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Psychological Shyness of Individuals A Review Paper

Authors:
  • Mustansiriyah University

Abstract

This study aimed at identifying psychological shyness in individuals as shyness is regarded as a common psychological and social issue by individuals especially with girls and teenagers. The researcher defined psychological shyness, identified the problem and its importance, the factors related to shy people, signs of shyness and characters of the shy person. The importance of the study is distinguished through many previous studies where the human being is considered a social entity by nature. Human communication is one of the bases of communication and social interaction. Shyness has accompanied humans since eternity in which 'Homer' spoke about as a feature of nature. Scientists' views differed in identifying the reasons behind the emergence of shyness in which they might be due to changes in secretion of glands or environmental reasons or both. The study also emphasized the significance of behavioral and social disorders (psychological shyness) in building one's personality from all psychological, social and emotional sides and their impact on individuals' adaptation in society. The issue of shyness and the following disorders has brought the attention of the researcher as it is reflected in the behavior of individuals in society. It is possible to say that these psychological, social, emotional and behavioral disorders such as shyness, lying, weak motive, hostility and lack of self-confidence all of which are negatively reflected on
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Psychological Sh A Review Paper
yness of Individuals
ABSTRACT
This study aimed at identifying psychological shyness in individuals
as shyness is regarded as a common psychological and social issue by
individuals especially with girls and teenagers. The researcher defined
psychological shyness, identified the problem and its importance, the
factors related to shy people, signs of shyness and characters of the shy
person. The importance of the study is distinguished through many
previous studies where the human being is considered a social entity by
nature. Human communication is one of the bases of communication
and social interaction. Shyness has accompanied humans since eternity
in which 'Homer' spoke about as a feature of nature. Scientists' views
differed in identifying the reasons behind the emergence of shyness in
which they might be due to changes in secretion of glands or
environmental reasons or both. The study also emphasized the
significance of behavioral and social disorders (psychological shyness)
in building one's personality from all psychological, social and emotional
sides and their impact on individuals' adaptation in society. The issue of
shyness and the following disorders has brought the attention of the
researcher as it is reflected in the behavior of individuals in society. It is
possible to say that these psychological, social, emotional and
behavioral disorders such as shyness, lying, weak motive, hostility and
lack of self-confidence all of which are negatively reflected on
Assistant Teacher: Afrah Toama Radhi
Assistant Teacher:Abbas Rahmah Zayer
Presidency of Mustansiriyah University Department of Control and Internal Auditing
Afrahtoama@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq
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individuals' behavior resulting in an inability to communicate
spontaneously with peers and friends.
Introduction
Social shyness is a general character especially in girls and it is a
social phenomenon that is frequent during adolescence when the girl
finds herself in public places or in work meetings or even in official
interviews. Nevertheless, social shyness is another issue since this
shyness affects individual's behavior with a great influence. It is possible
that social shyness may fade over time if one engages with the society.
However, psychological shyness has a strong effect as it remains and
has a violent effect. It may not allow an individual to get rid of it. Signs
of shyness clearly appear in adolescence where a male or female
individual shows behavioral and psychological disorders. Adolescence is
one of the most abundant phases of psychological crises. Occasionally,
a teenager shows a different behavior where at times we find him/her to
have a temper and at other times, we find them forgiving. Here comes
the role of parents in which this phase is stressing for them. Shyness
has a great effect on the individual's emotions as it influences thinking,
attention and memory. In addition to shyness, there is fear which has an
influence and leads to an individual's shyness and confusion. Shyness is
apparent in the teenager's feeling of oneself, which is a psychological
tendency and an emotional state distinguished by shyness to people
(Al-Sayyed, 1974: 308).
The Problem
Shyness is a great issue that includes a large group of community
as many people suffer from it. It has a negative impact on their
personality; scientists were interested in shyness where it was greatly
common especially among girls. Shyness has become a character of
personality and one of the most embarrassing situations for people is
the great number of social situations such as the presence of one being
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with people that he/she is unfamiliar with in addition to being in a new
situation and environment as well as being in a large and open society
(Al-Jamaiy, 2007). Shyness affects all age groups and it is one of the
greatest issues faced by students in schools and universities, we notice
some students who avoid discussing any topic with their own classmates
as well as avoiding any participation in class or discussing with their
teacher in scientific or even social subjects. This causes the student to
be silent in the class and consequently to feel shy and incompatibility
with others. Moreover, shy people find it difficult making friends with
others especially the other gender in which they avoid conversations and
become introverted, avoiding social contacts with slow speech and
stuttering in dialogue (Jaafar, 2007).
