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Stuffed and Starved: The Hidden Battle for the World Food System (2nd ed)

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... 11 In the words of the Iowa Farm Bureau, the state is now "a farm and agriculture powerhouse." 12 8 The story of mid-century American agricultural development has been well documented; for an incomplete list, see Winders, 2009;Conkin, 2008;Cochrane, 1993;Kloppenburg, 2004;Olmstead and Rhode, 2008;Weis, 2007. For the international effects of US agricultural technologies and farm and food policy, see Cullather, 2013;Patel, 2012;Latham, 2011;Friedmann and McMichael, 1989. 9 During the Cold War, the US was particularly interested in exporting food aid to countries considered at risk of "falling" to communism (Patel, 2012). ...
... For the international effects of US agricultural technologies and farm and food policy, see Cullather, 2013;Patel, 2012;Latham, 2011;Friedmann and McMichael, 1989. 9 During the Cold War, the US was particularly interested in exporting food aid to countries considered at risk of "falling" to communism (Patel, 2012). 10 See Magdoff, Foster, and Buttel, 2000, as well as other essays in this volume. ...
Chapter
This innovative volume presents twenty comparative case studies of important global questions, such as 'Where should our food come from?' 'What should we do about climate change?' and 'Where should innovation come from?' A variety of solutions are proposed and compared, including market-based, economic, and neoliberal approaches, as well as those determined by humane values and ethical and socially responsible perspectives. Drawing on original research, its chapters show that more responsible solutions are very often both more effective and better aligned with human values. Providing an important counterpoint to the standard capitalist thinking propounded in business school education, People Before Markets reveals the problematic assumptions of incumbent frameworks for solving global problems and inspires the next generation of business and social science students to pursue more effective and human-centered solutions.
... for production, processing, and export [37]. Soybeans have a central role in the global food system as animal feed or as an additive in processed products [38]. ...
... The practitioners are constantly referring to how production and consumption of agroecology is different from the conventional food system. At conventional supermarkets, mass-produced items are sold that all look the same [38]. The practitioners refer to the fact that the agroecological product often looks heterogeneous; there is diversity. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has motivated a turn towards more agroecological food production and food sovereignty. This article aims to analyze how the agroecological actor network has emerged in and around the capital of Buenos Aires and the province of Santa Fe, in Argentina, during the pandemic. The research questions are: How has the agroecological actor network emerged during the pandemic in Argentina? In what ways are agroecological networks enacted through coupling and decoupling practices? The study is based on interviews with practitioners, and observations of online events. In our results, we show how the production of compost, exchange of seeds and experiences, governmental programs, and food fairs are coupled and assembled in the agroecological network. The agroecological network is decoupling from the conventional agroindustrial model with pesticides and chemical input, supermarkets, and the global food system. The conclusion is that the pandemic has worked as a crisis where the agroecological network has been expanded.
... Northern populations, as well, were coaxed into believing food aid, overproduction, dumping, and their associated biotechnological interventions were 'solving world hunger.' Golden Rice in the Philippines, for example, was promised by Time Magazine to 'save the children' facing vitamin A deficiency by modifying rice into a commodity enhanced artificially with vitamin Aobscuring the fact that access to only rice as a result of institutionalized rice import dependency was the root cause of vitamin A deficiency (Patel 2012). ...
... This incorporation campaign only reduced hunger temporarily; hunger increased shortly thereafter, and failed to resolve issues pertaining to food distribution. The Green Revolution has also led to further dispossession, corporate control of seeds, increased farmer debt for input costs, devastated agroecosystems, and, eventually, an epidemic of farmer suicides (Lappé, Collins, and Rosset 1998;Perkins 1997;Patel 2012). ...
Article
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This article applies an anarchist lens to the food sovereignty movement. It analyzes food regimes as capitalist agriculture regimes which rely on the State’s monopoly on hunger, wherein the State relies on the dispossession of people from their land and food systems, the protection of property, and the primacy of capital. The interdependence of this State-capital-property trinity is violently enforced, and manufactures compliance through counterinsurgent strategies of social war. The State monopoly on hunger justifies a new offshoot of the larger food sovereignty movement, a prefigurative praxis which dismantles all food regimes to build new counter-worlds: food anarchy.
... He borrowed money from the bank to develop the farm and paid it off through the cycles of nature and its produce. In 1997 he died of a heart attack aged 62. His struggles were the same as many of small farmers all around the world, who face the same or worse, in trying to provide a sustainable living for their families (Patel, 2008). When he died, I remember the conversations after the funeral about health, heart attacks and sausages. ...
... While some people find comfort from antidepressants, many find that they don't address the root causes of depression and in the end leave people dependent and with little choice but to stay on them. On a macro level herbal medicine provides a critique of neoliberalism in the form of industrial farming that is undermining local environments and economies around the world (Patel, 2008). Herbal medicine provides a micro model of health and medicine that is sustainable, that connects local food markets, with local economies and models of community that support stronger social cohesion and community wellness (Myhill, 2015). ...
Article
This article seeks to provide a contextual backdrop to this edition of the Irish Journal of Adult and Community Education: The Adult Learner's focus on analysing the changes from the perspective of policy and practice since 2010, through presenting the findings of an in-depth analysis of the life histories of six adult educators, working in the field of adult education in the Republic of Ireland in the decades leading to 2010. Through the reflections of these six adult educators, this article offers the opportunity to trace the roots and legacies of the field and imagine the future, as they had envisioned it, at that given juncture in time.
... I do not mean to overlook the medical ableism and triage protocols which threatened that disabled people would be denied ICU beds if resources had to be rationed, or the 'k' recovery we will no doubt witness aggravating already existing inequalities (Meng & Abdool, 2021). But I do want to suggest that our experiences of COVID-19, which could offer so many of us an embodied glimpse at ableism, might be generative in ways that expands the horizon of food studies to (2016) and Patel (2007) to consider the food system as a reflection of, and a driving force of global capitalism. Mintz (1986), Choudry & Smith (2016) and others have helped me understand this history as deeply entwined with white supremacy, the Atlantic slave trade, and indentureship. ...
... Racial capitalism thrives on divisions, pitting the interests of different groups against one another. The architecture of the global food system has positioned the interests of Indigenous peoples, settler farmers, and workers in opposition since its inception, demanding farmers produce at well below cost so that workers' wages can be kept low, while dispossessing Indigenous peoples of their Lands and waters (Mintz, 1986;Patel, 2007 One of the many sites of food and ableist entanglement is eugenics, a historical social engineering project that took "race betterment" as its goal (Kelly et al., 2021;Moss et al., 2013). Ian Mosby's (2013) work exposing the use of nutrition experiments in Indigenous communities and residential schools, and Travis Hay's (2021) work critiquing the "thrifty gene" hypothesis and settler-colonial scientific study of diabetes in Indigenous communities both expose sites of this sinister confluence and point to ways food and eugenics have been used as tools in the settler colonial project. ...
