ArticlePDF Available

Blood biochemical variables, antioxidative status, and histological features of intestinal, gill, and liver tissues of African catfsh (Clarias gariepinus) exposed to high salinity and high‑temperature stress

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

African catfish is a freshwater species with a high ability to resist brackish water conditions, but heat stress may impair the health status of fish. Thus, the impact of varying levels of water salinity (0, 4, 8, and 12 ppt) was investigated on the growth performance, survival rate, and blood biochemistry of African catfish (average weight: 180.58 ± 2.8 g and average length: 38 ± 1.2 cm) for 4 weeks; then, fish were stressed with high temperature (32 °C) for 72 h. The growth performance and survival rate were markedly higher in fish reared in 0, 4, and 8 ppt than fish in 12 ppt ( p < 0.05). Before heat stress, the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) activities, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were markedly increased in fish stressed with 12-ppt salinity ( p < 0.05). After heat stress, all groups showed a marked increased SOD, CAT, GSH, and MDA levels than fish before heat stress in the same manner ( p < 0.05). Furthermore, fish in the 12 ppt group showed severe intestinal, gill, and liver histological features. The levels of blood glucose and cortisol were markedly increased in fish exposed with 8 and 12 ppt than 0 ppt gradually either before or after heat stress ( p < 0.05). The highest values of ALT, AST, urea, creatinine, and the lowest total protein, albumin, and globulin were observed in fish reared in 12 ppt. Significant salinity and heat stress interactions were seen on the ALT, AST, urea, creatinine, total protein, albumin, and globulin values ( p < 0.05). The integrated multi-biomarker response (IBR) results showed marked differences among the groups and increased gradually before and after heat stress, with the highest IBR in 12 ppt. In conclusion, growing African catfish in high salinity (12 ppt) hampered the growth performance and health status while the heat stress improved the antioxidative status vis-a-vis increased lipid peroxidation along with higher stress-related markers in expressed both blood and tissue.
This content is subject to copyright. Terms and conditions apply.
Vol.:(0123456789)
1 3
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-19702-0
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Blood biochemical variables, antioxidative status, andhistological
features ofintestinal, gill, andliver tissues ofAfrican catfish (Clarias
gariepinus) exposed tohigh salinity andhigh‑temperature stress
MahmoudA.O.Dawood1,2 · AhmedE.Noreldin3· HaniSewilam1,4
Received: 27 July 2021 / Accepted: 9 March 2022
© The Author(s) 2022
Abstract
African catfish is a freshwater species with a high ability to resist brackish water conditions, but heat stress may impair the
health status of fish. Thus, the impact of varying levels of water salinity (0, 4, 8, and 12 ppt) was investigated on the growth
performance, survival rate, and blood biochemistry of African catfish (average weight: 180.58 ± 2.8 g and average length: 38
± 1.2 cm) for 4 weeks; then, fish were stressed with high temperature (32 °C) for 72 h. The growth performance and survival
rate were markedly higher in fish reared in 0, 4, and 8 ppt than fish in 12 ppt (p < 0.05). Before heat stress, the superoxide
dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) activities, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were markedly increased
in fish stressed with 12-ppt salinity (p < 0.05). After heat stress, all groups showed a marked increased SOD, CAT, GSH,
and MDA levels than fish before heat stress in the same manner (p < 0.05). Furthermore, fish in the 12 ppt group showed
severe intestinal, gill, and liver histological features. The levels of blood glucose and cortisol were markedly increased in
fish exposed with 8 and 12 ppt than 0 ppt gradually either before or after heat stress (p < 0.05). The highest values of ALT,
AST, urea, creatinine, and the lowest total protein, albumin, and globulin were observed in fish reared in 12 ppt. Significant
salinity and heat stress interactions were seen on the ALT, AST, urea, creatinine, total protein, albumin, and globulin values (p
< 0.05). The integrated multi-biomarker response (IBR) results showed marked differences among the groups and increased
gradually before and after heat stress, with the highest IBR in 12 ppt. In conclusion, growing African catfish in high salinity
(12 ppt) hampered the growth performance and health status while the heat stress improved the antioxidative status vis-a-vis
increased lipid peroxidation along with higher stress-related markers in expressed both blood and tissue.
Keywords Aquaculture· Salinity· Heat stress· Catfish· Oxidative stress
Introduction
Climate change is one of the main challenges associated
with various impacts on humanity, animals, and the eco-
system (Galappaththi etal., 2020). Extremely low and high
temperatures resulting from the fluctuations in climate
change disrupt the biological and physiological rhymes of
living organisms (Esam etal., 2022; Falconer etal., 2020).
An observed rising in the temperature is markedly hitting
vast areas around the globe for long periods throughout
the year (Stewart-Sinclair etal., 2020). Interestingly, it
becomes difficult to separate between the year four seasons
due to the collapse of weather temperature and unclear
temperature limits. As one of the major food suppliers,
the aquaculture industry is not far away from the impacts
of climate change (Ahmed and Turchini, 2021; Dawood
etal., 2021a). Most aquatic animals require optimal water
Responsible Editor: Bruno Nunes
* Mahmoud A. O. Dawood
Mahmoud.dawood@agr.kfs.edu.eg
* Hani Sewilam
sewilam@lfi.rwth-aachen.de
1 The Center forApplied Research ontheEnvironment
andSustainability, The American University inCairo,
Cairo11835, Egypt
2 Animal Production Department, Faculty ofAgriculture,
Kafrelsheikh University, KafrEl-Sheikh33516, Egypt
3 Histology andCytology Department, Faculty ofVeterinary
Medicine, Damanhour University, Damanhour22511, Egypt
4 Department ofEngineering Hydrology, RWTH Aachen
University, Aachen, Germany
Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2022) 29:56357–56369
/ Published online: 25 March 2022
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2022) 29:56357–56369
1 3
temperature to have healthy physiological and productive
performances (Dawood, 2021; Zhou etal., 2021). High
temperature is involved in impairing the reproduction and
hatching of finfish seeds (Cai etal., 2020b; Pountney etal.,
2020). High temperatures in adult fish induce deformities
in the erythrocytes, causing nuclear and cellular damage
(Islam etal., 2020). Under these circumstances, the regu-
lations of growth, immunity, antioxidative, and antistress
hormones and genes can be disturbed, leading to irregular
growth performance and resistance to infection (Cai etal.,
2020a; Dawood etal., 2020; Shahjahan etal., 2018).