Shyness also controls one's abilities and makes him/her less
creative. It is noticed that a shy person has a disordered lifestyle and
the reason behind that is shyness which controls his/her personality that
impedes reaching interaction with people whether through oral or non-
oral interaction (Al-Jubouri, 2002). Shyness is regarded as one of the
undesired psychological and social characters that is related to social
consensus and control individuals since childhood working on
dismantling and destroying their creative and productive energy (Al-
Samadoni, 1994). Shyness is considered a psychological and social
issue that controls an individual to an extent that disarms their talents
resulting in being less productive in all fields (Sharara, 1996: 25). There
are people who suffer from shyness for years but they remain silent
despite their inner feeling of this issue and they wish they can get rid of
it because it causes them crises (Ghalib, 1991: 14). Any individual who
suffers from shyness also suffers from lack of self-confidence and finds
it difficult to interact with others (Al-Sharbini, 2001).
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Importance of the Problem
Shyness is seen as one of the issues suffered by people preventing
them from effectively interacting with others and making successful
relationships. It is known that each individual in community faces critical
changes and problems. Family change is one of the most important
social changes. These changes emerge in families who have children of
special needs. The mother is the supporter and teacher for the child of
special needs, she plays the biggest role in influencing his/her life and
making them a productive and successful child or a negative, weak-
personality, disempowered and weak-emotional. The extent to how
much she can contain her child depends on her high ability and strive to
provide his/her needs. There is another role the mother should do which
is engaging the child with the society he or she lives in as well as facing
all challenges such as shyness and feeling uncomfortable in social
situations that lead to negative reactions (Al-Sartawi, 1998).
A disabled child in a family makes the mother vulnerable to introversion
and withdrawal centering only on her child and avoiding social
interaction, which exposes her to stress (Hwaidi, 1996). The teenager
also took the first place in the context where it is a phase full of
physiological changes in which the teenager considers himself/herself a
child who is passing into a second phase accompanied by physical,
mental, thinking and personal changes making him/her feel shy and
introverted (Muawadh, 1983). There are some studies such as the study
of (Kazuhlikoard & Takashi, 1979) show that the rate of females feeling
of fear and shyness is greater than that with males as the higher
degrees were of those who have fear and shyness (Kazuhiko, 1986).
Shyness is regarded as a negative and pathological phenomenon that
affects the relationship among teenagers so they become lonely and
introverted (Awadeh, 2015). It is believed that the teenager feels
emotional sensitivity because of incompatibility with the environment in
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which he/she considers the help of their parents as an intervention in
their life leading them to be obstinate (Nepal, 1999).
The Objective
This essay aims at identifying the phenomenon of psychological
shyness, its concept, reasons and resulting effects reflected on one's
personality, creativeness and energy in addition to finding solutions to
this negative phenomenon that leads to disarming humans energy and
production and living decently in society and building a strong
personality.
Methodology
This essay is based on descriptive approach through displaying the
concept of psychological shyness, its significance, reasons and
treatment.
Literature Review
The Concept of Psychological Shyness
Psychological shyness is a number of psychological signs related to
an individual which is not knowing about one's self and fear of others
underestimating and accusing him/her of negativity (Jirjis, 2008). A
second concept of shyness is an emotional state resulting from
excessive modesty leading into personal disorders (Al-Namla, 1995).
The third concept is extreme shyness where the shy person avoids
others and is easily frightened, does not trust anyone, hesitated to move
forward, has no willing to get in harmony and contact with others,
prefers silence and loneliness, speaks in low voice, stutters and blushes
(Al-Sharbini, 2001). Through research, there are many components of
shyness that the reason behind it is psychological that appears with
other signs such as confusion, fear and worry and physiological signs
which are sensory alerts such as increased heartbeat, blushing and cold
or sweating of hand as well as cognitive signs such as thinking in bad
things, raising self-awareness and negative ideas of one's self.
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Reasons of Psychological Shyness
1- Exposing to mockery and lots of criticizing in childhood.
2- Losing one's skill of socializing.
3- The parents being over afraid for the safety of their children.
4- Being exposed to physical disability.
5- The issue of suffering of self-confidence and weak personality.
6- Genetic reasons in the family.
Signs of Shyness
1- Avoiding conversation with any strangers.
2- Feeling afraid while on social participations.
3- Having some physical injuries such as tremor and sweating.
4- Feeling of insecurity while talking with others.
5- Not looking directly at others when talking (Al-Zaghlool, 2004).
Characteristics of the Shy Person
1- The shy person is desperate and poor who cannot blend in with
others because he/she feels lack of self-confidence.
2- Shyness is a complex emotional state thus the shy person feels
behavioral blame, loneliness, flaw, and inadequacy and does not feel
confidence.