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It is now a shameful truism that COVID-19 functioned as a big reveal, exposing, and amplifying the structural inequalities Canadian society is built upon. We are now a year and a half into the global pandemic. I am writing from Toronto, where “hot spots” (neighbourhoods with high infection rates) is code for racial and economic inequality (Wallace 2021) and public health guidelines have rendered low income “essential workers” disposable, amidst ballooning food insecurity rates, especially in low-income racialized communities (Toronto Foundation 2020; CBC News 2020). We are all in the same storm but in very different boats, as the new saying goes. I want to suggest that this moment, as Canadians are poised to step out of lockdown and return to ‘normal’, is a particularly useful one for Food Studies to consider what we could learn from Disability Justice movements in order to address a glaring hole in our collective scholarship and analysis.
... While the popular image of the food shelf implies scarcity, many of the day-to-day struggles at food shelves revolve around the logistics of distributing the abundance of charitable food aid to those in need (Patel 2014). A central aspect of this third food regime is an overabundance of processed food, much of which funneled through a sizeable charitable infrastructure to marginalized populations (Lohnes 2021;Riches 2018). ...
Article
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This paper uses the survival strategies of food shelf clients to explore how food access, chronic disease, and spatial isolation shape the lives of low- and no- income urban citizens. The abundant availability of unhealthy food intersects with the presence of long-term health conditions to create a marginalized urban space where low quality commodity food is available, but exacerbates existing health conditions, is difficult to access, and does little to create food security. To survive, clients have normalized a sustenance strategy of going to multiple food serving sites, carrying food long-distances and using SNAP benefits to make ends meet. However, this nourishment strategy is time-consuming and unsafe, demanding that people put themselves in precarious positions and push their bodies farther physically than is healthy. These food procurement strategies exacerbate their marginalization. Qualitative data from food shelf users is used to develop a theory of ambient struggling wherein the struggle for food access is unhealthy and time-consuming, making it difficult to improve their standard of living.
... Over the past 50 years or so, food systems have become significantly interconnected and globalised and, while this may have brought down food prices and eliminated seasonality for consumers (which was until recently considered as a positive development as framed as choice), this has come at significant environmental and social cost. Growing awareness and understanding of these negative impacts and inequities, generated by the globalisation of food, has led many scholars and activists to advocate for the localisation of food systems, shortening food chains (Loiseau et al. 2020;Watts et al. 2005) and curtailing the power of intermediaries, retailers, and transnational corporations (Patel 2013). ...
... Favoured by the establishment of economies of scale, agri-business corporations have grown in power and monopoly to the detriment of small-scale and peasant farmers, promoting the financialisation, verticalisation and specialisation of production chains (Patel 2012). Supply chain bottlenecks, global standardisation and regulatory quality control have eroded local production-overseeing capacity, preventing autonomous market access to many local producers. ...
Chapter
The chapter develops in three parts. It firstly provides a review of the evolution of dominant ‎‎developmental approaches ‎to food and agriculture and discusses the main concepts, ‎elaborated at ‎both ‎ academic and militant levels, which inform the critical debate on agrarian development and its ‎political ecology. ‎It then focuses on the current phase ‎of agrarian development policies and ‎‎‎highlights some of the main contentious issues arising from it. It deals in particular with the ‎reorganisation dynamics of global capitalism after the 2008 crises, the role of arable land, bio-‎regeneration processes and the economics of data in agriculture. Reflecting on political ecology, ‎labour transformations ‎‎and struggles engendered by these ‎processes, the last section suggests the ‎interest for future research ‎in shifting the ‎critical gaze from a production-based ‎understanding of ‎agro-capitalism ‎to one more attentive ‎to ‎transformation in the field of socio-‎ecological reproduction.
... It is not the lack of local food that has created the global food system. Several authors have attempted to explain the rise of industrial agriculture and the global trade model that came with it (Patel 2007;Norberg-Hodge et al. 2002;The People's Food Commission 1980;H. Friedmann 1982;McMichael 2005). ...
Research
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This paper reviews the state of knowledge about local food systems (LFS). We identify LFS as an effective mean to achieve food sovereignty [...and...] examined which public policies have been identified as effective means to support the emergence, consolidation and further development of LFS. We have come up with a large inventory of such policies proposed in the literature, although few have been tested systematically. We found that the problems related to financing, to the market power of large firms in food values chains, and to the lack of knowledge—both from the producers and consumers side—were often raised as obstacles to the scaling-up of LFS. [...E]ven though there is no national policy to promote LFS, provincial governments have been active with various programs in this area. There is much variations from one provinces to another, but the existing programs tend to cluster on the demand side, focusing on consumer education and marketing projects, even running some themselves (the origin labelling and promotion programs). To a lesser extent, we saw some program to support organic farming (transition programs) but very few focusing on processing and distribution. Full text: https://legacy.equiterre.org/sites/fichiers/Local_Food_Systems_and_Public_Policy_-_A_Review_of_the_Literature_0.pdf
... Whether to help solve food insecurity, adapt to climate change, or address the ill effects of industrial animal agriculture, none of the claims about space food solving Earth's problems address the deeper underlying issues that have resulted in what many scholars have noted as a neoliberal paradox of hunger amidst plenty (Patel, 2007). We found that systemic and structural problems in the food system such as racism (Alkon and Norgaard, 2009), settler colonialism and the continued occupation of Indigenous lands (Wolfe, 2006;Stollmeyer, 2021), and economic systems that commodify food, suddenly become problems for technology to solve. ...
Article
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The climate crisis, natural resource exploitation, and concerns around how to feed a growing world population have resulted in a growing chorus identifying the need for a Plan B. For some, this Plan B entails preparing for long-duration space missions and the development of human settlement on Mars. To plan for long-duration space missions, the development of food production technologies that can withstand extreme conditions such as poor soil, lack of gravity, and radiation are increasingly prioritized. These technologies may include genetic engineering, digital agriculture, 3D bioprinting, synthetically grown meat and more. Government and corporate proponents of long-duration space missions—NASA and SpaceX, among others—are actively funding agricultural research in space. They argue that the technologies developed for space will have positive implications beyond Mars—directly benefitting Earth and its inhabitants. This paper demonstrates that news reporting on the technology has been overall uncritical. Media narratives surrounding issues of food growth in space have not been studied. This study analyzes how English news media coverage ( n = 170) from 67 publications report the feasibility of long-duration space missions, human settlements, and high-tech agricultural technologies. We provide a cross-section of the types of agricultural technologies being covered, the key organizations and actors in the field, and a critical analysis of media narratives. Using mixed methods content and discourse analysis, this study finds that the news media publications overwhelmingly portray long-duration space missions as both inevitable and a positive good for humanity. Without critically assessing the societal implications of food technologies for long-duration space missions vis-à-vis their benefits on Earth, we risk glossing over systemic and structural inequalities in the food system.