Due to the temperature changes, the water salinity
increases, particularly in the brackish water areas and
places suffering from a lack of freshwater (Durigon etal.,
2020; Thomas etal., 2020). Along with the fluctuations
in the temperature, these uncontrolled water characteris-
tics result in several physiological and biological abnor-
malities (Hlordzi etal., 2020; Magouz etal., 2022). High
salinity levels alter the osmoregulation capacity of fish,
leading to irregular metabolic rates and disturbances in
physiological and immunological status (Britz and Hecht,
1989). Consequently, fish suffer from weak growth perfor-
mance and feed utilization, causing low productivity and
substantial economic loss (Abass etal., 2016). In channel
catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), a freshwater fish model, the
interactive impacts of high temperature and water salin-
ity resulted in fluctuations in the expression of growth
hormone, osmoregulation, and homeostasis (Abass etal.,
2016). Although that European seabass (Dicentrarchus
labrax) is euryhaline fish species, high temperature (33
°C) combined with hypersalinity caused low adaptation
ability through high mortality rates and oxidative stress
(Islam etal., 2020). Since freshwater fish species are
sensitive to water salinity changes (Nepal and Fabrizio,
2020), it is crucial to investigate the combined impacts
of high temperature and salinity on the growth perfor-
mances, physiological, immunological, and antioxidative
responses.
African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) can perform
adequately if the water temperature is around 25–28 °C
(Andrews and Stickney, 1972; Ogunji and Awoke, 2017).
However, high temperatures adversely impact oxygen
availability in the water (Buentello etal., 2000). Hot tem-
perature (32 °C) reduces the solubility of oxygen in the
water and eventually leads to low metabolic and physi-
ological function, thereby low growth and death (Dutta,
1994; Prokešová etal., 2015). Concurrently, this study
aimed at evaluating the combined effects of salinity and
high temperature on the serum biochemical traits, anti-
oxidant, and stress-related markers of African catfish.
Besides, the study evaluated the impacts of salinity and
high temperature-induced oxidative stress on the intestine,
gill, and liver histological features.
Materials andmethods
Acclimatization offish
One-hundred-twenty adult African catfish weighing
180.58 ± 2.8 g with an average length of 38 ± 1.2 cm were
obtained from a private farm located in Kafr El-Sheikh city
and gently transported to The Center for Applied Research
on the Environment and Sustainability, The American
University in Cairo, Cairo, Egypt. Fish were treated and
handled by following the ethical guidelines approved by
the ethical committee of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kaf-
relsheikh University, Egypt. Upon arrival, fish were kept
in two 1000-L plastic tanks and kept for adaptation for 2
weeks. The tanks were supplied with continuous aeration,
and the water was replaced with fresh dechlorinated water
daily. During the adaptation period and throughout the
trial, fish-fed pellets of 30% crude protein manufactured
by Skretting (Bilbis, El Sharqia Governorate, Egypt) up to
the satiation level twice daily (08:00 and 15:00).
Experimental procedures
Exposure tosalinity stress
After acclimatization, fish were distributed in twelve
100-L plastic tanks with ten fish in each tank. The experi-
mental tanks were provided with continuous aeration, and
half of the water was changed daily with dechlorinated
water. Every three tanks were considered an experimental
group where fish were reared in water with 0, 4, 8, and
12 ppt. The water salinity was raised gradually at 2 ppt
daily until reaching the proposed salinity levels. The saline
water was prepared daily by mixing dry sea saline with
fresh water and kept in stock tanks. The water quality was
checked daily and recorded to confirm that the proposed
salinity levels were applied. The water was exchanged with
temperature adjusted and appropriate saline water (0, 4, 8,
and 12 ppt). When the proposed levels of salinity (0, 4, 8,
and 12 ppt) were confirmed, all fish were kept under exper-
imental conditions for 4 weeks. Feed intake was recorded
to calculate the feed conversion ratio (FCR). The water
quality was detected by Orion Star™ A329 Portable Mul-
tiparameter Meter (Thermo Scientific™, Waltham, MA,
USA) for salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and
pH. Total ammonia (TAN) levels were measured calori-
metrically using the APHA (1912) standard method. The
dissolved oxygen, pH, and total ammonia levels were not
meaningfully impacted by the effects of varying salinity
levels before or after heat stress and recorded 6.21 ± 0.12
mg/L, 7.22 ± 0.18, and 0.03 ± 0.001 mg/L, respectively.
56358
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2022) 29:56357–56369
1 3
The salinity levels were recorded 0.21 ± 0.02, 4.21 ± 0.11,
8.32 ± 0.23, and 12.32 ± 0.32, respectively. Water tem-
perature was significantly higher in all groups after heat
stress (32.36 ± 0.41 °C) than before heat stress (26.95 ±
0.11 °C).
Exposure toheat stress
Using electrical heaters, the remaining fish in each tank were
stressed with heat stress (32 °C) for 72 h. Each tank was
fixed with a heater, and the temperature was raised gradually
at 2 °C per hour until reaching the proposed degree; then,
fish were kept for 72 h under the experimental conditions.
The water quality was checked regularly using the same pro-
cedure mentioned above.
