, country by country .................................. 79
Figure 70: Types of tensions (total) ......................................................................................... 80
Figure 71: Differences among countries and types of tensions .............................................. 81
Figure 72: Set of performing tensions (country by country) .................................................... 82
Figure 73: Set of learning tensions (country by country) ......................................................... 83
Figure 74: Set of belonging tensions (country by country) ...................................................... 84
Figure 75: Age classes’ mean value in relation to Habit to scan a QR-code .......................... 89
Figure 76: Age classes’ mean value in relation to Perceived quality of information obtainable
by scanning a QR-code associated with a garment ................................................................ 89
Figure 77: Age classes’ mean value in relation to quality of a QR-code associated with a
garment .................................................................................................................................... 90
Figure 78: Age classes’ mean value in relation to Perceived usefulness of a QR-code
associated with a garment ....................................................................................................... 90
Figure 79: Age classes’ mean value in relation to Facilitating conditions that support the use
of QR-code ............................................................................................................................... 90
Figure 80: Age classes’ mean value in relation to Perceived ease of use of a QR-code
associated with a garment ....................................................................................................... 91
Figure 81: Difference in meaningfulness between second-hand scarf and remanufactured
scarf .......................................................................................................................................... 99
Figure 82: Difference in uniqueness between second-hand scarf and remanufactured scarf
................................................................................................................................................ 100
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Figure 83: Comparing uniqueness and meaningfulness between second-hand scarf and
remanufactured scarf ............................................................................................................. 100
Figure 84: Difference in meaningfulness between provenance information and no information
about the previous owner ....................................................................................................... 101
Figure 85: Difference in uniqueness between provenance information and no information
about the previous owner ....................................................................................................... 101
Figure 86: Difference in meaningfulness between no blockchain encryption and blockchain
encryption about the product information .............................................................................. 102
Figure 87: Difference in uniqueness between no blockchain encryption and blockchain
encryption about the product information .............................................................................. 102
List of Tables
Table 1: Sample description .................................................................................................... 15
Table 2: Age classes ................................................................................................................ 89
Table 3: In green, the number of respondents each scenario ................................................ 97
Table 4: Number of respondents each subset, country by country......................................... 98
Table 5: Three-way ANOVA over purchase intention ........................................................... 103
Table 6: Regression analysis ................................................................................................. 104
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1 Report introduction
In order to gather further useful information for the TRICK vision definition, consumers’ needs,
behaviours and barriers and expectations have been also investigated and outlined by means of a
questionnaire-based survey carried out by Scuola Superiore SantAnna (SSSA) and administered to a
representative sample of five European countries (France, Italy, Spain, Germany, Poland and Italy).
After a brief overview of the textile-clothing sector and the role of the consumer plays in textile value
chain transition towards the circular economy, with reference to the use of traceability technologies,
such as the blockchain, this Report illustrates the main characteristics of the TRICK project, with
particular reference to pilot projects in the textile-clothing and food supply chains and to the need for
a more sustainable production and consumption system and the importance of having reliable
information on the value chain of this sector. Then, the Report present the methodology used for the
construction of the above-mentioned survey developed by SSSA research team with the aim of
investigating consumers' perceptions of the circularity of the textile-clothing sector and of information
and traceability technologies. The results of the survey are then reported, divided by thematic area.
In this context, the role that the consumer plays within this transition is of vital importance, acting as
a lever for change and intervening in different phases of the product life cycle. In this context, the
blockchain is configured as an enabling technology, able to transparently provide a large amount of
information to the end user.
1.1 Purpose and objectives of the TRICK project
The European TRICK project "Product data traceability from cradle to cradle by blockchains
interoperability and sustainability service marketplace" supports the adoption, tracing and
demonstration of sustainable approaches by means of an innovative and circular product information
management system based on Blockchain. This system will be able to provide stakeholders of the
supply chains and final consumers with all the relevant data needed to implement end of waste
practices and aware purchasing choices. Thanks to the implementation of a data collection system
based on different Blockchain solutions, TRICK will show how EU companies can achieve full
traceability and transparency of supply chains, guaranteeing data privacy and confidentiality
throughout the entire process and informing consumers about all stages of the value chain. In the
design phase, a marketplace will also be created that will allow third parties to market certified
solutions and exploit the data collected by new business models, creating a series of standard services
to support all stakeholders in the supply chains, starting with SMEs. The starting point of this process,
with reference to the textile supply chain, is the creation of a roadmap for the conversion of production
processes from linear to circular, with a particular focus on consumer behaviour in relation to the
purchase and recycling of second-hand clothing, and the use of digital product information
technologies, such as the blockchain.
TRICK demonstration will be run in two of the most highly relevant, complex, and polluting domains:
Textile-Clothing and Food, to demonstrate the replicability of the approach. The overarching goal to
support the adoption of sustainable and circular approaches and to enable enterprises to collect
secured product data will be addressed on both innovation and implementation sides, by means of a
Copyright © 2021 TRICK | Survey presentation Page 9 of 133
wide range of activities. The project’s concept envisages the development of a set of services targeted
on the pilots of the project, the creation of roadmap encompassing state of the art and the
improvements able to support the transition to circular economy and the deployment of a set of new
technologies.
1.2 Textile-clothing sector
The textile and clothing sector is an important part of the European manufacturing industry, which
plays a crucial role in the economy and social well-being in many regions of Europe. According to 2019
data, 160,000 companies in the sector employ 1.5 million people and generate a turnover of 162 billion
euros. The sector, particularly at EU level, is based on small businesses (SMEs). Companies with fewer
than 50 employees represent over 90% of the workforce and produce nearly 60% of the added value.
The textile and clothing industry is one of the most globalized sectors, with 38% of the EU turnover
coming from the global market, also thanks to the existence of free trade agreements. Textiles and
clothing recorded a strong export performance: they increased by 58% between 2010-2019, while
textiles increased by 43%. 99.8% of the total companies in this sector are micro and SMEs, of which
67% in the clothing sector and 33% in the textile sector
1
.
The ecosystem of the textile-clothing supply chain is a complex system, made up of a multiplicity of
raw materials, processes and actors that intervene in every phase of the supply chain, both upstream
and downstream of the production process. Clothing is the largest area of textile use, accounting for
around 60% of the global demand for fibres. On the other hand, the shares of home and industrial
textiles are almost equal, each representing approximately 20% of the global demand for fibres
2
.
The textile-clothing value chain includes all activities that provide or receive value from the design,
manufacture, distribution, retail and consumption of a textile-clothing product (or from the provision
of the service rendered by it). It also includes the extraction and supply of raw materials, such as
activities involving the product after the end of its useful life. At all stages of the value chain and in the
transport of intermediate and finished products between the different stages, raw materials and
energy are required and large emissions are released into the environment
3
. Textile Clothing plays a
significant role in climate change with 1,7 million tons/year CO2 emissions, 10 % of substances of
potential concern to human health, 87% of the workforce (manly women) below living wages.
Permitted by lowered cost and fast fashion, a garment is worn an average of 3 times in its lifecycle,
with €400 billion lost a year due to discarding clothes which can still be worn. The waste in fashion
reaches 92 million tons per year, with 87% of clothes ending up in landfills. Activities associated with
a value chain are often shown as a linear representation, from raw material production to end-of-life
treatment. With operations for reuse, repair / repurposing and recycling of materials add a new "cycle"
to this linear representation. The objective of circularity is in fact to move from a "take-make-dispose"
value chain into a closed-loop system, in which materials are not lost after use but remain in the
economic system, circulating for as long as possible with the highest possible value
4
.
1
EURATEX, “FACTS & KEY FIGURES OF THE EUROPEAN TEXTILE AND CLOTHING INDUSTRY”, 2020.
2
PCI Wood Mackenzie, 2016.
3
Sustainability and Circularity in the Textile Value Chain: Global Stocktaking, UN Environmental Program, 2020.
4
Ellen MacArthur Foundation, A new textiles economy: Redesigning fashion’s future, (2017,
http://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/publications).