... Secondly, the obesity discourse has shaped contemporary understandings of food and health as it has merged with calls for food system change. In the food security discourse, the world is often described as being made up of the "stuffed and the starved" (Patel, 2013). This contrasts obesity with food insecurity, as if the two conditions are mutually exclusive. ...
Article
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Multilateral organizations and research institutions are increasingly calling for transformation of the industrial food system due to its negative health impacts, its contribution to climate change and the fact that the system fails to provide adequate food to more than 800 million people. A foremost rationale given for food system change is the so-called obesity crisis. This commentary draws from critical weight studies and ecological public health discourses to argue that it is unnecessary to connect the crises of the food system with a rise in overweight and obesity. This approach contributes to fat stigma and further marginalizes a group of people who already suffer from stigmatization. A more inclusive rationale for food system change can be found in a concept articulated by the Canadian Public Health Association termed the ‘ecological determinants of health.’ These are features of the biosphere such as water, air, food and soil systems that support life on earth and human health. The current industrial food system threatens the ecological determinants of health by contributing substantially to climate change and environmental degradation. A shift in discourse in food policy and practice to focus on the ecological health impacts of the food system is more inclusive and promotes the well-being of all.
... El gusto, la disponibilidad y la trayectoria como comensales determinan los consumos alimentarios en un proceso caracterizado a partir de la tensión entre oferta y accesibilidad (BLACHA, 2020). Es un problema de gran importancia para las ciencias sociales porque interpela tanto al contexto histórico como a la escala biográfica (PATEL, 2007;POULAIN, 2019). En la alimentación hay un carácter dual que es a la vez social e individual y no tiene sentido analizarlo como esferas separadas (WARDE, 2016(WARDE, , 2017. ...
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Resumen: Este trabajo se propone analizar la composición de la dieta argentina del siglo XXI como un factor de exclusión social. Es un tipo de desigualdad social, la nutricional, que está determinada tanto por la oferta alimentaria como por el acceso a nutrientes. El hambre va a incluir tanto situaciones de carencia (de nutrientes) como de exceso (de kcal) que pueden reconstruirse a partir de los cambios en los cuerpos de los consumidores. Los alimentos industrializados producidos a partir del modelo de agronegocios se caracterizan por un flavor que se convierte en parte del fundamento de la desigualdad nutricional. Oferta, accesibilidad y flavor son elementos muy importantes para el diseño de soluciones alimentarias donde la dieta sea un factor de inclusión social. Palabras clave: Hambre. Dieta. Agronegocio. Resumo: Este trabalho pretende analisar a composição da dieta argentina do século XXI como fator de exclusão social. É um tipo de desigualdade social, a desigualdade nutricional, que é determinada tanto pela oferta de alimentos quanto pelo acesso a nutrientes. A fome incluirá tanto situações de deficiência (de nutrientes) quanto de excesso (de kcal) que podem ser reconstruídas a partir de mudanças nos corpos dos consumidores. Os alimentos industrializados produzidos a partir do modelo do agronegócio são caracterizados por um sabor que se torna parte da base da desigualdade nutricional. Oferta, acessibilidade e sabor são elementos muito importantes para o desenho de soluções alimentares onde a alimentação é um fator de inclusão social. Palavras-chave: Fome. Dieta. Agronegócio. This paper aims to analyze the composition of the Argentinean diet in the 21st century as a factor of social exclusion. It is a type of social inequality, nutritional inequality, which is determined both by food supply and by access to nutrients. Hunger will include both situations of deficiency (of nutrients) and excess (of kcal) that can be reconstructed from changes in the bodies of consumers. Industrialized foods produced in the agribusiness model are characterized by a flavor that becomes part of the foundation of nutritional inequality. Offer, accessibility and flavor are very important elements for the design of food solutions where diet is a factor of social inclusion.
... If a linear model is assumed, it is immediately clear that the number of instruments must-except for special cases-be at least as great as the number of targets." 6 Leading luminaries and self-styled authorities on the issues in this context include journalists and food writers who are active in the popular press (such as Michael Pollan and Mark Bittman), television personalities (such as Bill Maher and Dr. Oz) nutritionists and public health policy types (such as Marion Nestle, Barry Popkin, Walter Willett, and Kelly Brownell), as well as professional muckrakers (like Raj Patel and the now born-again, now repentant Mark Lynas -e.g.,Patel 2012, Lynas 2018) and snake-oil merchants. cite many of these and more. ...
Book
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Modern Agricultural and Resource Economics and Policy: Essays in Honor of Gordon C. Rausser
... What he calls 'the standpoint of "labor in nature"' discerns the reproductive fertility of nature as value producing via labor 'in that it determines the amount of necessary labor time and thus directly affects the availability of surplus labor time ' (2009b, 121). This understanding of nature as a 'life giving, labor producing, and productive relation of social life' distinguishes the socio-ecological dimensions of CAQ2 on especially three axes of 'accumulation by displacement': (i) in terms of labor, simultaneous depeasantization and deproleterianization and production of surplus value through forced underreproduction of either (underconsuming) urban surplus labor or migrant/informal agrarian labor; (ii) in terms of ecology, forced overconsumption, appropriation and contamination of deruralized environments that are transformed into global surplus nature (ecological enclosures) of the agro-industrial capital as the basis for the global food regime; (iii) the enclosure food regime characterized by forced underconsumption for the surplus populations living in the world's hyperurbanized cities through an overdependence on the market mechanism for access to commoditized food alongside a subsidized consumption and overconsumption among an urban minority (2009a, 113, 118-119, 2009bPatel 2007). The neoliberal global value regime, therefore, operates through a continuous and destructive process of redistribution of value from global surplus labor and surplus nature to the global capital. ...
Article
This paper makes two central arguments: i) The world-historical generalization of the capital-nature relation in the context of the global extractivist turn has reconfigured the twenty-first century agrarian question as the agrarian question of nature as a critical component of the broader socio-ecological question. ii) The historical context of the agrarian question of nature, in turn, gave birth to not only environmental-agrarian movements, but also agrarianization of the politics and movements of environmental/climate justice. The agroecology movement signifies the emergence of a contemporary form of political agrarianism emerged from within the context of the environmentalization of the agrarian question.
... However, throughout the globe, there is a broad spectrum of farmers and food producers that might not have much in common except that they 'grow food'. The conventional agri-food system that involves land-grabbing, high-tech machinery, mineral nutrients, pesticides and biopiracy (Patel 2012;Visser and Spoor 2011), Community Supported Agriculture (CSA), or smallholders practising (semi-)subsistence farming, demonstrate the wide range of different types of farming. In this article, I will focus on Food Self-Provisioning (FSP) that is still widely practised in Central and Eastern Europe, and draw on empirical findings ...