Collection ofblood andtissue sample
forbiochemical analysis includingantioxidant
(SOD, CAT, GSH) anddamage indicator (MDA) aswell
astissue samples forhistology
After 4 weeks, all fish were starved for 24 h then weighed
and counted to calculate the growth performance, feed con-
version ratio, and survival rate using the following formulae:
Weight gain (%)=((final weight (g) initial weight (g))∕initial weight (g)) ×100
Specific growth rate
(SGR)=100 ×
[
ln final weight (g) ln initial weight (g)
]∕days
Feed conversion rat io (FCR)= feed intake (g)∕((final weight (g) initial weight (g))
After salinity exposure and heat stress, all fish were anes-
thetized with tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222; 25 mg/L),
and the blood was collected from 3 fish per tank from the
caudal vein using 3-mL non-heparinized syringes. The col-
lected blood was kept clotting at 4 °C; then, serum was sepa-
rated at 1107 g/15 min at 4 °C and kept at −20 °C for further
analysis. The intestines, gills, and livers were dissected from
the fish for preparing the homogenate and stocked at −20 °C.
The homogenates of collected tissues were prepared by rins-
ing the tissues in ice-cold phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)
(50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.5 1 mM EDTA). Tissues
were homogenized in 10-fold PBS buffer (1-g tissue, 1:10
w:v) with glass homogenizer tubes (pellet pestle motor) and
centrifuged at 7871 g for 5 min. The supernatant was col-
lected and stored at 4 °C for further analysis.
Analysis ofbothblood andtissue samples
Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine ami-
notransferase (ALT), creatinine, and urea were detected by
SPIN 800 Autoanalyzer using readymade chemicals (kits)
supplied by Spinreact Co. Spain, following the manufac-
turer’s instructions. Serum total proteins and albumins were
determined, according to Doumas etal. (1981) and Dumas
Survival (%)=100 × final number∕initial number of fish
and Biggs (1972). Globulin was calculated by the differ-
ence between serum total protein and albumins. Glucose and
cortisol levels were determined using glucose and cortisol
enzymatic PAP kits obtained from Bio-Merieux (France)
(Trinder, 1969).
Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glu-
tathione (GSH) in intestine, gill, and liver homogenate samples
were measured using commercial kits following the manufac-
turer’s (Biodiagnostics Co., Egypt) instructions. The malon-
dialdehyde (MDA) concentration was detected by following
Uchiyama and Mihara (1978) and expressed as nmol MDA/g.
Intestines, gills, and livers were removed and flushed with
phosphate buffer saline (PBS; pH 7.4) and fixed in neutral-
buffered formaldehyde for 48 h. The fixed specimens were
processed by the conventional paraffin embedding technique,
including the dehydration through ascending grades of ethanol,
clearing in three changes of xylene, and melted paraffin ended
by embedding in paraffin wax at 65 °C. Four-micrometer-thick
sections were stained by hematoxylin and eosin (H and E),
as Bancroft and Layton (2013) described. The tissue histo-
pathology examination was carried out using a digital cam-
era (Leica EC3, Leica, Germany) connected to a microscope
(Leica DM500) and with software (Leica LAS EZ).
Integrated biomarker response andstatistical
treatment ofdata
The integrated biomarker response (IBR) was assessed
using the measured biomarkers of African catfish exposed
to high salinity and temperature. The IBR was applied only
for the biomarkers showing meaningful differences among
the groups by following Beliaeff and Burgeot (2002) and
Iturburu etal. (2018). Several IBR indices were calculated
from the same data changing the order of the biomarkers and
56359
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2022) 29:56357–56369
1 3
using the median of all the index values as the final index
value (Devin etal., 2014).
Levene’s test examined variance homogeneity of data to
confirm the normality and homogeneity. All data were ana-
lyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) by the
SPSS 22.0 software by Duncan’s test. Differences were con-
sidered significant at p < 0.05. When significant differences
were detected, two-way ANOVA was used to determine the
effects of water salinity, heat stress, and their interaction on
the water quality, blood biochemistry, and IBR of African
catfish.
Results
Growth behavior
The final weight, weight gain, SGR, and survival rate were
markedly higher in African catfish reared in 0, 4, and 8 ppt
than fish in 12 ppt (p < 0.05; Table1). Nevertheless, fish
reared in 12 ppt had higher FCR than fish in 0, 4, and 8 ppt
(p < 0.05; Table1).
Table 1 Growth performance
of African catfish exposed with
varying levels of salinity
Means ± S.E. in the same column with different letters differ significantly (p < 0.05). IBW initial body
weight, FBW final body weight, WG weight gain, SGR specific growth rate, FCR feed conversion ratio
0 ppt 4 ppt 8 ppt 12 ppt
IBW (g) 181.40 ± 1.22 179.73 ± 1.34 180.55 ± 1.26 180.65 ± 1.42
FBW (g) 235.00 ± 0.30 a 233.70 ± 1.80 a 233.28 ± 3.23 a 207.86 ± 5.13 b
WG (%) 29.55 ± 0.17 a 30.03 ± 1.00 a 29.20 ± 1.79 a 15.06 ± 2.84 b
SGR (%/day) 0.86 ± 0.02 a 0.88 ± 0.04 a 0.85 ± 0.05 a 0.47 ± 0.1 b
FCR 1.25 ± 0.03 c 1.31 ± 0.10 c 1.46 ± 0.03 b 3.46 ± 0.67 a
Survival (%) 100.00 ± 0.00 a 99.17 ± 0.83 a 97.50 ± 1.44 a 87.50 ± 2.89 b
Fig. 1 Histopathological exami-
nation of fish intestine. A The
0-ppt group revealing normal
villi with normal enterocytes
(thin arrow) and goblet cells
(arrowhead). B Salinity (4 ppt)
group revealing degenerative
enterocytes (thin arrow). C
Salinity (8 ppt) group showing
necrosis in the enterocytes (thin
arrow) and vacuolations (arrow-
head). D Salinity (12 ppt) group
exposing severe necrosis in
the enterocytes with extensive
vacuolations (arrowhead) and
lymphocytic infiltrations (thin
arrow). Scale bar = 50 μm
56360
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2022) 29:56357–56369
1 3
Histopathological assessment inintestines, gills,
andlivers
Fish reared in the 0-ppt group revealed normal intestinal
architecture with normal villi (Fig.1A). On the other hand,
fish in the 4-ppt group showed slight degenerative changes in
the enterocytes (Fig.1B). Moreover, fish in the 8-ppt group
exposed severe necrosis and vacuolations in the enterocytes
(Fig.1C). Furthermore, fish in the 12-ppt group revealed
excessive necrosis and vacuolations in the enterocytes and
massive lymphocytic infiltration (Fig.1D).