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In addition to the activities described above, the textile-clothing value chain also includes the actors
who directly undertake the activities included in the value chain and the stakeholders who can
influence these activities. The value chain therefore incorporates not only physical processes, such as
farms and factories, but also business models and the way products are designed, promoted and
offered to consumers. These non-manufacturing activities, including design, marketing, retail,
advertising and communication campaigns, largely determine the way in which textile-clothing
products are produced and consumed. While some stakeholders, in particular direct actors, are
involved in a specific phase of the value chain, others are more transversal and operate in some or all
phases of this
5
. One of the main challenges to circularity is represented by the collaboration of the
actors along the supply chain. Strong collaboration between partners throughout the supply chain of
the textile-clothing sector is required to ensure a real circularity of products and processes, which is
not always easily reachable. Close cooperation between manufacturers, suppliers, retailers and
customers is a key element in improving the capacity for innovation and meeting the needs of the
market
6
. Manufacturing companies have always recognized the importance of good relationships
between partners and have clearly identified the need for trusting relationships with suppliers.
Furthermore, suppliers represent a very important piece for achieving circularity, as they represent a
connection point between the various phases in the manufacturer's value chain
7
.
Consumers and stakeholders need to overcome the opacity of the value-chain with reliable and
secured information about products as regards production tracing, PEF and environmental footprint,
recycling and circular practices, health protection, worker social conditions, anti-counterfeiting and
raw material flows. TRICK Textile-Clothing pilot will fulfil this need covering all the main phases of
circular production with a concrete implementation of circular flows in real business with end-of-waste
as final goal.
1.3 Consumer behaviour
Over the past 14 years, the number of clothes purchased by an average consumer has grown by 60%
every year and world production of clothes has doubled; moreover, 15 years ago people wore twice
as much clothing than today
8
. This trend has inevitably led to a more massive exploitation of both the
workforce and the natural environment
9
, as well as an increase in sector waste. With demand steadily
increasing (according to the Ellen MacArthur Foundation, annual consumption in emerging markets is
expected to increase from $ 12 trillion in 2010 to $ 30 trillion in 2025), consumer behaviour is being
used as a lever and aid towards the transition. to a more sustainable model, thanks to their power of
influence on the value chain. Indeed, thanks to their purchasing choices, consumers can contribute to
5
Sustainability and Circularity in the Textile Value Chain: Global Stocktaking, UN Environmental Program, 2020.
6
Lieder, M., Rashid, A., 2016. Towards circular economy implementation: a comprehensive review in context of
manufacturing industry. J. Clean. Prod. 115.
7
Hyder, A.S., Chowdhury, E., Sundstrom, A., 2017. Balancing control and trust to manage CSR compliance in
supply chains. Int. J. Supply Chain Manag. 6 (2).
8
Remy, N., Speelman, E., Swartz, S., 2016. Style That’s Sustainable: A New Fast-Fashion Formula. McKinsey &
Company.
9
Koszewska, M., 2011. Social and eco-labelling of textile and clothing goods as means of communication and
product differentiation. Fibres and Textiles in Eastern Europe 19 (4), 20e26.
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reducing their impacts on the planet by adopting a greener behaviour
10
and influence the offer of
environmentally friendly products.
Recent studies have shown how sustainability is playing an increasingly significant role in the decision-
making process of consumers
11
, thus increasing expectations for more sustainable products and for
the behaviour of companies, increasingly called to pay attention to materials. the processes and other
factors that can affect the surrounding nature, communities and environment. The role of consumers
is crucial in moving to a more sustainable economy, as the environmental impacts of products largely
depend on them in two phases of the product life cycle, i.e., in the use and disposal phases.
In this context, technologies for information capacity adapt to an important tool available to
companies and consumers to guarantee and track their sustainability. From a consumer-centric
perspective, blockchain technology has the potential to substantially transform the relationships
between businesses and consumers by improving data and information transparency, improving
privacy and security, and allowing brands and consumers to bypass intermediation and to form
stronger relationships. To strengthen trust and transparency in digital marketing, blockchain
technology can enable brands and consumers to operate in a safer and more transparent ecosystem
12
.
Based on characteristics such as consistency of information, transparency and immutability, blockchain
technology helps to create trust in the system itself, ensuring the adoption of honest behaviour by
both parties
13
. Furthermore, blockchain technology responds to the need for privacy protection.
The role of a consumer in supporting the transformation of the textile and clothing industry towards a
CE already concerns some fundamental aspects, both direct and indirect. User behaviours have effects
throughout the life cycle of the textile-clothing product, thus making the consumer a key player in the
supply chain.
Among the aspects of consumer behaviour that influence the extent and timing of the transformation
towards the circular economy authors find active involvement in the product design process, openness
to cooperation with producers and the adoption of conscious and rational behaviour in phases of
purchase and use of a product, attention to methods of treating used, broken or useless textile and
clothing products, as well as willingness to reduce textile waste generated by households
14
. There is
also an openness to new business models, which involve activities such as the sharing of products, the
purchase of a "user experience service" rather than a product itself and the adoption of conscious and
rational behaviours in the purchasing and use of a product
15
.
10
Steg, L., Bolderdijk, J. W., Keizer, K., & Perlaviciute, G. (2014). An integrated framework for encouraging pro-
environmental behaviour: The role of values, situational factors and goals. Journal of Environmental psychology,
38, 104-115.
11
Nielsen Company. (2015) “Consumer-goods' brands that demonstrate commitment to sustainability outperform
those that don’t”. Scaricabile dal sito https://www.nielsen.com/eu/en/press-room/2015/consumer-goods-brands-
that-demonstrate-commitment-to-sustainability-outperform.html
12
Rejeb A., Keogh J. G.,Treiblmaier H., 2020, How Blockchain Technology Can Benefit Marketing: Six Pending
Research Areas, Front. Blockchain, 19 February 2020 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fbloc.2020.00003
13
Chapron, G. (2017). The environment needs cryptogovernance. Nat. News 545, 403405. doi: 10.1038/545403a
14
Laitala, K., 2014. Consumers’ clothing disposal behaviour e a synthesis of research results. International Journal
of Consumer Studies 38 (5), 444e457.
15
Koszewska, M., 2019, Circular economy in textiles and fashionthe role of a consumer, Processing,
Manufacturing, and Design. The Textile Institute Book Series, 183-206.
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2 Methodology
Below there is a detailed explanation of the methodology used in the construction of the survey,
administered in five countries of the European Union and which led to the analysis of 5124 usable
questionnaires. It is also specified that the results reported in the following sections concern:
Awareness and involvement;
Purchasing and consumption behaviours;
Use and after-use behaviours;
Trust in information;
Driver to use the QR-code;
Intention to use the QR-code;
Attitude toward blockchain technology;
Tensions between conflicting objectives
2.1 Context and design
A questionnaire-based survey has been developed in order to assess consumer circular behaviours
relating to the textile and clothing sector and their attitude towards certain kinds of technology, in
particular towards the QR-code and the blockchain technology. According to that approach, the
primary aim of this research was to outline some specific consumer behaviours defining their extent,
but also to understand the relative importance of the factors that influence consumers preferences,
choices and actions, and to explore motivations, barriers and relations among variables. To further
deepen their knowledge on the subject, authors decided to realize an experimental study to
investigate cause-effect connections between different informative stimuli and the direction and the
intensity of circular behaviours.
Concerning the scope of the study, the research has been conducted in five countries within the
European Union that represent some of the biggest markets in the Continent, namely France,
Germany, Italy, Spain, and Poland. In fact, they are among the most populated nations in Europe,
having about 294 million out of 447 million people (data referring to 2020), more than half of the
overall European population. Moreover, even if they belong to the same Continent, there are
remarkable differences in terms of culture, habits and consumption patterns, and this can certainly
lead to a difference in behaviours related to both fashion and technologies in everyday life. For
instance, Mediterranean countries share common or similar social habits which greatly differ from
northern countries. The variety of socio-cultural aspects of those countries, combined with their
magnitude in terms of market size and population, make these countries exceptional candidates for
the study.