Article
This article contributes to the understanding of the complexity of human-nature relationships. Through hermeneutic analysis of more than 60 semi-structured in- depth interviews (2019-2021), I identify five prevalent human-nature relationship models within the Food Self-Provisioning (FSP) practice in Eastern Estonia (‘master’, ‘user’ and ‘steward of nature’ as well as ‘partner with’ and ‘participant in nature’). As an ambiguous model, the ‘stewardship of nature’ merits my particular attention when exploring how gardeners perceive, relate to and act upon nature in general and their own gardening practice in particular.Using a relational sociological approach, I locate the observed relationship models within the so-called ‘space of social relationships with nature’ (see Eversberg et al. 2022 in this Special Issue) which allows me to capture the various ways in which humans mentally and practically relate to nature. The analysis reveals seemingly contrary yet concurrent manifestations of human-nature relationships that can only be explained by exploring their embeddedness in both social power relations and societal nature relations that constitute the individually observed human-nature relationships. Furthermore, I demonstrate how ‘immediate’ engagement with nature results in rather caring and partner-like relationships whereas ‘abstract’ and alienated experiences often feature instrumental logic with implicit or explicit hierarchy.
... Globally, modernized agricultural systemscharacterized by input-intensive crop monocultures and large-scale feedlot operationsproduce economic and labour injustices (Rosset and Altieri 1997), degrade ecosystem services (Kremen and Miles 2012;IPES-Food 2016), exacerbate climate change (IPCC 2019), and simultaneously drive global obesity and malnourishment (Patel 2012;Schutter 2011). Agroecology, a combination of ecological farming practices and the knowledge and social movements to support these practices, offers a compelling model for creating a more just and resilient food system (Gliessman 2018;Altieri and Toledo 2011;Wittman 2009). ...
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Agroecological transitions in the Global North are inhibited by the cultural and legal norms of an ‘ownership model’ of property that underpins agrarian capitalism. The resulting property system limits asset transfers to agroecological regimes and co-produces technologically oriented reforms. Scotland’s land reforms are emergent legal interventions to reshape land ownership within a Western legal context. By examining legal manoeuvres, mobilizing discourses, and governance considerations in Scotland, we sketch a roadmap for rethinking property in regions where the ownership model is entrenched. This case suggests that existing property law can be leveraged to achieve shifts in property norms towards promoting agroecology.
... In contrast to what happened in other sectors, these companies did not buy up their suppliers or start their own primary production; given the high risk and low profits of farming, agro-food enterprises frequently used its position to impose their terms on farmers (including prices). Hence, as Patel (2007) and food regime scholars such as McMichael (2009) have pointed out, the monoposonistic structure of the agro-food chain may have contributed to the deterioration of farm prices. 5 3 Koning (2002) argued that the rise in wages that accompanied the development of large industrial capitalism in the last decades of the nineteenth century squeezed agricultural profits and rents. ...
Article
Productivity in agriculture tends to grow slower than in other sectors. This is a stylized fact that has resulted in a persistent productivity gap, generalized over time and across countries. This paper explores the evolution of this gap from an international perspective, identifying patterns in both developed and developing countries. Empirical regularities are discussed in the light of a literature review on the causes of the gap and its socio-economic effects. Reflections on the nature of the productivity gap often merge with considerations on its social implications and on the policies that should be implemented to deal with it. We refer to this wider political economy issue as the ‘farm problem’, and argue that it has not been given a satisfactory solution, neither in rich nor in developing countries. Although in some industrialized countries the discharging of the countryside has acted as a major source of convergence, there has not been a general reduction in the productivity gap between agriculture and the rest of the economy worldwide, nor are there compelling reasons to assume that this will happen in the future.
... Die Leitfrage lautet, warum ein System, das mehr als genügend Nahrung produziert, diese extrem ungleichim Unter-oder Übermaßan Kon-sumentInnen in verschiedenen Weltregionen verteilt. Der Fokus auf strukturelle Krisenursachen blendet keineswegs die praktische Wirkungsmacht der Produzen-tInnen und KonsumentInnen aus; sie setzt diese jedoch in Beziehung zu politisch, ökonomisch und kulturell mächtigeren Spielern entlang der transnationalen Wertschöpfungsketten vom Acker zum Teller (Patel 2008). ...
... The 1950s were also characterized by the great commercial success of a plethora of engineered foods designed to increase convenience, either through fast food restaurants or home microwaved meals. Women massively entering the workforce since World War II, longer commuting hours, and the widespread accessibility of home refrigerators all contributed to lower the average time dedicated to home cooking (Patel, 2012). Hence, algae burgers weren't considered at that time such a hard concept to wrap consumers' minds around. ...
Thesis
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As food supply practices must adapt to the reality of limited natural resources, we must find alternative solutions to meet the dietary needs of a growing world population. This dissertation reports on the viability of edible insects as a solution to globally improve food security. Compared to conventional livestock, insect production requires less feed, water, and space while generating less pollution and waste. Moreover, circular insect farming methods can allow the reintroduction into the food chain of various types of clean and traceable organic residues in order to produce sustainable animal proteins within cities, therefore improving food sovereignty at the local scale. However, the general aversion for edible insects represents a major barrier that must be alleviated. This dissertation identifies strategies to efficiently and sustainably introduce insect farming and consumption at the city scale. The introductory chapter of this thesis provides the rationale behind my research, framing its research area and explaining its key objectives. The second chapter is oriented towards consumer behavior as it focuses on the challenges related to marketing insect food products, paying particular attention to the motivations driving food choices. The third chapter exposes the results of both a national survey I developed aiming to assess the perceptions and attitudes of Canadians towards entomophagy (i.e. insect consumption) as well as insect tastings I organized in order to develop a better understanding of Quebeckers’ preferences for edible insect products. The fourth chapter exposes an action research project I led involving high school students delving on exposure and familiarization with edible insects as an avenue to positively change their perception towards entomophagy. The fifth chapter discusses how following industrial ecology principles in insect farms can allow to lower both production costs and environmental impacts. Finally, the concluding chapter holistically reflects on entomophagy and entotechnologies (i.e. insect farming practices) as sustainable solutions to reduce the ecological impacts linked to the production and consumption of animal proteins – tackling food waste and thus reducing the carbon footprint associated to the management of rapidly decomposable organic materials.
... 274). The history of the last few centuries reveals that food security is essential to stabilising great empires [44] (pp. 92-93). ...