Fish reared in the 0-ppt group showed the normal gill
architecture with normal primary and secondary lamellae
(Fig.2A). On the other hand, fish in the 4-ppt group revealed
telangiectasis of the secondary lamella and hypertrophy of
chloride cells (Fig.2B). Besides, fish in the 8-ppt group
showed excessive telangiectasis, necrosis of the secondary
lamellae, and hypertrophy of chloride cells (Fig.2C). Fur-
thermore, fish in the 12-ppt group were exposed to severe
hypertrophy of chloride cells with severe necrosis of the
secondary lamellae (Fig.2D).
Fish reared in the 0-ppt group showed the normal hepato-
pancreatic architecture with normal hepatic cord and acini of
the exocrine pancreas (Fig.3A). However, fish in the 4-ppt
group revealed slight vascular congestion and diffuse fatty
vacuolized hepatocytes with pyknotic nuclei (Fig.3B). In
addition, fish in the 8-ppt group showed a moderate number
of necrotic nuclei of hepatocytes and moderate congestion
of hepatic sinusoid (Fig.3C). Moreover, fish in the 12-ppt
group revealed severe hepatic sinusoid congestion with dif-
fuse fatty vacuolized necrotic hepatocytes (Fig.3D).
Antioxidative capacity (SOD, CAT, andGSH) andlipid
peroxidation marker (MDA)
The intestinal superoxide dismutase (SOD) (Fig.4A), cat-
alase (CAT) (Fig.4B), glutathione (GSH) (Fig.4C), and
malondialdehyde (MDA) (Fig.4D) were markedly increased
in African catfish stressed with 12-ppt salinity (p < 0.05).
Before heat stress, the activities of SOD and CAT were
higher in fish exposed to 8 ppt than fish in 0- and 4-ppt
groups and lower than fish in 12 ppt (p < 0.05). Also, fish
exposed to 12 ppt had higher GSH and MDA than fish grown
in 0, 4, and 8 ppt. After heat stress, in all groups (0, 4, 8,
and 12 ppt), SOD, CAT, GSH, and MDA were markedly
increased compared with before heat stress (p < 0.05). The
activity of SOD was higher in fish exposed to 4 and 8 ppt
than fish in the 0-ppt group and lower than fish in 12 ppt (p
< 0.05). Further, CAT was increased markedly and gradually
by increasing the salinity level (p < 0.05). The activities of
Fig. 2 Histopathological exami-
nation of fish gills. A The 0-ppt
group showing normal primary
lamellae (arrow) and second-
ary lamellae (arrowhead). B
Salinity (4 ppt) group reveal-
ing telangiectasis of secondary
lamellae (thick arrow) and
hypertrophy of chloride cells
(thin arrow). C Salinity (8 ppt)
group showing sever telangiec-
tasis and necrosis of the second-
ary lamellae (thick arrow) and
hypertrophy of chloride cells
(thin arrow). D Salinity (12 ppt)
group showing extensive necro-
sis of the secondary lamellae
(thick arrow) and hypertrophy
of chloride cells (thin arrow).
Scale bar = 50 μm
56361
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2022) 29:56357–56369
1 3
GSH and MDA were higher in fish exposed to 8 ppt than
fish in 0- and 4-ppt groups and lower than fish in 12 ppt (p
< 0.05). Before or after heat stress, fish exposed with 12-ppt
salinity showed the highest SOD, CAT, GSH, and MDA
before or after heat stress (p < 0.05).
The samples of gill homogenates showed higher SOD
(Fig.5A), CAT (Fig.5B), and GSH (Fig.5C) in fish
exposed with 8- and 12-ppt salinity than fish in 0- and
4-ppt groups before heat stress (p < 0.05). Further, the
levels of MDA (Fig.5D) were meaningfully higher in
the 12-ppt group than the 0-, 4-, and 8-ppt groups (p <
0.05). After heat stress, all fish groups showed higher
SOD, CAT, GSH, and MDA values than before heat
stress (p < 0.05). Further, SOD was increased mark-
edly and gradually by increasing the salinity level (p <
0.05). The activities of CAT and GSH were higher in
fish exposed to 8 ppt than fish in 0- and 4-ppt groups
and lower than fish in 12 ppt (p < 0.05). Fish exposed
with 12-ppt salinity showed the highest MDA level after
heat stress (p < 0.05).
The activity of SOD (Fig.6A) was increased mark-
edly and gradually by increasing the salinity level before
and after heat stress (p < 0.05). Before heat stress, liver
CAT (Fig.6B), GSH (Fig.6C), and MDA (Fig.6D) have
increased in fish of 8- and 12-ppt groups than fish in 0- and
4-ppt groups and lower than fish in 12 ppt (p < 0.05). Fish
in the 8-ppt group had lower CAT, GSH, and MDA than
fish in the 12-ppt group (p < 0.05). After heat stress, all
groups showed a marked increased SOD, CAT, GSH, and
MDA than fish before heat stress in the same manner (p <
0.05). After heat stress, fish exposed with 12-ppt salinity
showed the highest CAT and GSH activities (p < 0.05).