In order to investigate consumer behaviours and the most relevant factors influencing them, a
quantitative study has been chosen because it suits the need for analysing numerical data and
Copyright © 2021 TRICK | Survey presentation Page 13 of 133
generalizing results obtained from the five samples selected to a wider population. The choice of the
questionnaire-based survey is due to its characteristics to be one of the most effective tools to collect
information in an objective and reliable way. Once the research objectives had been identified,
questions have been formulated so that they could be easy to understand for the respondents, trying
to minimize the systematic error that occurs when people respond to a survey. Indeed, some
distortions may occur when people are asked to report on their own perceptions, attitudes, and
behaviours, unconsciously trying to appear consistent and rational in their choices. Subsequently, the
response options have been defined using different scale formats (Likert scale, frequency scale,
semantic differential scale, true or false, ranking scales) with different anchors, in order to minimize
the common method bias. Finally, the questionnaire was pre-tested and administered online to reach
a broader number of respondents in the five targeted countries. In order to reduce sampling error, an
external provider have been recruited to send out the questionnaire that a representative sample of
about one thousand people for each country involved in the study, for a total number of 5124
questionnaires completely filled and sent back. All the representativeness parameters of the sample
that have been settled a priori were satisfied: gender, age range, and geographical distribution.
Moreover, the sample guaranteed a 95% interval of confidence, and a confidence level of 3,5%.
The questionnaire was divided into four sections. The first section, Circular fashion behaviours, is the
biggest one and encompasses four sub-categories. The first is relating to sustainable fashion awareness
and involvement and aims to understand if the respondent is informed and concerned about the
environmental impacts generated by the textile industry and if he/she perceives his actions as an
effective instrument to tackle the current linear model of production and consumption. In the second
part, respondents were asked to rate the frequency of sustainable clothing purchasing and sustainable
clothing consumption (i.e., use of rental and second-hand stores/platforms). This part aims also to
explore the motivations and barriers behind consumer choices. Then, use and after-use behaviours
have been investigated in order to define how often respondents take care, repair and correctly
dispose of garments. Lastly, the survey explored the influence of environmental information on
purchasing decisions and the extent to which information is considered a trustworthy source.
The second set of variables investigated in the questionnaire relates to Innovation and QR-code and
is based on the assumption that technologies can be an enabling factor to foster circular behaviours.
In particular, the first questions are designed to understand if there are some factors (e.g. habit,
quality, perceived usefulness and ease of use) that can be considered as drivers to the use of QR-code.
The last questions aim to assess the intention to use the QR-code and, finally, the attitude toward
blockchain technology.
A third cluster of variables focused on Tensions between conflicting objectives that can emerge when
people are faced with a choice (for example, during clothing purchasing) and they have to satisfy
personal needs and environmental objectives simultaneously. More specifically, questions intend to
investigate which kind of tensions people are used to experience and if they can get them through.
Lastly, a final section on Socio-economic characteristics have been included, including gender, age,
family size, income class, education level, profession and size of the built-up area.
Copyright © 2021 TRICK | Survey presentation Page 14 of 133
2.2 Sample description
The questionnaire was administered to a sample of citizens, from 18 to 70 years old, living in France,
Germany, Italy, Spain and Poland from the end of December 2021 to the beginning of January 2022. A
total of 5124 usable questionnaires have been collected, equally distributed among the five countries
selected. Respondents have been chosen randomly in order to guarantee the representativeness of
targeted European populations. Moreover, when feasible, demographics have been cross-checked
against available data on the Eurostat website.
Gender is equally distributed across all the countries. Even if Eurostat data show that in Europe there
are 4.7 % more women than men. In particular, among the five countries included in the sample,
France is the one with the wider disproportion, recording 106.9 women per 100 men, while the
German population is the most proportionally distributed with 102.7 women per 100 men.
The distribution of the age classes of the sample has been examined and, comparing the five countries,
distributions are almost equal to each other. France records a slight difference in the percentage of
Millennials (identified as those belonging to the 18-24 age group) with 13% in the total population
compared to the 10-11% of the other countries. The impact of millennials is undoubtedly relevant for
this study because they are the generation with a greater sensitivity towards both environmental and
technological issues, as demonstrated by previous research. Baby boomers (identified as those
belonging to the age group 55-70) represent the largest percentage of the population, with the highest
value recorded in Germany (32% of the population of the sample) and the lowest in Spain (28% of the
population of the sample). These trends are confirmed by Eurostat data according to which the share
of elderly people continues to increase in Europe, and France is among the countries with the highest
shares of young people in the total population. On the contrary, Eurostat data shows that Italy is the
country with the highest share of elderly people.
In Germany, families consisting of one or two people are more numerous than those with multiple
family members (65% of the population of the sample). By contrast, in Poland, Italy and Spain families
composed of a single person are 11%, 12% and 13% respectively. In addition, Italy and Poland record
the highest percentage of families composed of four or more members (32% in the total sample
population). Except for Germany, the majority of the population is made up of families ranging from 2
to 3 members (about 60% in the total).
Concerning the distribution of wealth, respondents were asked to declare their class (from very low to
very high) instead of their income, as it is a more precise measure that avoids errors or missing answers
due to privacy reasons. Wealth looks almost well distributed among the citizens and, technically, it is
“normally distributed” among the countries and within each country. With a percentage that ranges
from 35% in France to 52% in Spain, the middle-class is the largest cluster of people in all the five
countries. Indeed, people who declared to belong to the highest or the lowest class represent a small
minority, although data revealed some slight differences among countries. France is the nation with
the lowest percentage of wealthy citizens, since people belonging to the very low class are 6% in the
total population (the highest value among the countries) while people belonging to the very high class
are only 1%. On the other hand, Poland is the first ranked for wealth as it results the country with the
smaller percentage of very low-status citizens (1%) and the larger percentage of very high-status
citizens (4%) among the countries.
Copyright © 2021 TRICK | Survey presentation Page 15 of 133
Finally, it has been noticed that the average level of education is relatively high as, in every country,
high school graduated citizens represent the larger group (about 50%). The average of people having
a graduate degree, or a postgraduate qualification stands at 28%, with the highest value recorded in
Spain (37%) and the lowest in Germany (19%).
Table 1: Sample description
Poland
Germany
France
Spain
Italy
N
%
N
N
%
n
%
N
%
Gender
Men
520
50,73%
503
514
50,79%
510
50,20%
530
50,33%
Woman
505
49,27%
515
498
49,21%
506
49,80%
523
49,67%
Age class
18-24
105
10,24%
109
128
12,65%
107
10,53%
107
10,16%
25-34
205
20,00%
194
181
17,89%
169
16,63%
169
16,05%
35-44
232
22,63%
176
192
18,97%
226
22,24%
208
19,75%
45-54
182
17,76%
213
207
20,45%
231
22,74%
250
23,74%
55-70
301
29,37%
326
304
30,04%
283
27,85%
319
30,29%
Family
members
1
113
11,02%
308
228
22,53%
134
13,19%
126
11,97%
2
288
28,10%
359
351
34,68%
300
29,53%
253
24,03%
3
300
29,27%
186
206
20,36%
317
31,20%
335
31,81%
4
190
18,54%
101
143
14,13%
198
19,49%
229
21,75%
5+
134
13,07%
64
84
8,30%
67
6,59%
110
10,45%
Class
Very low
13
1,27%
30
59
5,83%
17
1,67%
28
2,66%
Low
46
4,49%
61
149
14,72%
40
3,94%
75
7,12%
Low-middle
213
20,78%
209
176
17,39%
224
22,05%
238
22,60%
Middle
483
47,12%
390
357
35,28%
527
51,87%
536
50,90%
Middle-high
174
16,98%
226
190
18,77%
163
16,04%
142
13,49%
High
49
4,78%
53
53
5,24%
26
2,56%
9
0,85%
Very high
36
3,51%
28
14
1,38%
10
0,98%
8
0,76%
Not specified
11
1,07%
21
14
1,38%
9
0,89%
17
1,61%
Education
Elementary
school or no
education
35
3,41%
12
46
4,55%
34
3,35%
2
0,19%
Middle
school
164
16,00%
145
79
7,81%
73
7,19%
84
7,98%
High school
without
obtaining a
degree
65
6,34%
59
74
7,31%
77
7,58%
100
9,50%
High school
340
33,17%
504
342
33,79%
315
31,00%
440
41,79%
Bachelor
without
obtaining a
degree
79
7,71%
106
244
24,11%
141
13,88%
132
12,54%
Bachelor's
degree or
more
342
33,37%
192
227
22,43%
376
37,01%
295
28,02%
Copyright © 2021 TRICK | Survey presentation Page 16 of 133
3 Circular Fashion behaviours
Circular products are those that operate within the circular economy model i.e., those products that
have reduced or completely no need for virgin resources and are designed with the end of their life in
mind, made without the use of particular chemical substances, where priority is given to recycled raw
materials, with packaging that minimizes the impact on the environment. Circular economy also
involves the introduction of principles such as sustainable design strategies, zero-waste design,
product-life extension, resource recovery, repair and remanufacture services. Nowadays, green and
circular products are becoming abundant in many sectors of our economy as consumer demand in on
the rise.