Article
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As a proposed pathway to societal transformation, the bioeconomy is aimed at providing a sustainable alternative to the fossil-based economy, replacing fossil raw materials with renewable biogenic alternatives. In this conceptual contribution, we argue that it is impossible to transform societies into sustainable bioeconomies considering the narrow boundaries of the bioeconomy as a policy. Drawing on approaches including agro-food studies, cheap food, and agrarian extractivism, we show that the bioeconomy is entangled in a broader context of social relations which call its claim to sustainability into question. Our analysis of the global soy complex, which represents the core of the current agro-food system, demonstrates how the bioeconomy perpetuates global inequalities with regard to trade relations, demand, and supply patterns, as well as power relations between the involved actors from the global to the local level. Against this background, we propose a fundamental rethink of the underlying understanding of transformation in bioeconomy policies. Instead of thinking the bioeconomy only along the lines of ecological modernisation, its proponents should consider studies on social-ecological transformation, which would entail radical structural change of the prevailing food regime to cope with the social-ecological crisis.
... As northern Canada becomes a new "climate-driven agriculture frontier" (Hannah et al. 2020) we have considered two global agriculture frameworks. The first is a conventional agriculture paradigm that has developed within food regimes and settler colonialism, and has globally contributed to ecological destruction, Indigenous land dispossession, and corporate control (Grey and Patel 2015;Holt-Giménez et al. 2012;Patel 2012). The second framework is agroecology, which began in Indigenous and peasant fields of Latin America and has come to be identified with radical movements for land and food sovereignty around the world (Copeland 2019;Laforge et al. 2021). ...
Article
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Warming temperatures in the circumpolar north have led to new discussions around climate-driven frontiers for agriculture. In this paper, we situate northern food systems in Canada within the corporate food regime and settler colonialism, and contend that an expansion of the conventional, industrial agriculture paradigm into the Canadian North would have significant socio-cultural and ecological consequences. We propose agroecology as an alternative framework uniquely accordant with northern contexts. In particular, we suggest that there are elements of agroecology that are already being practiced in northern Indigenous communities as part of traditional hunter-gatherer food systems. We present a framework for agroecology in the North and discuss its components of environmental stewardship, economies, knowledge, social dimensions and governance using examples from the Dehcho region, Northwest Territories, Canada. Finally, we discuss several challenges and cautions in creating policy around agroecology in the North and encourage community-based research in developing and testing this framework moving forward.
... Our inquiry here is predicated on a need to provide better guidance for farmers, consumers and policymakers. The United States is widely viewed as having a perfectly well-functioning food system, one that is efficient at providing an abundant supply, albeit one that is frequently accused of creating foodstuffs of dubious nutritional value, and not doing so equitably and affordably to everyone [32]. However, considering the elephant in the room of the fact that industrial agricultural production is a leading cause of climate change and contributes to a biodiversity crisis, amendments to that food system appear warranted. ...
Article
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Participatory guarantee systems (PGS) are locally-rooted agroecological governance mechanisms primarily designed to meet the needs of local producers for product certification and cooperative sales. They have experienced periodic waves of interest in different places throughout the globe. There is a small but rich and growing scholarship devoted to understanding how they are managed, how they are sustained, and what factors predict their success. Interestingly, there is little evidence that they have developed in the United States, which has instead, witnessed the growth of community supported agriculture (CSA), farmer’s markets, food hubs and food policy councils (FPC), although many of these mechanisms have failed to sustain interest and support. Here, we explore the factors that drive the creation of systems in the global South, Europe and other regions, and identify the factors that shape a different trajectory for local agriculture in the United States. We discuss the possibilities for more radical food system transformation in the United States, considering a changing climate, an industrial food system that has prioritized profit over health, and the COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, we conclude by identifying some future pathways for policy reform and research opportunities.
... The standardization of foods in the United States over the twentieth and twenty-first centuries is the product of many factors, including the push to expand profit by extending shelf life (through the addition of preservatives), developing local to national food safety standards to ensure consumer safety, changing production approaches, and consolidating agribusiness (Thomé Da Cruz and Menasche 2014; Baur 2016). As a result, food and crop diversity have inadvertently decreased (Dunn 2017), with smaller-scale producers disproportionately impacted by these changes (Patel 2012). Yet food safety isn't black and white; rather it is relative from one person to another (Nestle 2003). ...
Article
Fermented foods/drinks are one of many traditional food preservation practices known to ameliorate flavor and nutritional value and extend shelf life. They are also an essential element in creating a regenerative food system, one that seeks to create conditions that enhance already existing systems rather than just sustaining them. However, many gastronomic, traditional, and heritage foods such as noncommercial fermented products are not eligible to be sold at local or global markets and are considered hazardous and unfitting of food safety standards. Subsequently, these foods are often produced in homes, or as cottage industry products sold at farmers markets. In the United States, many of these products are made by marginal communities, Latin, Middle Easterners, Southeast Asians, and Indigenous communities. These foods carry meanings of value, identity, and sacredness and have created a trans-local food ecosystem. This paper explores how Arizona, with its large and growing population of marginal communities, governs such modes of food production. Using an ethnographic multisite methodology of “follow the thing,” the authors follow two fermented foods—gundruk, and yoghurt/soft cheese—observing how they are produced, consumed, and valorized in Arizona. We explore how the production of these foods unravels microbiopolitical entanglements, described through personal narratives and contextualized within the history of a larger regulatory structure. Like fermentation itself, these narratives reveal that we should welcome the unseen actors for a more diverse and inclusive food governance atmosphere while redefining what a local and place-based food system should look like.
... (https://foodcitizenship.info/about) Further, this desirable shift to a "Citizen Food System" is driven by bottom-up processes instead of the top-down approach to food that is described as 'food control by a powerful few' (Lang and Heasman 2004;Patel 2007). ...
... Here, Dr. Khadar's analysis is similar to critical agrarian scholars in noting that the Green Revolution has structured farmers' subjectivities and understandings of what can be considered productive agriculture, and ultimately food (Meek 2018). Of particular note here are the ways in which agricultural modernization has transformed not only how we produce, but also what we consider food (Patel 2013). ...
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Historically marginalized foods, which occupy the social periphery, and often function as a bulwark in times of hunger, are increasingly being rediscovered and revalued as niche commodities. From açaí to quinoa, the move from marginal to miracle is often tied to larger narratives surrounding sustainable development, resilience to climate change, and traditional foodways. This article analyses the recent move towards millet production and consumption in the southern Indian state of Karnataka. Focusing upon one of the grain’s chief proponents, I explore how narratives surrounding millets are grounded in conceptions of cultural authenticity and bioregionalism. Drawing upon human geographer’s analyses of the turn towards the ‘local’ in food activism, I contribute to the development of critical bioregionalism, an emerging theoretical framework that explores how questions of value, identity, political economy, and histories of land use intersect to structure our understandings of marginal foods and their resurgence.