MDA levels were higher in fish exposed to 8 ppt than fish
in 0- and 4-ppt groups and lower than fish in 12 ppt (p <
0.05).
Blood biochemistry variables
The levels of blood glucose were markedly increased in fish
exposed with 4, 8, and 12 ppt than 0 ppt in a gradual man-
ner either before or after heat stress (p < 0.05; Fig.7A).
The cortisol level was markedly increased in 8- and 12-ppt
groups before heat stress while increasing only 12 ppt after
heat stress (p < 0.05; Fig.7B). The glucose and cortisol
levels were markedly increased in all groups after heat stress
compared with before heat stress.
The values of ALT and urea were increased in the blood
samples of African catfish in 8 and 12 ppt before and
Fig. 3 Histopathological exami-
nation of fish liver. A The 0-ppt
group revealing normal hepato-
cytes (thick arrow) and normal
pancreatic acini (arrowhead). B
Salinity (4 ppt) group exposing
slight vascular congestion (thin
arrow) and fatty vacuolized
hepatocytes with pyknotic
nuclei (arrowhead). C Salinity
(8 ppt) group revealing moder-
ate congestion of hepatic sinu-
soid (thin arrow) and moderate
number of necrotic hepatocytes
(arrowhead). D Salinity (12
ppt) group showing extensive
congestion of hepatic sinusoid
(thin arrow) and high number of
pyknotic hepatic nuclei (arrow-
head). Scale bar = 50 μm
56362
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2022) 29:56357–56369
1 3
after heat stress (p < 0.05; Table2). At the same time,
AST activity and creatinine levels were increased in the
12-ppt group before heat stress. After heat stress, AST
was increased in 8- and 12-ppt groups while creatinine
increased in the 12-ppt group (p < 0.05; Table2). Blood
total protein was increased in 8- and 12-ppt groups before
heat stress, but no differences were seen among the groups
after heat stress (p < 0.05; Table2). The albumin level was
increased in the 12-ppt group before and after heat stress
(p < 0.05; Table2). The globulin levels were higher in
8- and 12-ppt groups than 0- and 4-ppt groups before and
after heat stress (p < 0.05; Table2). After heat stress, all
groups showed marked differences for all blood biochem-
ical traits compared with before heat stress. Significant
salinity and heat stress interactions were seen on the ALT,
AST, urea, creatinine, total protein, albumin, and globulin
values (p < 0.05).
Integrated biomarker response
The integrated multi-biomarker response (IBR) results are
shown in Table3 and Fig.8. The results showed marked dif-
ferences among the groups gradually before and after heat
stress. Before and after heat stress, the highest IBR was seen
in African catfish exposed with 12 ppt, while the lowest IBR
was in the 0-ppt group (p < 0.05).
Discussion
Aquaculture activity is not far from the fluctuations in the
environmental changes associated with influences on the
water quality and its relationship with fish health (Reid
etal., 2019a). Usually, fish suffer from several stressors in
the farms, such as fluctuations in the water salinity, ammo-
nia accumulations, and dissolved oxygen (Deane and Woo,
2009; Shukry etal., 2021). Accordingly, it is mandatory to
Fig. 4 Intestinal (A) superoxide dismutase, (B) catalase, (C) glu-
tathione activities, and (D) malondialdehyde level of African catfish
exposed with varying levels of salinity and heat stress. Bars with dif-
ferent small or capital letters differ significantly either before or after
the heat stress (p < 0.05). The asterisk (*) refers to significant differ-
ences between the same groups before and after heat stress (p < 0.05)
56363
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2022) 29:56357–56369
1 3
investigate the impacts of unstable environmental conditions
on finfish species’ performance to sustain fish production
(Ahmed etal., 2019; Reid etal., 2019b). Growing freshwater
fish species is not available in some areas due to less avail-
ability of water resources. Alternatively, brackish water can
grow fish, but this depends on fish species and the stability
of other environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, ammo-
nia, and stocking density) (Mitra, 2013). African catfish is
a popular commercial fish species with a high capacity to
adapt to diverse environmental conditions (Dauda etal.,
2018). However, high salinity and heat stress are proposed
to impair fish performances and health status, leading to low
productivity and well-being (Eissa and Wang, 2016). In this
study, African catfish were grown in varying water salini-
ties (0, 4, 8, and 12 ppt) for 4 weeks then exposed to heat
stress (32 °C). The results showed the marked impact of high
salinity on the growth performance and interactive influ-
ences of water salinity and heat stress on the health condition
of African catfish. Up to 8-ppt fish showed no significant
differences with fish grow in 0 and 8 ppt in the final body
weight, specific growth rate, FCR, and survival rate. How-
ever, fish reared in 12 ppt had impaired growth performance,
FCR, and survival rate. The results agree with various stud-
ies that indicated that catfish requires optimal water salinity
for normal growth. Trong etal. (2017) reported that catfish
(Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) reared in high salinity (12
ppt) had impaired growth performance. The authors attrib-
uted the reduced growth performance to the osmoregula-
tory budget requirements, which need high energy to adapt
to stressful conditions (Dawood etal., 2021b; Mohamed
etal., 2021). Fish require high energy under hypoosmotic
or hyperosmotic environments that can affect the metabolic
and growth promotion activity, leading to less growth per-
formance and a high mortality rate (Abass etal., 2016). The
reduced growth performance is also attributed to high salin-
ity in disturbing the osmoregulation in the intestines of fish,
leading to less feed utilization (Islam etal., 2020). Concur-
rently, the results showed high FCR in the groups of fish
Fig. 5 Gill (A) superoxide dismutase, (B) catalase, (C) glutathione
activities, and (D) malondialdehyde level of African catfish exposed
with varying levels of salinity and heat stress. Bars with different
small or capital letters differ significantly either before or after the
heat stress (p < 0.05). The asterisk (*) refers to significant differences
between the same groups before and after heat stress (p < 0.05)
56364
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2022) 29:56357–56369
1 3
reared in high salinity compared to the remaining groups.