In the past sustainable consumption choices could be associated to gender, economic availability, and
education levels
16
. However, nowadays it is more difficult to link this type of behaviour to the socio-
economic characteristics of consumers as other factors, and trends, come into play, alongside the
increasing presence and advertising for green products. Consumer perception is becoming more
important in the textile industry
17
. This opens up a further problem for consumers, namely the
difficulty of choosing products and brands that do have the reduced environmental impacts that they
claim to have. Differing from manufactures, consumers often lack the necessary information to assess
the environmental characteristics of products.
The impossibility of consumers to be fully aware of the environmental attributes of products or brands
leads to an asymmetric distribution of information
18
. Such asymmetry can harm both consumers and
producers, and society as a whole
19
. This may be due to the subsequent creation of market
inefficiencies
20
, where consumers are no longer capable of identifying green products and
distinguishing them from traditional ones, thus making it more difficult to identify the real
environmental benefits of such products
21
. This outcome is problematic for consumers because it leads
to sub-optimal purchasing decisions, in particular for people who would prefer to buy products with
reduced environmental impacts
22
.
Studies on consumer behaviour have shown there is a misalignment between consumer perceptions
about the environmental performance of products and their real performance based on life cycle
assessments. In this respect, not only do producers need to provide information, but consumers need
to seek that information that can guide them in their purchasing choices. Consumer propensity to
gather additional information on the environmental impacts of green products along their life cycles
16
Ottman, J. A., Stafford, E. R., & Hartman, C. L. (2006). Avoiding green marketing myopia: Ways to improve
consumer appeal for environmentally preferable products. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable
Development, 48(5), 22-36.
17
Weewer, L. 2020, Circular economy in the textile industry, consumer behaviour in the Netherlands,
http://essay.utwente.nl/82874/1/Weewer_MA_Behavioural%2C%20Management%20and%20Social%20Scienc
es.pdf.pdf
18
King, A. A., Lenox, M. J., & Terlaak, A. (2005). The strategic use of decentralized institutions: Exploring
certification with the ISO 14001 management standard. Academy of management journal, 48(6), 1091-1106.
19
Akerlof, G. A. (1978). The market for “lemons”: Quality uncertainty and the market mechanism. In Uncertainty in
economics (pp. 235-251). Academic Press.
20
Alchian, A. A., & Demsetz, H. (1972). Production, information costs, and economic organization. The American
economic review, 62(5), 777-795.
21
Chen, Y. S., & Chang, C. H. (2012). Enhance green purchase intentions: The roles of green perceived value,
green perceived risk, and green trust. Management Decision, 50(3), 502-520.
22
Darnall, N., & Aragón-Correa, J. A. (2014). Can ecolabels influence firms’ sustainability strategy and stakeholder
behavior?.
Copyright © 2021 TRICK | Survey presentation Page 17 of 133
may be particular important to understand their environmental benefits, which may not be always
immediately perceived. Moreover, from a circular economy perspective, knowing how consumers
interact with their products both in the use and disposal phases is an important aspect that needs
further attention.
As previously introduced, the initial section of the questionnaire is addressed to investigate the set of
variables related to Circular Fashion behaviours adopted by European consumers among the five
countries involved in this study. Firstly, awareness about fashion-related impacts on social-ecological
systems and perceived effectiveness of individual actions are examined. Further, the predisposition of
respondents to adopt sustainable clothing purchasing behaviours, sustainable clothing consumption
behaviours (i.e., use of rental and second-hand stores/platforms), sustainable use and after-use
behaviours is investigated. Lastly, authors explored the influence of environmental information on
purchasing decisions and the extent to which information is considered a trustworthy source.
Copyright © 2021 TRICK | Survey presentation Page 18 of 133
3.1 Awareness and Involvement
In the following paragraphs, results on sustainable fashion awareness, perception of self-effectiveness
in sustainable fashion and the relative importance of clothing attributes are reported. These variables
are intended to investigate personal beliefs and attitudes underpinning sustainable behaviours, based
on the social-psychological assumption that ideas, convictions and values shape people’s attitudes and
affect their decision-making process.
3.1.1 Sustainable fashion awareness
Sustainable awareness related to fashion encompasses both environmental and social aspects. More
specifically, the textile and fashion industry is linked to social issues like harsh and dangerous working
conditions, child-labor, unfair wages but also to environmental problems, such as the negative impacts
generated on ecosystems during production, distribution, consumption and disposal of clothing.
Moreover, the traditional linear model, that follows the “take-make-dispose” approach, together with
the current system established by fast fashion, have led to a large consumption of virgin resources
used to produce clothes, which are bound to end their short life in landfill, generating a big waste of
not recycled garments.
The extent to which an individual is concerned about these social and environmental issues can
influence his consumption choices
23
24
. In fact, environmental concern underlines a sense of urgency
and apprehension that can be mitigated through the activation of specific behaviours aimed at
achieving a more sustainable model of production and consumption. Additionally, consumers'
knowledge of sustainability-related issues is positively associated with their attitude towards
sustainable apparel brands with transparent practices
25
26
27
.
From the study, it emerges, at the aggregate level, that the majority of respondents (about 75%) is
aware of the amount of waste generated by fast fashion system and believes that reusing garments
through recycling can help to prevent such a huge waste of resources (Figure 1). Social problems and
environmental negative impacts related to clothing sector are known by the 73% and the 68% of
respondents, respectively. A slightly lower share of consumers (64%) declares to know the implications
linked to the current linear model of fashion production and consumption.
23
Trivedi, R. H., Patel, J. D., & Acharya, N. (2018). Causality analysis of media influence on environmental attitude,
intention and behaviors leading to green purchasing. Journal of Cleaner Production.
24
Newton, J. D., Tsarenko, Y., Ferraro, C., & Sands, S. (2015). Environmental concern and environmental purchase
intentions: The mediating role of learning strategy. Journal of Business Research, 68(9), 1974-1981.
25
Shen, B., Wang, Y., Lo, C. K.Y., Shum, M. (2012) The impact of ethical fashion on consumer purchase behavior.
Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, 16(2), 234-245
26
Pookulangara, S., Shephard, A. (2013). Slow fashion movement: Understanding consumer perceptionsAn
exploratory study. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 20(2), 200-206.
27
Bhaduri, G, & Ha-Brookshire, JE. (2011). Do Transparent Business Practices Pay? Exploration of Transparency
and ConsumerPurchase Intention. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 29(2), 135149
Copyright © 2021 TRICK | Survey presentation Page 19 of 133
Figure 1 Sustainable fashion awareness (overall)
Figure 2 reports the same set of questions concerning sustainable fashion awareness but broken down
by country. Spanish respondents highlight the highest percentage of Totally agreeand “Agree
answers (74% averaging the six questions), meaning that Spain is the most aware country of
sustainability-related problems in fashion industry. On the contrary, Italian and German consumers
score the lowest percentage of agreement (on average 68%). France and Poland position themselves
on a mid-level of awareness with, on average, the 71% of “Totally agreeand “Agree” answers. In
conclusion, there is a fairly high level of awareness in each country, with a percentage of concerned
consumers ranging between 74% and 68%.