... What was once a relatively self-sufficient family-farm-based model of agriculture has been transformed into a technology and market-oriented global "industry", which extends from agricultural production, to sophisticated agriscience, and agribusiness. These changes have forced many farmers out of the profession and forced those who remain to grapple with greater levels of uncertainty regarding what will happen to their livelihoods [5]. ...
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The prevalence of mental health disorders and suicide amongst agricultural producers is a global problem. Community leaders, researchers, policymakers, and clinicians have mobilized to develop programs to address this issue. This study reviewed a wide range of mental health interventions targeting farmer mental health spanning over 50 years and examined their reported effectiveness and constraints. A total of ninety-two articles on farmer mental health were included in a final systematic review. Most articles were written concerning mental health literacy and peer and paraprofessional support interventions in the United States and Australia. Among the 56 studies reporting empirical evaluative data, 21 were mixed-method, 20 quantitative, 11 qualitative, and 5 literature synthesis. Non-experimental, self-reported, and qualitative data suggest efficacy of mental health literacy programs, peer and paraprofessional support, and community-based and agroecological interventions. However, most interventions were not subject to rigorous evaluation and only one intervention was evaluated using a control condition. The heterogeneity of existing studies and paucity of rigorous evaluation proscribes firm conclusions related to program-type efficacy. This review demonstrates that there is still a need for a stronger and broader evidence base in the field of farmer mental health interventions, which should focus on both holistic, multi-component programs and targeted approaches.
... Bkz. (Patel 2007). 5 La Via Campesina konunun en önemli örneklerinden biridir. ...
... Green developments can be criticised for fueling population explosions rather than credited for alleviating hunger. Import substitution encourages empty calorization of locally processed foods and drinks and is responsible for the "commercial determinants" of ill health and the triple burden of combining diseases of poverty with obesity rather than providing a balanced omnivorous diet [176][177][178][179]. ...
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We evolved from herbivores to a meat eating "commons" in hunter-gatherer days and then to a non-egalitarian meat power struggle between classes and countries. Egalitarian-ism, trans-egalitarianism and extremes of inequality and hierarchy revolve around the fair-unfair distribution of meat surpluses and ownership of the means of meat production. Poor people on poor diets with too few micronutrients may explain many inequalities of human capital, height and health and divergent development of individuals and nations. Learning from past successes and collapses from switching trophic levels the lesson is that meat moderation toward the top of Engel's curves, not calorie-centrism, is the best recipe for countries and classes. Improved health with longer lives and higher crystallised intelligence comes with an ample supply of micro-nutrients from animal products namely iron, zinc, vitamin A, vitamin B12 and other methyl-donors (such as choline), and nicotinamide (vitamin B3). We concentrate on nicotinamide whose deficits cause the degenerative condition pellagra that manifests as poor emotional and degenerative cognitive states with stunted lives and complex antisocial and dysbiotic effects caused by and causing poverty.
... La agricultura industrial ha contaminado la tierra, el agua y el aire, ha erosionado los suelos, dañado la biodiversidad, incrementado las enfermedades, provocado el endeudamiento de los agricultores, y ha contribuido al abandono del campo (Carrol et al., 1990;Lappé et al., 1998). Además, ha fracasado en su promesa de eliminar el hambre (Patel, 2007;De Shutter, 2010); ello sin contar que, durante el régimen neoliberal, la élite económica ha usurpado los recursos (Borras et al., 2012). Por tales razones, es esencial entender dónde y cómo es que la agroecología ha superado esos obstáculos. ...
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La agroecología ha ganado impulso como movimiento trasformador en muchos países y ha crecido más allá de experiencias locales aisladas. La cantidad de familias y comunidades que procesan distribuyen y consumen alimentos que se produce de forma agroecológica va en aumento. Para entender el proceso no lineal y mul-tidimensional que ha facilitado la expansión de la agroecología, analizamos en este texto el Movimiento de Campesino a Campesino centroamericano; el movimiento nacional agroecológico de campesinos en Cuba; el boom del café orgánico en Chiapas, México; la expansión de la Agricultura Natural de Presupuesto Cero 1. Este artículo fue publicado originalmente en inglés en: Mier y Terán G. C., M.; Giraldo, O. F.; Aldaroso, M.; Morales, H.; Ferguson, B. G.; Rosset, P.; Khadse, A.; Campos, C. Bringing agroecology to scale: key drivers and emblematic cases. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 42(6), 637-665, 2018.
... There has been important recent attention to these subjects more generally, both inside and outside of academia. Multiple books showcase and argue for the various intersections between contemporary food systems and an array of problems: Sinclair's (1965) The jungle, Lappé's (1982) Diet for a small planet, Mintz's (1986) Sweetness and power, Schlosser's (2001) Fast food nation, Pollan's (2009) The omnivore's dilemma, Belasco's (2007) Appetite for change, Patel's (2008) Stuffed and starved, Lawrence's (2008) Eat your heart out, Hauter's (2012) Foodopoly and many others. ...
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Food crime involves the various, and often overlapping, patterns of deviance, harm, crime and injustice concerning the structures and institutional arrangements surrounding the production, processing, marketing, distribution, selling, consumption and disposal of food products. The concept of food crime uses legal definitions of what is wrong or criminal as well as problematisations of such classification, including (in)actions that are lawful but immoral or otherwise harmful. Many descriptions of food crime tend to focus on types of fraud within food chains, but these are insufficient in acknowledging the diversity of problems that arise involving food systems and all the elements involved.
... Dieses Kapitel sucht dagegen nach tief liegenden, strukturellen Gründen der weltweiten Fehlernährung. Die Leitfrage lautet, warum ein System, das mehr als genügend Nahrungsmittel produziert, diese extrem ungleich -im Unter-oder Übermaß -den KonsumentInnen zuteilt (Patel 2008). Der Fokus auf die strukturellen Momente blendet keineswegs die praktische Deutungs-und Handlungsmacht der Menschen aus; er setzt diese jedoch in Beziehung zu politischen und ökonomischen Machtverhältnissen entlang der transnationalen → Wertschöpfungskette zwischen Acker und Teller. ...
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Agro-Food Studies setzen sich integrativ und kritisch mit der Produktion und dem Konsum von Nahrung auseinander. Der Band behandelt die Spannungsfelder Tradition und Moderne, Globalisierung und Regionalisierung, Gesellschaft und Umwelt, Natur und Technik, Kopf und Bauch, Mangel und Überfluss. Die interdisziplinäre Einführung richtet sich an Studierende und Akteure der Zivilgesellschaft.
... Conversely, in the field of agnotology, little attention has been paid to animal sciences. However, a dense literature exists on controversies in agricultural science, for example, controversies over plant breeding and genetics (Bonneuil, Mayaud, and Denis 2008;Bonneuil and Thomas 2009) or over the green revolution, sustainability, and globalization (Dahlberg 1979;Thompson and Stout 1991;Patel 2007). These works focus mainly on external uses of science (i.e., how knowledge or ignorance is thereafter used by nonscientists, such as industrialists or politics) or on science as discussed in public debates rather than on the production of ignorance internal to the practice of science. ...