The reduced survival rate in this study is a feature of low
feed utilization and impaired health status.
Blood biochemical indices, antioxidant markers, and his-
tological features are reliable and indicative indices corre-
lated with the impact of stressors on fish physiological and
productive status (Šimková etal., 2015). The impact of water
salinities with or without heat stress on the health status
of African catfish was evaluated by detecting biochemical
blood indices, oxidative-related markers, and histological
features in the intestines, gills, and livers. The primary role
of gills and intestines is the osmoregulation and hyposalin-
ity, or hypersalinity led to disturbed osmoregulation capac-
ity, thereby disturbances in fish’s metabolic and physiologi-
cal function (Ern and Esbaugh, 2018; Rivera-Ingraham
and Lignot, 2017; Webb and Wood, 2000). In this study,
intestine, gill, and liver tissues showed impaired histologi-
cal features attributed to the impact of high salinity (12 ppt)
on the health status of African catfish. The abnormalities
in the intestine, gill, and liver tissues of African catfish can
be explained by salinity-induced oxidative stress (Dawood
etal., 2021b). Stressful conditions cause the generation of
free radicals, peroxides, and reactive oxygen metabolites
(ROS) involved in lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, and cell
mortality (Blewett etal., 2016; Chang etal., 2021b). The
stressful conditions induce high secretion of cortisol which
helps release glucose as a source of energy (Bonga, 1997).
High lipid peroxidation is expressed by high malondialde-
hyde secretion (MDA). In this case, cells develop enzymatic
and non-enzymatic activities to degenerate the excessive free
radicals and ROS (Kim etal., 2017). Superoxide dismutase
(SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) are among
the main biomarkers responsible for relieving the impact
of oxidative stress on the organism’s entire body (Wang
etal., 2016). The current study showed that the antioxidants
(SOD, CAT, and GSH) increased with an increase in MDA
levels. Although the synthesis of antioxidative molecules
is increased, it is insufficient to prevent tissue peroxidation
(MDA) and simultaneous change in tissue architecture, as
reflected from the histological study of three tissues. The
Fig. 6 Liver (A) superoxide dismutase, (B) catalase, (C) glutathione
activities, and (D) malondialdehyde level of African catfish exposed
with varying levels of salinity and heat stress. Bars with different
small or capital letters differ significantly either before or after the
heat stress (p < 0.05). The asterisk (*) refers to significant differences
between the same groups before and after heat stress (p < 0.05)
56365
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2022) 29:56357–56369
1 3
increased MDA level in this study explains the abnormali-
ties in the intestine, gill, and liver organs (Mohamed etal.,
2021). Additionally, in this study, cortisol and glucose levels
were markedly increased in African catfish reared in high
salinity with or without heat stress. The results are concur-
rent with Trong etal. (2017), who stated that catfish (P.
hypophthalmus) grown in hypersalinity and the high tem-
perature had high glucose and cortisol levels.
When disturbances occur in the liver tissue, the release of
its metabolites and enzymes is also disrupted (Chang etal.,
2021a). In this study, blood ALT and AST activities were
higher in fish in hypersalinity with or without heat stress.
High ALT and AST levels indicated the liver dysfunction
that the effect of oxidative stress might induce (Ghelichpour
Fig. 7 Blood glucose (A) and cortisol (B) levels of African catfish
exposed with varying levels of salinity and heat stress. Bars with dif-
ferent small or capital letters differ significantly either before or after
the heat stress (p < 0.05). The asterisk (*) refers to significant differ-
ences between the same groups before and after heat stress (p < 0.05)
Table 2 Blood biochemical variables of African catfish exposed with varying levels of salinity and heat stress
Means ± S.E. in the same column with different small or capital letters differ significantly either before or after the heat stress (p < 0.05). The
asterisk (*) refers to significant differences between the same groups before and after heat stress (p < 0.05). AST aspartate aminotransferase ALT
alanine aminotransferase
ALT (U/I) AST (U/I) Total protein (g/
dL)
Albumin (g/dL) Globulin (g/dL) Urea (mg/dL) Creatinine (mg/dL)
Before heat stress
0 ppt 21.98 ± 0.71 c 24.13 ± 0.58 b 4.09 ± 0.02 a 2.18 ± 0.04 a 1.91 ± 0.06 a 2.19 ± 0.04 c 0.32 ± 0.01 b
4 ppt 21.46 ± 0.56 c 23.96 ± 0.30 b 4.07 ± 0.03 a 2.24 ± 0.04 a 1.83 ± 0.06 a 2.21 ± 0.05 c 0.32 ± 0.01 b
8 ppt 24.36 ± 0.65 b 24.94 ± 0.93 b 3.79 ± 0.07 b 2.11 ± 0.02 a 1.68 ± 0.09 b 2.41 ± 0.02 b 0.37 ± 0.01 b
12 ppt 27.25 ± 0.50 a 27.67 ± 0.49 a 3.56 ± 0.07 b 1.92 ± 0.07 b 1.64 ± 0.14 c 2.60 ± 0.08 a 0.41 ± 0.01 a
After heat stress
0 ppt 25.33 ± 0.61 C* 25.96 ± 0.47 C* 3.70 ± 0.04* 2.05 ± 0.04 A* 1.65 ± 0.06 A* 2.30 ± 0.04 C* 0.40 ± 0.01 B*
4 ppt 24.77 ± 0.20 C* 25.75 ± 0.19 C* 3.72 ± 0.03* 2.05 ± 0.01 A* 1.68 ± 0.02 A* 2.41 ± 0.03 C* 0.41 ± 0.01 B*
8 ppt 26.77 ± 0.43 B* 27.14 ± 0.94 B* 3.52 ± 0.05* 1.93 ± 0.04 AB* 1.59 ± 0.08 B* 2.51 ± 0.03 B* 0.43 ± 0.01 B*
12 ppt 29.23 ± 0.52 A* 29.39 ± 0.46 A* 3.33 ± 0.01* 1.81 ± 0.02 B* 1.52 ± 0.02 B* 2.74 ± 0.09 A* 0.48 ± 0.01 A*
Two-way ANOVA (p-value)
Salinity 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001
Heat stress 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001
Interaction 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001
Table 3 Integrated biomarker response (IBR) of African catfish
exposed with varying levels of salinity and heat stress
Means ± S.E. in the same column with different small or capital let-
ters differ significantly either before or after the heat stress (p < 0.05).