46%
42%
42%
37%
39%
33%
29%
32%
31%
32%
28%
31%
18%
20%
19%
24%
24%
25%
4%
4%
5%
5%
5%
7%
3%
3%
3%
3%
4%
4%
I am aware that every year a large amount of textile
waste is generated and not recycled
I believe that the use of recycled fibers can reduce the
environmental impact of the clothing sector
I am aware of social issues related to the clothing
sector (e.g. child labor, harsh, dangerous and socially
unacceptable working conditions in the factory, unfair
wages, etc.)
I am aware of environmental issues related to the
clothing sector (e.g. environmental impacts generated
during production, distribution and disposal of
clothing)
I know that fast fashion (the so-called fast and cheap
fashion) is a consumption model that has a great
impact on the environment
I know that the clothing sector is based on a linear
model: it uses large amounts of resources to produce
garments which are sent to landfills or burned after a
very short period of use
Totally agree Agree Somewhat agree/disagree Disagree Totally disagree
Copyright © 2021 TRICK | Survey presentation Page 20 of 133
Figure 2 Sustainable fashion awareness (by country)
3.1.2 Perception of self-effectiveness in sustainable fashion
People aware of environmental and social problems related to the textile and clothing industry could
not act in a consistent way, that is to say, awareness is a necessary but not sufficient condition for
enacting sustainable behaviours. In literature, the gap between environmental concern and
sustainable behaviour can be partly explained with the concept of the Perceived Consumer
Effectiveness (PCE), namely, the individual perception of being able to affect the occurrence or
aversiveness of an event thorough his own actions. As postulated by the Theory of Planned
Behaviour
28
, perceived behavioural control, together with personal attitudes and social norms, is a key
factor in determining behaviours. In fact, PCE was found to directly affect environmentally and socially
sustainable consumption
29
30
31
32
. For this reason, this section is designed to investigate the extent to
which consumers believe to be able to influence sustainability-related problems in fashion industry
through their purchasing and consumption choices.
In Figure 3, single items that describe PCE in sustainable fashion are shown at the aggregate level. The
80% agree that it is worth disposing of end-of-life clothing properly. Another important share of
consumers believes that it is important to extend product life by choosing long-lasting clothes (77%)
or by giving a new function to those that are no longer used (74%) e.g., making rags or tote bags. The
73% declare that buying clothing made from recycled materials can have a positive impact on the
environment, while the 70% think that to make a difference everyone should tackle the source of the
28
Ajzen, I., (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.
Environment and Behavior, 50 (2), 179-211
29
Kang, J., Liu, C., & Kim, S. H. (2013). Environmentally sustainable textile and apparel consumption: the role of
consumer knowledge, perceived consumer effectiveness and perceived personal relevance. International Journal
of Consumer Studies, 37(4), 442-452.
30
Vermeir, I., & Verbeke, W. (2006). Sustainable food consumption: Exploring the consumer “attitude–behavioral
intention” gap. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental ethics, 19(2), 169-194.
31
Kim, Y., & Choi, S. M. (2005). ASSOCIATION FOR CONSUMER RESEARCH Antecedents of Green Purchase
Behavior: an Examination of Collectivism, Environmental Concern, and Pce Antecedents of Green Purchase
Behavior: An Examination of Collectivism, Environmental Concern, and PCE. 592 Advances in Consumer
Research, 32, 592599
32
Webb, Deborah J., Mohr, Lois A. and Harris, Katherine E., (2008), A re-examination of socially responsible
consumption and its measurement, Journal of Business Research, 61(2), p. 91-98.
43%
43%
41%
38%
35%
31%
28%
30%
30%
33%
19%
21%
22%
23%
23%
4%
5%
5%
6%
5%
3%
3%
3%
3%
4%
Spain
Poland
France
Germany
Italy
Totally agree Agree Somewhat agree/disagree Disagree Totally disagree
Copyright © 2021 TRICK | Survey presentation Page 21 of 133
problem reducing their purchases. Finally, renting is considered the most useless behaviour (57%) to
tackle environmental issues.
Figure 3 PCE in sustainable fashion (overall)
Looking at the results of PCE by country, Figure 15 does not show remarkable differences among the
five European countries. Poland rates the highest (with the 75% of Totally agree” and “Agree
answers on the total), followed by Spain (74%), France (73%), Italy (71%) and Germany (67%), which
deviates the most from Poland score.
Figure 4 PCE in sustainable fashion (by country)
57%
47%
43%
41%
40%
30%
23%
30%
31%
32%
30%
27%
15%
16%
19%
20%
21%
27%
3%
4%
4%
4%
5%
9%
2%
3%
2%
3%
3%
8%
It is worth recycling/donating clothing at proper
collection centers
Buying clothes and accessories that do not
deteriorate / last for a long time has a positive effect
on the environment
Giving a new function to clothes I no longer use (e.g.
by making rags or creating new objects) makes me
feel that I am contributing to reduce the…
Since everyone can have an impact on environmental
problems, buying clothes made from recycled
materials can really make a difference
It is important, as an individual consumer, to reduce
the purchase of clothes to protect the environment
It is useful for the environment to prefer renting to
buying clothes that I would wear only once or
occasionally
Totally agree Agree Somewhat agree/disagree Disagree Totally disagree
48%
45%
44%
41%
38%
27%
29%
28%
31%
29%
18%
19%
19%
20%
22%
4%
4%
5%
5%
6%
3%
2%
3%
3%
5%
Poland
Spain
France
Italy
Germany
Totally agree Agree Somewhat agree/disagree Disagree Totally disagree
Copyright © 2021 TRICK | Survey presentation Page 22 of 133
3.1.3 Product-related attributes
Product-related attributes are considered as tangible and intangible characteristics of the product,
which are related to product’s features and performance like product design, quality, aesthetics and
price. Each feature can fulfil different consumers’ needs, such as physical necessities for protection
and functionality, emotional need of showing their personality and psychological need of creating their
identity
33
34
35
. The wide range of attributes related to clothing linked with as many personal needs
makes sustainable consumption decisions very hard because consumers are not often willing to
compromise their other benefits to be environmentally friendly
36
37
. With a view to explore consumers’
preferences, respondents have been asked to rank the product-related attributes considered more
important when they purchase clothes and accessories (Figure 5).
Figure 5 Importance of clothing-related attributes (overall)
Respondents have ranked their top three attributes out of the nine proposed: aesthetics, fashionable,
quality of materials, durability, price, use of recycled fibres, environmental impact along the entire life
cycle (CO2 emissions, water consumption, etc.), local production and company ethical behaviour.
Figure 5 shows aggregated results obtained by calculating a weighted average for each attribute
according to its ranking position. At the aggregate level, the most important characteristics are related
33
Niinimäki, K. (2010). Ecoclothing, consumer identity and ideology. Sustainable development, 18(3), 150-162.
34
Kaiser, S.B. The social psychology of clothing: symbolic appearances in context. New York: Macmillan, 1990
35
Max-Neef, M. A. Human scale development. New York and London: The Apex Press, 1992
36
Ginsberg, J. M. and Bloom, P. (2004). Choosing the right green marketing strategy. MIT Sloan Management
Review, 46(1), 79-84.
37
Joergens, C. (2006), "Ethical fashion: myth or future trend?", Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management,
10(83),360-371.
20%
19%
15%
10%
8%
8%
7%
7% 5%
Price Quality of materials
Durability Environmental impact of the entire life cycle
(CO2 emissions, water consumption, etc.)
Company ethical behavior
(e.g. fair and decent working conditions) Use of recycled fibers
Aesthetics Local production
Fashionable
Copyright © 2021 TRICK | Survey presentation Page 23 of 133
to economic factors like Price (20%), as well as to product features like Quality of materials (19%) and
Durability (15%). Although quality and durability are critical factors to enhance life extension of
clothing, attributes directly linked to environmental aspects, that is Impact of the entire life cycle and
Use of recycled materials, are ranked fourth and sixth, collectively selected by the 18% of respondents.
With regards to social issues, Company ethical behaviour and Local production are in fifth and eighth
position, respectively, chosen by the 15%. Finally, attributes linked with hedonistic needs and social
image result like those less impactful in decision-making process, that is, Aesthetics (in seventh
position) and Fashionable (in the last position), together amount to 12%.