3- In childhood, the shy person faces many problems especially at the
beginning of school where his/her characters show hesitation when
asking questions. They are also distinguished by stuttering and cannot
make a conversation with their friends and teachers but rather they
remain isolated.
4- The shy student is isolated and inactive in school and the outside
environment which he/she lives in. Therefore, their experiments are
limited and their experience is few and they cannot adapt with
themselves or with friends or family in addition to their bad health.
5- The shy person is sensitive, selfish and rebellious
(alarakiza.www200).
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Through the last description, we ensure that social situations are the
basis of the emergence of shyness. It is known that humans or an
individual are social being by nature who is responsible for their public
and private behavior. Thus, they become very socializing and in contact
with their own community people unlike the shy one who is selfish and
unable to adapt with others or with one's self.
Factors Related to Shy People
1- Organic Reasons
(A) Weak Physique, cachexia and malnutrition that subject an individual
and make them feel shy and their parents worried about them being in
danger and consequently avoiding situations, pain and effort so they
become very shy and with skinniness.
(B) Impairments and Organic Deficiency
This is the shyest group of their disability including disabled children
where they feel a severe lack because of any visible impairment on their
body so a child is born with a tendency towards loneliness. These
impairments may include weak vision, hearing impairment, speech
muttering, obesity, acne, excessive introversion where they feel shy
towards their body not noticed by others. It is difficult to persuade them
that such things exist only in their own minds so they feel inadequate
when others remind him/her of things such as an ugly face, inconsistent
face or a weak mental ability. Therefore, the child feels inadequate
when they cannot deal with a certain issue leading them to feel foolish
accompanied by a type of fear, anxiety and lack of trust (Jirjis, 1984).
2- Psychological Reasons
A- Extreme Sensitivity: The shy person is affected by conversations and
feels sensitive towards topics and reactions of people. He/she considers
them as bad things against them, they expect people to react before
they act and in this case, the feel of inadequacy will take control of
them.
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B- Seeking Approval: The shy person searches for things that make
them approved by the world, they create ways that make people admire
them. They show signs of shyness at the most trivial conversations or
being criticized by others. They believe that people think of them and
their speech, watch their movements and impairments whereas such
things do not exist.
C- Shyness and Hesitation: Shyness grows when it dominates human
behavior, reduces its effectiveness and the will to give and creativeness
becomes less (Al-Tayeb, 1996).
2- Situational Factors: (Buss, 1980) set a category which is:
1- Unfamiliar and new situations.
2- Situations that occur by others in certain circumstances.
3- Social situations in general.
3- Family Factors
1- The beginning of establishing a family in an isolated environment:
The child hesitates and feels shy when they grow up in an isolated
family away from society. Thus, their experience becomes little and
unable to grasp new ones.
2- False Upbringing
1- Child Spoiling: Children's over-spoiling leads to shyness in which
they will have a special treatment at home. This treatment does not
exist outside home especially when they contact with other children of
the same age then they will avoid them and feel inadequacy. Therefore,
over-spoiling destroys one's character and makes them feel unable to
be creative (Jirjis, 1984).
2- Cruelty: The child grows up being shy and has no self-confidence
when he/she is treated cruelly by their family. Rebuking and
reprimanding them for trivial reasons as well as trying to hit them and
other things lead them into introversion because of oppression and
domination (Al-Tayeb, 1996).
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3- The child upbringing in a shy family: Some families believe in envy
so the child grows up in a family that has a great faith in envy and
fearing from people. They try to hide their child away from people
making him/her less experienced in dealing with others so they become
shy (Jirjis, 1984).
4- Family Issues: A family that has a lot of disputes between parents
makes the child confused whether to please their mom or dad or which
one is wrong so they grow up with fear and shyness.
5- Birth and Gender: A child who grows up in a family that has no
sisters cannot then blend in with the other sex and has no experience
as to engage with them. The same applies to the child who grows up in
a family with many sisters but only one brother who becomes spoiled
and this makes him unconsciously shy and low profile (Al-Tayeb,
1996).
Discussion & Results
The study of (Okasha & Abdulmajeed, 2012) concluded that shy
children are more exposed to emotional and social hardships compared
to non-shy children. The study of (FANGSTROM, 2017) referred to the
effectiveness of using computer programs in improving communication
skills of shy children whether oral or non-oral. Moreover, the study of
(Haynes & Avery, 1984) applied a training program and demonstrated a
decrease in the level of shyness and negative self-evaluation for the
experimental group besides an increase in their participation in social
activities. The results of (Pilkonis, 1977) showed that people with high
levels of shyness waste more time in starting a conversation being more
worried and less willing to talk to others.