The asterisk (*) refers to significant differences between the same
groups before and after heat stress (p < 0.05)
Median Mean SD Min Max
Before heat stress
0 ppt 0.66 d 0.66 0.11 0.40 0.92
4 ppt 1.47 c 1.47 0.23 1.22 1.71
8 ppt 1.85 b 1.85 0.19 1.58 2.11
12 ppt 3.03 a 3.03 0.21 2.16 3.89
After heat stress
0 ppt 1.34 D* 1.34 0.11 1.02 1.65
4 ppt 2.37 C* 2.37 0.23 2.05 2.68
8 ppt 3.74 B* 3.74 0.19 3.21 4.26
12 ppt 5.06 A* 5.06 0.21 3.89 6.22
Two-way ANOVA (p-value)
Salinity 0.001 - - - -
Heat stress 0.001 - - - -
Interaction 0.001 - - - -
56366
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2022) 29:56357–56369
1 3
etal., 2020). Similarly, the renal tissue-related indices (urea
and creatinine) were higher in fish stressed with hypersa-
linity with or without heat stress (Abdel-Latif etal., 2021;
Waheed etal., 2020). The high creatinine levels are related
to the breaking of creatinine in the fish’s muscles then go
through the kidney out the fish body (Patel etal., 2013). At
the same time, urea indicates the excessive rate of broken
tissues and the high metabolic rate in stressed fish bodies
(Hazon etal., 2003; Wilkie, 2002).
The integrated biomarker response (IBR) is suitable for
assessing the impact of various stressors on fish’s physi-
ological and health status (Perussolo etal., 2019). IBR can
present the response of fish to stress in only one value that
can help understand the overall impact of stress on fish per-
formances. The high value of IBR refers to the high impact
of stress on the physiological condition of fish. In parallel,
the IBR in African catfish stressed with high salinity with or
without heat stress increases with increasing water salinity.
The results agree with Dawood etal. (2021b), who indicated
that the IBR value increased in Nile tilapia stressed with
high salinity and exposed with hypoxia stress.
Conclusion
In summary, growing African catfish in high salinity (12
ppt) hampered the growth performance and health status.
The histological evaluation of the intestines, gills, and liv-
ers of African catfish showed normal features in fish grow
in 0, 4, and 8 ppt but severe alterations in fish raised in 12
ppt. After salinity and heat stress, African catfish reared
in high salinity (12 ppt) responded with higher production
of both antioxidative molecules but not to the level that
could check the lipid peroxidation and simultaneous tis-
sue histopathological stress-related markers. Further, liver
and kidney-related markers were high in fish stressed with
high salinity and heat stress. The obtained results indicate
the necessity of optimizing water salinity and temperature
for the optimum growth performance and well-being of
African catfish.
Availability of data and materials Data and materials are available upon
request.
Author contribution Conceptualization, Mahmoud A. O. Dawood,
Ahmed E. Noreldin, Hani Sewilam; data curation, Mahmoud A. O.
Dawood, Ahmed E. Noreldin, Hani Sewilam; funding acquisition,
Mahmoud A. O. Dawood, Ahmed E. Noreldin, Hani Sewilam; investi-
gation, Mahmoud A. O. Dawood, Ahmed E. Noreldin, Hani Sewilam;
project administration, Mahmoud A. O. Dawood, Ahmed E. Noreldin,
Hani Sewilam; resources, Mahmoud A. O. Dawood, Ahmed E. Norel-
din, Hani Sewilam; writing — original draft, Mahmoud A.O. Dawood,
Ahmed E. Noreldin, Hani Sewilam; writing — review and editing,
Mahmoud A. O. Dawood.
Funding Open access funding provided by The Science, Technology &
Innovation Funding Authority (STDF) in cooperation with The Egyp-
tian Knowledge Bank (EKB).
Declarations
Ethics approval All the experimental techniques and fish care pro-
tocols used in the current study were followed by the Guidelines of
Animal Care Use and were approved by the Institutional Animal Care
Use Committee Research Ethics Board, Faculty of Agriculture, Kaf-
relsheikh University, Egypt.
Consent to participate The authors are informed and agree to the study.
Consent for publication Not applicable.
Competing interests The authors declare no competing interests.
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attri-
bution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adapta-
tion, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long
as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source,
provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes
were made. The images or other third party material in this article are
included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated
Fig. 8 Integrated biomarker
response (IBR) of African cat-
fish exposed with varying levels
of salinity and before and after
heat stress
56367
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2022) 29:56357–56369
1 3
otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in
the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not
permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will
need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a
copy of this licence, visit http:// creat iveco mmons. org/ licen ses/ by/4. 0/.