Overall
Germany
Spain
France
Italy
Poland
Price
20%
0%
-1%
2%
0%
-1%
Quality of
materials
19%
3%
-2%
-2%
0%
1%
Durability
15%
-4%
1%
0%
-2%
5%
Environmental
impact of the entire
life cycle (e.g., CO2
emissions, water
consumption)
10%
1%
1%
-2%
1%
-2%
Company ethical
behaviour (e.g., fair
and decent working
conditions)
8%
1%
1%
-1%
0%
-1%
Use of recycled
fibres
8%
-1%
0%
0%
0%
1%
Aesthetics
7%
-4%
0%
3%
2%
-1%
Local production
7%
0%
0%
1%
1%
-1%
Fashionable
5%
4%
-1%
0%
-1%
-2%
Figure 6 Importance of clothing-related attributes (countries’ deviation from average)
Observing Figure 6, countries don’t deviate significantly from the average results. In fact, Price, Quality
of materials and Durability always appear as the top three choices in each country. Nevertheless, there
are some small variances: German consumers place Quality of materials (22%) before Durability (11%),
while French people pay much more attention to price (22%) rather than Quality (17%) and, lastly,
Polish respondents declared to look for more Durable clothing (20%) with respect to other countries.
Other remarkable deviations concern Environmental impact, that results less significative for French
and Polish consumers (8%), Aesthetics, which appears less important for German (3%) but more
relevant for French (10%) and Italian (9%) people and, finally, Fashionable clothing are much more
preferred by German respondents (9%) and less by Polish consumers (3%).
Copyright © 2021 TRICK | Survey presentation Page 24 of 133
3.2 Purchasing and consumption behaviours
In the last decades, consumer habits have changed rapidly. They are less likely to choose products and
services just taking into account variables like brand loyalty or price, instead they try to make purchase
decisions aligned with their values, preferring more sustainable goods from an environmental, ethical
and social point of view
38
39
. This section is designed to rate the frequency of sustainable clothing
purchasing and sustainable clothing consumption (i.e., use of rental and second-hand
stores/platforms) adopted by European consumers, but also to investigate the motivations and
barriers behind consumers’ choices and their willingness to pay for circular clothing. In the following
paragraphs, results are reported and debated.
3.2.1 Sustainable fashion purchasing
As agent of change, consumers can greatly affect organizations’ production decisions through their
purchasing choices, shifting market demands towards greener and more sustainable goods
40
. Together
with policymakers, investors, social movements and mass-media, consumers are one of the most
powerful drivers to lead companies towards a sustainable transition. However, as the number of
sustainable products increases, there is a marked diversity in terms of sustainable features. In this
question, several items have been deployed trying to encompass all kind of clothing sustainable
characteristics, such as the environmental impact of production processes, the nature of raw materials,
the packaging design, as well as social aspects like local production and working conditions.
As shown in Figure 7, a pretty large number of respondents pays attention to environmental
characteristics. In fact, the 62% (considering “Often” and “Very often/Always” answers) prefers clothes
with natural fibres or fabrics produced through low environmental impact methods, such as the
organic cotton (50%), while the 57% chooses long-lasting clothes of the highest quality available. It
should be pointed out that these kinds of behaviours prove also a personal benefit in terms of health
or economic advantages. In addition, there is a particular attention to the packaging. Indeed, the
majority of respondents declares to Often” or “Very often/Always” buy clothes without
wrapping/packaging (60%) or with sustainable wrapping/packaging (48%). Considering social aspects,
just under half of consumers avoid buying garments made in countries with unfair working conditions
or exploitation (47%) or buy locally produced clothing (46%), and only the 38% choose garments with
labels that demonstrate the ethical behavior of the manufacturer. Less frequently adopted behaviors
(with the 33% of Often” and “Very often/Always” answers) relate to purchasing of clothes made with
recycled materials or indicating a low usage of water.
38
Gilg, A., Barr, S., Ford, N., 2005. Green consumption or sustainable lifestyles? Identifying the sustainable
consumer. Futures 37, 481504.
39
Griskevicius, V., Tybur, J. M., Delton, A. W., & Robertson, T. E. (2011). The influence of mortality and
socioeconomic status on risk and delayed rewards: A life history theory approach. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 100(6), 10151026.
40
Steg, L., Bolderdijk, J. W., Keizer, K., & Perlaviciute, G. (2014). An integrated framework for encouraging pro-
environmental behaviour: The role of values, situational factors and goals. Journal of Environmental psychology,
38, 104-115.
Copyright © 2021 TRICK | Survey presentation Page 25 of 133
Figure 7 Sustainable fashion purchasing (overall)
In Figure 8 and 9, it is reported the sustainable fashion purchasing behaviour broken down by country,
that generally follows a similar trend compared to the behaviour emerged in the aggregated results.
However, in their clothing purchasing decisions, respondents from Italy, Poland and Spain consider
environmental impacts and social aspects from 10% to 20% more than Germany and France
consumers. In particular, the highest difference in percentage is about the frequency to buy long
lasting and high-quality garments, as well as ethically and locally produced clothing. On the contrary,
respondents from all the countries give a particular importance to buy clothes without or in sustainable
wrapping/packaging.
25%
24%
21%
17%
18%
18%
19%
14%
13%
13%
10%
11%
37%
36%
36%
33%
32%
30%
28%
32%
28%
25%
23%
22%
28%
28%
31%
35%
32%
35%
33%
39%
39%
37%
41%
37%
8%
9%
9%
11%
13%
12%
14%
13%
15%
17%
19%
20%
2%
3%
3%
4%
6%
5%
5%
3%
5%
8%
7%
11%
I prefer clothes with natural fibers (e.g. linen,
cotton, wool, silk)
I buy clothes without wrapping/packaging
I choose clothes of the highest quality available
and long lasting
I prefer clothes made with fibers produced
through low environmental impact methods…
I select fabrics that require cold washing
temperature, shorter drying time or no ironing
I buy clothes in sustainable wrapping/packaging
(e.g. reusable, recyclable, recycled or…
I avoid buying garments made in countries with
unfair working conditions or exploitation
I buy locally produced (national) clothing
I choose garments having low environmental
impact during production (e.g. clothing with…
I choose garments with labels that demonstrate
the ethical behavior of the manufacturer (e.g.
I buy clothes made with recycled materials
I buy garments indicating they have been made
with little use of water
Very often/always Often Sometimes Rarely Never
Copyright © 2021 TRICK | Survey presentation Page 26 of 133
Figure 8 Sustainable purchasing behaviour (by country first part)
31%
23%
21%
18%
13%
13%
11%
12%
9%
8%
21%
21%
15%
16%
14%
13%
10%
10%
10%
7%
27%
29%
24%
21%
23%
15%
12%
14%
10%
11%
38%
38%
40%
34%
29%
24%
24%
23%
18%
18%
36%
34%
37%
30%
27%
28%
25%
24%
19%
18%
42%
38%
40%
36%
32%
32%
33%
30%
25%
21%
24%
31%
30%
35%
38%
36%
37%
36%
35%
38%
32%
33%
35%
35%
39%
38%
40%
40%
43%
42%
25%
24%
28%
32%
31%
35%
39%
37%
43%
44%
5%
6%
8%
10%
15%
17%
20%
17%
23%
24%
10%
9%
10%
15%
14%
15%
19%
18%
21%
23%
6%
7%
7%
8%
11%
14%
12%
14%
16%
18%
1%
2%
2%
3%
6%
9%
7%
12%
15%
11%
2%
3%
3%
4%
6%
5%
6%
8%
7%
10%
1%
2%
2%
3%
4%
4%
4%
4%
6%
6%
Spain
Poland
Italy
France
Germany
Poland
Spain
Italy
France
Germany
Spain
Poland
Italy
France
Germany
Poland
Spain
Italy
France
Germany
Italy
Poland
Spain
France
Germany
Poland
Italy
Spain
Germany
France
I choose clothes of the
highest quality
available and long
lasting
I buy garments
indicating they have
been made with little
use of water
I prefer clothes made
with fibers produced
through low
environmental impact
methods (e.g. organic
cotton)
I buy clothes made
with recycled materials
I prefer clothes with
natural fibers (e.g.