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In 1979, the Council of the European Communities declared its intention to ban battery cages for laying hens; one year later, everything about the ban is forgotten. During this preparatory year (1979-1980), all that happened is the publication of scientific reports, that is, attempts at producing knowledge as a basis for and justification of the ban decision. This paper aims at understanding to what extent ignorance and doubt were produced instead. By examining the reports, I demonstrate that there are three interrelated levels of ignorance production: (1) the missions given by the Commission to scientists were ambiguous, (2) questions inherent to animal welfare sciences, such as the significant variability of their measures and results, lead to a systematic standardization, and (3) the battery cage works as a techno-scientific promise and an “obligatory passage point” where scientists and industry meet. Disciplinary identity issues therefore lead scientists to adopt a double standard about the welfare of laying hens.
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This innovative volume presents twenty comparative case studies of important global questions, such as 'Where should our food come from?' 'What should we do about climate change?' and 'Where should innovation come from?' A variety of solutions are proposed and compared, including market-based, economic, and neoliberal approaches, as well as those determined by humane values and ethical and socially responsible perspectives. Drawing on original research, its chapters show that more responsible solutions are very often both more effective and better aligned with human values. Providing an important counterpoint to the standard capitalist thinking propounded in business school education, People Before Markets reveals the problematic assumptions of incumbent frameworks for solving global problems and inspires the next generation of business and social science students to pursue more effective and human-centered solutions.
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Various bioeconomy strategies seek to replace fossil resources with renewable agrarian resources without departing from the agro-industrial model. Paradoxically, industrial agriculture is an extractive system itself, dependent on the constant supply of mineral resources to replace the nutrients extracted from the soil. This article analyses the evolution of nutrient flows in this system from a historical-theoretical perspective and focuses specifically on the nutrient phosphorus, derived from the raw material phosphate rock. Classified as a “low-cost bulk commodity” for decades, since 2007 phosphate rock has become a strategic resource in the context of the crisis of cheap nutrient supply (2007–2013), a period of unusually high fertilizer prices. By analyzing state and private actor strategies in Germany and Brazil to adapt to this new situation, it becomes clear that the control over flows of phosphorous is increasingly contested. This article argues that bioeconomy strategies are aggravating existing conflicts over phosphate supply, as well as global inequalities, which inter alia become evident in food crises. Technological innovations, which are promoted within bioeconomy strategies, only reduce the extractive character of industrial agriculture in a limited way, while they are securing the interests of dominant actors.
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In less than half a century (1978–2020), China has transformed itself from a country that barely fed itself to a powerful player in the global food system, characterized by massive food imports, active overseas agricultural engagement, and the global expansion of Chinese agribusiness. This Element offers a nuanced analysis of China's global food strategy and its impacts on food security and the international agri-food order. To feed a population of 1.4 billion, China actively seeks overseas agri-food resources whilst maintaining a high level of domestic food production. This strategy gives China an advantageous position in the global food system, but it also creates contradictions and problems within and beyond the country. This could potentially worsen global food insecurity in the long term.
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Climate change research remains focused on the perception of and adaptation to geoclimatic phenomena, oversimplifying livelihood decision-making processes. To address this gap, I explore the relevance of broadening research to the notion of socio-ecological resilience of food systems. This research aims to provide insights into the understanding and construction of socio-ecological resilience as a dynamic and holistic process affecting all spheres of everyday life. For this analysis, the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework was adapted into a Resilient Food Systems Framework. This structures and presents the historical context of the food system, the community resources’ control, access and use, and the intended and achieved outcomes toward socio-ecological resilience. Through a Feminist Political Ecology analysis, this thesis demonstrates that distinct intersectionalities – I focus here on gender and age – lead to challenges being perceived and acted on differently. Moreover, the emphasis given to Traditional Ecological Knowledges enables the consideration of endogenous knowledges, mainly vehiculated by elders, and their relevance in the construction of a community’s identity. The village of Ndiémane in Senegal, West Africa, was the case study for this research because of its colonial and postcolonial link to the emblematic production of peanuts and its nationally renowned peasant-to-peasant agroecological training centre. Five field experiences were conducted between February 2017 and March 2020 for durations ranging from two to twelve weeks. Participatory Action Research with female and male, young and elderly peasants provided new empirical data to co-construct the concept of resilience. Data was collected through mixed methods, including archival research, interviews, focus group discussions, participatory video and participant observation. Data was analysed participatively and using NVivo. The analysis reveals that climate, social and environmental changes have led to the gradual commodification of the food system, the disempowerment of peasants and to tradition loss. However, villagers, female and male, young and old, consider that their resilience revolves above all around ethnic identity and its preservation and contestation. It is through their enduring connection to the land (and, to varying degrees, the activity of farming) that all villagers feel they continue to belong to the Seereer Siin ethnic group and therefore believe in their socio-ecological resilience. These findings show that to better understand and address climate change perception and adaptation, research must embrace the complexity and interconnectedness of food systems and livelihoods. Far from being ignorant or dismissive of the climate change phenomenon, peasants consider it as but one of the challenges they face in their daily struggle for resilience enhancement and identity permanence.
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The woke food movement, epitomized by the EAT-Lancet Commission, is a relatively recent phenomenon—more prevalent in high-income countries where food is comparatively abundant, and, within those countries, more associated with rich liberal elite groups than others. Perhaps this movement is doing some good, by generating interest and discussion about issues that matter. But it is easy to find instances where they have done harm and to see possibilities for more harm to come. This happens because the movement is essentially intolerant, insisting on imposing its views on others even if those views turn out to be ill-informed (or simply silly), and even if a majority may disagree with them. We have already seen calamitous consequences from misguided policies initiated by such interests—witness the global opposition to genetically engineered food, and particular examples such as Golden Rice, with their consequences for the poor—as well as a multitude of mostly more minor instances of food policy non-sense that collectively may loom large in terms of their overall social cost. Of current concern is the possibility that these forces are becoming more influential as we are all coming to depend more on social media and non-traditional sources for information about issues that are sometimes complex. When farm and food policies are made by plebiscite, and voters are ill-informed, policy non-sense seems more likely. Some further harm can be done, even without the involvement of government, given the role of market intermediaries as gatekeepers in the food chain, imposing private policies as de facto technological regulations at the behest of activist groups. Misguided foreclosing of technological possibilities has concerning implications for the supply side of the world food equation and the global incidence of poverty and malnutrition, and for the environmental burden of agricultural production, in ways that the woke food movement does not appear to understand or anticipate.JEL CodesQ18H23I18O38
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Money-free economies are a necessary – even if not sufficient – basis for establishing ecosocialism so that freely associated producers can produce to satisfy everyone’s basic needs while taking account of ecological limits. This chapter briefly outlines contemporary economic and environmental challenges, such as vast socio-political and economic inequalities and a global lack of sustainability increasingly couched in terms of emergencies and extinctions, including of humans. Fatal weaknesses of monetary economies that flourish within capitalism are identified. A vision of how such a nonmonetary ecosocialism might operate is outlined. Practical movements already oriented towards money-free societies are discussed. This underdeveloped area of thought and study might well be constituted in future as “real value studies” – building on certain nonmarket socialist thought. Money-free economies allow for the centrality of ecological, social, and humane values, enabling local people to establish direct and participatory decision-making over production on the basis of their real needs.