The study of (Al-Duraini, 1982) arrived at the conclusion that people
with low shyness are more balanced and less worrying and nervous
while those with mild shyness are more balanced and less worrying and
stressed than those with high shyness. Whereas those with high
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shyness have a high rate of nervousness and are less balanced. (Al-
Jumaili, 2010) indicated that college students do not suffer social
shyness and females are less shy than males, the study emphasized a
relation between social shyness, self-deception and cognitive
conception anxiety. The study of (Cheek & Buss, 1981) showed that
shy people are more nervous and worried in social context of non-shy
people, unsocial and shy people are more nervous and worried than
social and non-shy individuals, and finally social and shy ones are more
nervous and worried than unsocial and shy people.
The study of (Feher & Stamps, 1979) aimed at identifying several
psychological features of shy student girls in an American university.
The sample consisted of 52 students and the results showed that shy
students had a high level of anxiety, guilt and low self-esteem.
(Lawrence & Behnett, 1992) tried to identify the correlation between
shyness and personality variants in their study. The sample consisted of
650 male and female adolescents and used Eysenck Personality
Questionnaire and Anxiety Standard as a state. These standards cover
the scope of shyness in terms of emotions and correlation. The results
showed that correlational and situational shyness are related to high
anxiety level whereas situational, with its low level, is related to self-
esteem and extraversion.
Conclusion
From the above, we emphasize that shyness is a phenomenon that
destroys one's life. It is a source of depression and instability, it causes
one to avoid social interaction. The basis of reaching psychological
adjustment is one's feeling that they are able and can control their
behavior and thinking. If one is able to control their feelings then they
will be more capable to deal with others in society. Shyness originates
through one's failure to satisfy their own needs of positive expression.
Studies emphasized that shyness negatively affects the level of
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experiences growth both qualitatively and quantitatively. So, in order to
treat shyness, emotions should be expressed that Salter emphasized
through training to express emotions which increases one's ability in
self-confidence and self-understanding and consequently to reduce
shyness that is stimulated by social interaction. We propose some
recommendations such as the need to teamwork, using techniques of
social communication and interaction through lecturing, modelling,
discussion and social experiment. This has an impact in growing social
relations and eliminating shyness thus, we recommend organizing
seminars to identify the reasons behind shyness besides identifying the
causing situations and attempting to eradicate them by arranging school
and university activities especially for male and female adolescents.
References
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Article
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Interviewing children is a cognitively, socially, and emotionally challenging situation, especially for young and shy children. Thus, finding methods that aid rapport and increase these children’s communication is important. The present study investigated whether children’s verbal and non-verbal communicative behavior developed differently during the rapport phase, depending on whether children were situationally shy or not, and whether the interview was conducted using the computer-assisted interview In My Shoes (IMS) or a Standard verbal interview. The sample consisted of 60 children aged 4 to 5-years-old. The results showed that for the shy children in the IMS group their talkativeness increased and their answer latency decreased including the amount of encouragement the child needed to talk, while no changes were observed for the shy children in the Standard verbal interview group. There were no significant differences in the non-verbal behavior for the shy children regardless of the interview method used. For the non-shy children, overall, the interview method did not affect either the verbal or the non-verbal outcomes. Our findings indicate that IMS can be a useful tool during the rapport-building phase with shy children as it helps these children to improve their verbal communication. © 2017 Fängström et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Psychological Bases of Growth from Childhood to Senility. 3 rd Edition, Arabic Thinking House, Cairo. 2-Al-Nayyal
  • Fuad Al-Sayyed
  • Al-Behi
Al-Sayyed, Fuad Al-Behi (1974). Psychological Bases of Growth from Childhood to Senility. 3 rd Edition, Arabic Thinking House, Cairo. 2-Al-Nayyal, Maisa (1996). Shyness and Some Personality Dimensions: An Evolutionary and Correlational Study in a
Building a Tool to Measure Shyness in Students of the Secondary Stage
  • Thabit Al-Jubouri
  • Hassan Jumah
Al-Jubouri, Thabit Hassan Jumah (2000). Building a Tool to Measure Shyness in Students of the Secondary Stage, Unpublished Master Thesis. College of Arts, University of Basra.
Shyness in Both Genders: An Analytical Study of Causes, Features and Implications
  • Al-Samadoni
Al-Samadoni, Al-Sayyed (1994). Shyness in Both Genders: An Analytical Study of Causes, Features and Implications. Journal of Educational Assessment and Measurement, National Center of Exams, vol. (3), Cairo.
Psychological Issues of Children. Arabic Thinking House
  • Zakaria Al-Sharbini
Al-Sharbini, Zakaria (2001). Psychological Issues of Children. Arabic Thinking House, Egypt, ed. (1).