linen, cotton, wool,
silk)
I choose garments
having low
environmental
impact during
production (e.g.
clothing with eco-
friendly labels)
Very often/always Often Sometimes Rarely Never
Copyright © 2021 TRICK | Survey presentation Page 27 of 133
Figure 9 Sustainable purchasing behaviour (by country second part)
16%
16%
15%
12%
10%
15%
16%
12%
11%
10%
19%
21%
20%
18%
17%
22%
19%
16%
18%
14%
25%
23%
32%
20%
23%
18%
16%
20%
19%
17%
37%
36%
36%
25%
23%
32%
26%
28%
20%
20%
33%
28%
27%
28%
24%
34%
34%
33%
30%
28%
37%
37%
28%
40%
36%
34%
33%
28%
25%
27%
36%
36%
38%
39%
44%
34%
35%
38%
36%
40%
32%
31%
32%
34%
37%
29%
31%
32%
31%
35%
28%
26%
27%
31%
28%
33%
36%
34%
37%
37%
9%
11%
10%
17%
18%
14%
16%
15%
22%
20%
11%
14%
16%
14%
16%
12%
11%
12%
15%
16%
7%
10%
9%
6%
10%
11%
10%
14%
14%
13%
2%
1%
1%
6%
4%
6%
7%
7%
11%
10%
5%
5%
5%
6%
7%
4%
6%
6%
7%
7%
3%
3%
4%
3%
3%
5%
4%
4%
5%
5%
Italy
Poland
Spain
France
Germany
Italy
Spain
Poland
France
Germany
Italy
Spain
Poland
France
Germany
Spain
Poland
Italy
France
Germany
Poland
Spain
Germany
Italy
France
Spain
Italy
Poland
Germany
France
I buy locally produced
(national) clothing
I choose garments with
labels that demonstrate
the ethical behavior of
the manufacturer (e.g.
“sweatshop-free” or
similar)
I avoid buying
garments made in
countries with unfair
working conditions or
exploitation
I select fabrics that
require cold washing
temperature, shorter
drying time or no
ironing
I buy clothes without
wrapping/packaging
I buy clothes in
sustainable
wrapping/packagin
g (e.g. reusable,
recyclable,
recycled or
biodegradable)
Very often/always Often Sometimes Rarely Never
Copyright © 2021 TRICK | Survey presentation Page 28 of 133
3.2.2 Willingness to pay
The price of sustainable goods is a controversial issue because, in certain cases, the sustainable option
is cheaper (as for remanufactured technological products)
41
, whereas, in other cases, it is the most
expensive alternative (as for electric vehicles)
42
. Looking at the previous question, only a few
respondents (33%) affirm to purchase clothes made with recycled materials, even if they are starting
to recognize the additional value of the use of secondary raw materials in the production of a new
garment.
Figure 10 reports the willingness to pay, at the aggregate level, for a sweatshirt made with recycled
fibres, considering the cost of a sweatshirt made with virgin fibres is about € 40. The majority of
respondents (about 54%) is willingness to pay more compared to the product with virgin fibres: the
51% of respondents would pay from41 to € 60 and the 3% would pay from € 60 to 70. Nevertheless,
about the 39% of respondents expressed their willingness to pay much less (from € 20 to € 39) than
the cost of a sweatshirt made with virgin fibres and, lastly, the 7% of consumers would pay the same.
Figure 10 Willingness to pay for sweatshirt made with recycled fibres
In Figure 11 it is reported a deep dive about the willingness to pay more for the sweatshirt made with
recycled fibres for each single country and overall. More in details, it can be seen that, on average, the
respondents expressed a willingness to pay a plus of € 9 than the price of a traditional sweater. In all
the countries, it can be observed that there is an important share of respondents that are willing to
pay more. In particular, the 67% of German respondents are willing to pay, on average, about 8.5
more. The 58% of Italian consumers express a willingness to pay more of € 9.4, while the 54% of Polish
41
Jimenez-Parra, B., Rubio, S., Vicente-Molina, M.-A. (2014). Key drivers in the behavior of potential consumers
of remanufactured products: a study on laptops in Spain. Journal of Cleaner Production, 85, 488-496
42
He, X., Zhan, W. (2018). How to activate moral norm to adopt electric vehicles in China? An empirical study
based on extended norm activation theory. Journal of Cleaner Production, 172, 3546-3556.
23,83%
15,01%
6,87%
30,07%
21,06%
3,16%
20-30 (-) 31-39 (-) 40 (=) 41-49 50-60 (+) 61-70 (+)
Copyright © 2021 TRICK | Survey presentation Page 29 of 133
people of € 10,4 and, finally, the 53% of Spanish and French respondents of € 8.9 and € 7.8,
respectively.
On the opposite, in Figure 12 is reported the willingness to pay less for the sweatshirt made with
recycled fibres for each single country and overall. More in details, it can be seen that, on average, the
respondents expressed a willingness to pay a minus of € 10.7 than the price of a traditional sweater.
In particular, Spain reports the major percentage of respondents (42%) willing to pay around 10 less
and another important percentage of Polish respondents (41%) express the will to spend € 11.2 less,
recording both the highest and the lowest value deviating from the initial price of € 40 (Figure 11 and
12).
Average value, € (+)
€ (+)
Sample (%)
Overall
48,97
+8,97
54%
France
47,77
+7,77
53%
Germany
48,45
+8,45
67%
Spain
48,85
+8,85
53%
Italy
49,39
+9,39
58%
Poland
50,40
+10,40
54%
Figure 11 Details of willingness to pay for the sweatshirt made with recycled materials (+)
8,97 7,77 8,45 8,85 9,39 10,40
0,00
2,00
4,00
6,00
8,00
10,00
12,00
Overall France Germany Spain Italy Poland
(+)
Copyright © 2021 TRICK | Survey presentation Page 30 of 133
Average value, € (-)
€ (-)
Sample (%)
Overall
29,28
-10,72
39%
Spain
29,90
-10,10
42%
Germany
29,44
-10,56
38%
Italy
29,22
-10,78
39%
France
29,07
-10,93
35%
Poland
28,82
-11,18
41%
Figure 12 Details of willingness to pay for the sweatshirt made with recycled materials (-)
3.2.3 Sustainable fashion consumption
With respect to consumption, circular economy promotes the implementation of new models based
on sharing and collaborative consumption approaches
43
. In fact, increasing the average number of
times clothes are worn is one of the most effective ways to capture value and design out waste and
pollution in the textiles sector. In the apparel system, sustainable consumption models can be the
following: the rental model (a rental of garments for a short time period); the re-commerce model (the
recovery and resale of garments by the original retailer); the second-hand buying model (the purchase
of used garments); the swapping model (the exchange of garments through specific modes and places).
Observing the trend emerging from the study, it appears that sustainable fashion consumption is still
little adopted among consumers (Figure 13). The most frequent behaviours involve the
modification/adaptation of old clothes to create new ones (29%), the purchase of modern second-
hand clothing (29%), the purchase of clothes made with reused materials (28%) and the swapping
43
Ellen MacArthur Foundation (2017). A new textiles economy: redesigning fashion’s future
-10,72
-10,10
-10,56
-10,78 -10,93
-11,18
-11,40
-11,20
-11,00
-10,80
-10,60
-10,40
-10,20
-10,00
-9,80
-9,60
-9,40 Overall Spain Germany Italy France Poland
(-)
Copyright © 2021 TRICK | Survey presentation Page 31 of 133
(26%). A remarkable reduction is registered for buying original vintage clothing (16%) and renting
clothes (14%), that are behaviours never adopted by the 40% and 55% of respondents, respectively.
Figure 13 Sustainable fashion consumption (overall)
Figure 14 reports the sustainable fashion consumption by country. The scenario described is coherent
with the overall representation debated above. The most of respondents place themselves in a mid-
level with mainly “Sometimes” answers for buying upcycled garments, buying second-hand and
modifying old clothing, while “Neveranswers prevail in the other items, such as renting and swapping.
The majority of respondents from Germany and France has never rent clothes (64% and 60% of
respondents) and never bought vintage pieces (47% and 43%). An interesting result came from Poland:
it is the most virtuous country in comparison to others. In particular, Poland stands out for “Often” and
“Very often/always” answers for buying modern second-hand clothing (42%).