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Economic activities continue to cause considerable environmental damage. The extent of damage could be such that the environment in and around our planet will be affected, making survival difficult for human beings, for other animals, and for plants and insects. The paper reviews economic developments from the nineteenth century and how these have been influenced by orthodox economic theories. Markets are central to orthodox economics, and to policies which have been implemented recently to restrict global warming. Since the 1980s, policies based on orthodox economics and neoliberalism have been widely implemented by governments, and also by international organizations. Such policies are evaluated and found to be seriously inadequate. Studies of environmental implications of the development of two major sectors of the world economy follow. Policies which are concerned only to restrain climate change are unlikely to be adequate by themselves. Policies which take a holistic approach to considering all the important impacts of human economic activity on the environment have greater prospects of success. The paper concludes by suggesting research and analysis be undertaken urgently to assist with the design and implementation of more effective policies to reduce the damage to the environment caused by human economic activities.
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Striving to understand what drives HIV infection and the covariates in which HIV is experienced was at the center of Merrill Singer’s conceptualization of syndemic theory 30 years ago. The idea of syndemic – or synergies of co‐occurring epidemics – was developed through ethnography around the social realities and structural drivers of HIV. The syndemics approach to understanding disease is rooted in the theoretical framework of critical medical anthropology. The syndemics approach has intervened in global health in critical ways. It has become embedded in the global health lexicon. The structural components of syndemics must be addressed by grassroots demands for change as seen in phenomena like the Black Lives Matter movement or in campaigns to eliminate voter suppression (which functions to silence the political voice of people hardest hit by syndemics like COVID‐19).
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This article casts light on how one public school system in the United States minoritizes migrant students by perpetuating systemic class and racial biases. Migrant students are the children of migrant workers who migrate across the United States seasonally to work in agriculture or fisheries. Based on in-depth interviews with 20 educators, we identified three main areas of class and racial biases that we call the not-so-hidden curriculum: First, the school system presumes (and rewards) English competency from migrant families, an expectation we call expectation of English language competency. Second, the system expects entitled and intensive learning from students. This type of learning assumes that students can advocate for themselves in their interactions with teachers and peers. The schools in the school system expect students to spend most of their time and energy on academic activities. Third, the system expects entitled and intensive educational parenting. In this parenting approach, parents are supposed to act as co-educators and co-decision makers with teachers and focus their energy and time on their children’s education. The interviews illustrate several incompatibilities among these ideologies and migrant students’ realities, especially their economic, social, and linguistic challenges. We discuss the implications of our findings on migrant students’ social mobility, future research, and migrant education policy.
Article
This paper employs the concept of food sover­eignty, as conceived by La Via Campesina and developed by First Nations in North America and peasant farmer groups around the world, as a lens to assess the level of local control over the produc­tion, distribution, and consumption of food in the Mississippi Delta. We present research conducted through site visits, participant observation, focus groups, and surveys of communities affiliated with the Delta EATS public school garden program cur­rently operating in three Mississippi public elemen­tary schools. Our findings demonstrate low levels of food sovereignty but high levels of agency and ingenuity in accessing and obtaining desired foods, along with abundant interest in preserving and passing on traditional foodways. Community mem­bers express the desire to exert greater local control over food production, distribution, and consump­tion through community gardens, farmers markets, and cooking and food preservation classes. While food sovereignty is constrained by the current agri-food system of the Delta, programs such as Delta EATS and farmers cooperatives are enhancing local food sovereignty through farm-to-school programs that strengthen relationships between farmers and the community.
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This chapter provides an approach to how the notion of territory as a process can be problematized as current and past benchmarks of modernization, based on two cases in Colombia: specialty coffee in Nariño and steel mill development in Boyacá state. We investigate the senses of ‘territory’ as localized processes, leading to a discussion about these two specific contexts. Coffee and steel have marked narratives in Colombia that allow us to problematize the ways of visualizing ‘national development’ and thus understand territories designated as peripheral underdevelopment narratives, and to interrogate their use and integration into national modernization discourses. By addressing two spatially and temporally distinct contexts—the Colombian centre-east in the Sogamoso Valley in the mid-twentieth century, and the south-west of the Colombian Massif in Nariño’s northern region in the present period—it is possible to analyse two modernization experiences that constitute specific meanings of territorial organization and disputes.
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The eastern half of Campeche State, in Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula, comprises a mosaic of forest and agriculture. The northern part, Chenes, is dominated by long-settled indigenous Maya, in social property villages (ejidos). Since about 2000, Mexican Mennonites have settled in private property villages there. The southern part, Calakmul, is a forest frontier where nearly all settlement has occurred since 1980, mainly as ejidos but including several private property villages. Sketch mapping and interviews were conducted in 23 villages. From these and other sources, GIS-based maps were developed for all or part of nine villages. The maps depict legal and customary land tenure, state-initiated conservation areas (including forest set-asides for payments for environmental services) and the pattern of forest and agriculture in 2019. Historical and current struggles to assemble territories in these regions are explored. While legal territorial rights were secured in the twentieth century, some communities struggle against the vestiges of ‘fortress conservation’ in Calakmul, while in Chenes the emerging patchwork of Mennonites and Maya engenders mutual accommodations along with struggles. In both regions, the underlying tension between commercial agriculture and traditional land uses contributes to the evolution of territorialities. In many villages, apiculture (bee honey production) is an important locus for this process.
Article
While the food desert-supermarket (FDS) approach remains a favored one among policymakers, scholars are growing increasingly critical of it. I contribute to this growing body of critical literature by examining the FDS approach through the lens of “cultural appropriateness.” While much of the critical academic literature has thus far focused on the food desert side of the approach, here I turn my attention to the proposed solution: supermarkets. The essay focuses on ethnicity, nationality and language as cultural dimensions important in thinking about and devising policy intended to mitigate food insecurity in food deserts. Field research in supermarkets in the Denver metropolitan area found that supermarkets routinely and systematically promote Western cultural norms, marginalize non-Western cultures and foods, and ostracize non-English speakers.
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