9%
9%
8%
8%
5%
5%
20%
20%
20%
18%
11%
9%
31%
29%
41%
27%
23%
15%
19%
17%
20%
17%
21%
15%
20%
25%
11%
30%
40%
55%
When I'm tired of my old clothes I modify/adapt
them (or have them modified/adapted) to create
new ones
I buy modern second-hand clothing
I buy clothes made with reused materials
I happen to exchange my clothes with other
people
I buy original vintage clothing (dating back to
the period 1920-1980)
I happen to rent clothes instead of buying them
Very often/always Often Sometimes Rarely Never
Copyright © 2021 TRICK | Survey presentation Page 32 of 133
Figure 14 Sustainable fashion consumption (by country)
6%
6%
6%
5%
3%
13%
8%
8%
7%
6%
8%
10%
8%
8%
6%
6%
5%
4%
6%
3%
12%
11%
10%
8%
5%
9%
9%
9%
6%
7%
14%
13%
11%
11%
6%
29%
21%
17%
18%
17%
22%
20%
20%
18%
10%
12%
11%
10%
8%
5%
25%
23%
22%
17%
12%
24%
22%
20%
17%
16%
29%
21%
20%
23%
20%
32%
30%
31%
29%
26%
33%
27%
27%
24%
24%
20%
15%
13%
16%
14%
31%
37%
33%
27%
28%
40%
42%
40%
43%
41%
22%
17%
24%
19%
23%
16%
16%
18%
18%
17%
16%
19%
17%
17%
19%
20%
12%
12%
18%
14%
18%
18%
17%
21%
21%
18%
19%
19%
20%
24%
30%
43%
39%
43%
47%
11%
25%
26%
29%
33%
21%
25%
29%
35%
41%
42%
58%
60%
52%
64%
13%
11%
17%
27%
33%
9%
9%
13%
14%
12%
Poland
Italy
Spain
France
Germany
Poland
France
Germany
Spain
Italy
Poland
Spain
Italy
France
Germany
Poland
Italy
France
Spain
Germany
Spain
Poland
Italy
France
Germany
Poland
Spain
Italy
Germany
France
I buy original vintage
clothing (dating back
to the period 1920-
1980)
I buy modern
second-hand
clothing
I happen to
exchange my
clothes with other
people
I happen to rent
clothes instead of
buying them
When I'm tired of my
old clothes I
modify/adapt them
(or have them
modified/adapted) to
create new ones
I buy clothes
made with
reused materials
Very often/always Often Sometimes Rarely Never
Copyright © 2021 TRICK | Survey presentation Page 33 of 133
3.2.4 Motivation to buy/use sustainable fashion
Consumption value defined as “the cognitive expression of the most basic and fundamental desires
and goals that consumers want to obtain is the basis for consumer behaviour associated with
purchasing
44
. Therefore, exploring the intrinsic meaning of consumption value can help to understand
why consumers choose sustainable clothing. According to previous literature, core consumption values
that affect consumer choices are the following: emotional value, functional value, social value,
conditional value, and epistemic value
45
. Starting from Sheth’s theory and taking into account several
findings from more recent studies
46
47
48
49
50
51
, a set of drivers affecting consumer purchasing and
consumption decisions has been developed, and divided in four macro-categories. Specifically,
Personal drivers involve both the emotional state that consumers feel when they shop or wear
sustainable clothing, such as pleasure and good feelings, and the need of express their personal
identity through wearing certain kind of clothing. Secondly, Social drivers encompass social norms,
both injunctive and descriptive norms, which reflect people's perceptions of which behaviours are
socially approved and which are typically performed by others. Thirdly, Epistemic drivers emphasises
the value associated with perceived uniqueness, novelty, or rarity of clothing that are not readily
available in the traditional market. Lastly, Functional drivers represent utilitarian benefits related to
clothing, in this specific case related to rented clothing, such as flexibility to match trends, space saving
and cost reduction.
Figure 15 reports an overall situation regarding motivations to buy/use sustainably produced clothes,
that is, clothing made from recycled/natural raw materials and/or with low environmental impacts in
production/distribution processes. At the aggregate level, it appears that the respondents from all the
five countries have a good feeling regarding wearing sustainability. In fact, as reported in Figure 15,
the majority of respondents totally agrees or agreesthat wearing sustainable clothes would make
they feel better (53%) and allow them to express their identity (42%). Then, the 42% of consumers
thinks that sustainably produced clothes have new characteristics and uniqueness that differ from
traditional clothes. Finally, injunctive norms and descriptive norms motivate the 38% and the 25% of
respondents, respectively.
44
Kim, I.; Jung, H.J.; Lee, Y. (2021) Consumers’ Value and Risk Perceptions of Circular Fashion: Comparison
between Secondhand, Upcycled, and Recycled Clothing. Sustainability, 13, 1208.
45
Sheth, J. N., Gardner, D. M., Garrett, D. E., Marketing Theory: Evolution and Evaluation. New York: John Wiley
& So, 1998
46
Shim, H., Lim, S., Jung,E. E., Shin, E. (2018). I hate binge-watching but I can’t help doing it: The moderating
effect of immediate gratification and need for cognition on binge-watching attitude-behavior relation, Telematics and
Informatics, 35(7).
47
Lin, P. C., & Huang, Y. H. (2012). The influence factors on choice behavior regarding green products based on
the theory of consumption values. Journal of Cleaner Production, 22(1), 11-18.
48
Kim, I.; Jung, H.J.; Lee, Y. (2021) Consumers’ Value and Risk Perceptions of Circular Fashion: Comparison
between Secondhand, Upcycled, and Recycled Clothing. Sustainability, 13, 1208.
49
Lee, C.; Jung, D.R.
50
Haines, S., Lee, S.H. (2021). One size fits all? Segmenting consumers to predict sustainable fashion behavior.
Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal.
51
Lee, J.A., Sudarshan, S., Sussman, K.L., Bright, L.F., Eastin, M.S. (2021). Why are consumers following social
media influencers on Instagram? Exploration of consumers’ motives for following influencers and the role of
materialism. Int. J. Advert. 12
Copyright © 2021 TRICK | Survey presentation Page 34 of 133
Figure 15 Motivations to buy/use sustainably produced clothes (overall)
Figure 16 shows the overall representation regarding motivations to buy/use second-hand clothes,
that is, second-hand clothing or clothing redesigned/upcycled from deconstructed garments that
resulted from the take-back of used clothing items. At the aggregated level, consumers agree that
wearing second-hand garments generates the perception to have done something worthwhile (48%)
or make them feel accomplished (36%). Moreover, second-hand clothes are recognized as unique for
the 37% of respondents. On the other hand, there is an important level of respondents that disagrees
or totally disagrees to have people close to them that usually buy second-hand clothes (45%) or having
their beloved that would like them to buy second-hand clothes (44%). Therefore, exactly as in
sustainable clothes, the main drivers are represented by personal factors, following by epistemic driver
and, finally, by social ones.
Figure 16 Motivations to buy/use second-hand clothes (overall)
Figure 17 reports the overall situation regarding motivations to buy/use rented clothes, that is,
clothing rented for a shorter period of time from clothing libraries or online platforms. At the
aggregated level, it appears that the majority of respondents is motivated mainly by functional drivers,
such as favourable economic conditions (49%), space saving in the closet (48%), style conformity in
24%
17%
16%
15%
13%
29%
25%
26%
23%
22%
30%
33%
37%
32%
34%
9%
12%
12%
13%
16%
9%
12%
9%
17%
15%
Wearing sustainably produced clothes would
make me feel better
Wearing sustainably produced clothes would
allow me to express my identity
Sustainably produced clothes have new
characteristics and uniqueness that differ from…
My loved ones would like me to buy sustainably
produced clothes
People close to me usually buy sustainably
produced clothes
Totally agree Agree Somewhat agree/disagree Disagree Totally disagree
21%
15%
14%
11%
11%
27%
22%
22%
18%
17%
28%
30%
30%
26%
28%
12%
16%
15%
18%
16%
12%
18%