References
Abass NY, Elwakil HE, Hemeida AA, Abdelsalam NR, Ye Z, Su B,
Alsaqufi AS, Weng C-C, Trudeau VL, Dunham RA (2016) Geno-
type–environment interactions for survival at low and sub-zero
temperatures at varying salinity for channel catfish, hybrid catfish
and transgenic channel catfish. Aquaculture 458:140–148
Abdel-Latif HMR, Dawood MAO, Mahmoud SF, Shukry M, Noreldin
AE, Ghetas HA, Khallaf MA (2021) Copper oxide nanoparticles
alter serum biochemical indices, induce histopathological altera-
tions, and modulate transcription of cytokines, HSP70, and oxida-
tive stress genes in Oreochromis niloticus. Animals:11
Ahmed N, Thompson S, Glaser M (2019) Global aquaculture produc-
tivity, environmental sustainability, and climate change adaptabil-
ity. Environmental Management 63:159–172
Ahmed N, Turchini GM (2021) Recirculating aquaculture systems
(RAS): environmental solution and climate change adaptation.
Journal of Cleaner Production 297:126604
Andrews JW, Stickney RR (1972) Interactions of feeding rates and
environmental temperature on growth, food conversion, and body
composition of channel catfish. Transactions of the American
Fisheries Society 101:94–99
APHA (1912) American Public Health Association. American Water
Works Association. Water Pollution Control Federation. Water
Environment Federation. Standard methods for the examination
of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association
Bancroft, J.D., Layton, C., 2013. The hematoxylin and eosin, connec-
tive and mesenchymal tissues with their stains, in: S. Kim suvarna,
C.L.a.J.D.B. (Ed.), Bancroft's theory and practice of histologi-
cal techniques, 7th ed. Churchill Livingstone:, Philadelphia pp.
173-186.
Beliaeff B, Burgeot T (2002) Integrated biomarker response: a useful
tool for ecological risk assessment. Environmental Toxicology
and Chemistry 21:1316–1322
Blewett TA, Wood CM, Glover CN (2016) Salinity-dependent nickel
accumulation and effects on respiration, ion regulation and oxida-
tive stress in the galaxiid fish, Galaxias maculatus. Environmental
Pollution 214:132–141
Bonga SEW (1997) The stress response in fish. 77:591–625
Britz PJ, Hecht T (1989) Effects of salinity on growth and survival of
African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) larvae. Journal of
Applied Ichthyology 5:194–202
Buentello JA, Gatlin DM, Neill WH (2000) Effects of water tem-
perature and dissolved oxygen on daily feed consumption, feed
utilization and growth of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).
Aquaculture 182:339–352
Cai L-S, Wang L, Song K, Lu K-L, Zhang C-X, Rahimnejad S (2020a)
Evaluation of protein requirement of spotted seabass (Lateolabrax
maculatus) under two temperatures, and the liver transcriptome
response to thermal stress. Aquaculture 516:734615
Cai X, Zhang J, Lin L, Li Y, Liu X, Wang Z (2020b) Study of a nonin-
vasive detection method for the high-temperature stress response
of the large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). Aquaculture
Reports 18:100514
Chang C-H, Mayer M, Rivera-Ingraham G, Blondeau-Bidet E, Wu
W-Y, Lorin-Nebel C, Lee T-H (2021a) Effects of temperature
and salinity on antioxidant responses in livers of temperate
(Dicentrarchus labrax) and tropical (Chanos Chanos) marine
euryhaline fish. Journal of Thermal Biology 99:103016
Chang C-H, Wang Y-C, Lee T-H (2021b) Hypothermal stress-induced
salinity-dependent oxidative stress and apoptosis in the livers of
euryhaline milkfish, Chanos chanos. Aquaculture 534:736280
Dauda AB, Romano N, Chen WW, Natrah I, Kamarudin MS (2018)
Differences in feeding habits influence the growth performance
and feeding efficiencies of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)
and lemon fin barb hybrid (Hypsibarbus wetmorei × Barboides
gonionotus ) in a glycerol-based biofloc technology system ver-
sus a recirculating system. Aquacultural Engineering 82:31–37
Dawood MA, Noreldin AE, Ali MA, Sewilam H (2021a) Menthol
essential oil is a practical choice for intensifying the production
of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): effects on the growth and
health performances. Aquaculture 737027
Dawood MAO (2021) Nutritional immunity of fish intestines: impor-
tant insights for sustainable aquaculture. Reviews in Aquaculture
13:642–663
Dawood MAO, Eweedah NM, El-Sharawy ME, Awad SS, Van Doan
H, Paray BA (2020) Dietary white button mushroom improved
the growth, immunity, antioxidative status and resistance against
heat stress in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Aquaculture
523:735229
Dawood MAO, Noreldin AE, Sewilam H (2021b) Long term salinity
disrupts the hepatic function, intestinal health, and gills antioxida-
tive status in Nile tilapia stressed with hypoxia. Ecotoxicology and
Environmental Safety 220:112412
Deane EE, Woo NYS (2009) Modulation of fish growth hormone levels
by salinity, temperature, pollutants and aquaculture related stress:
a review. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 19:97–120
Devin S, Burgeot T, Giambérini L, Minguez L, Pain-Devin S (2014)
The integrated biomarker response revisited: optimization to
avoid misuse. Environmental Science and Pollution Research
21:2448–2454
Doumas BT, Bayse DD, Carter RJ, Peters T, Schaffer R (1981) A candi-
date reference method for determination of total protein in serum.
I. Development and validation. Clinical Chemistry 27:1642–1650
Dumas BT, Biggs HG (1972) Standard methods of clinical chemistry.
Ed., Academic Press: New York
Durigon EG, Lazzari R, Uczay J, Lopes DLDA, Jerônimo GT, Sgnaulin
T, Emerenciano MGC (2020) Biofloc technology (BFT): adjusting
the levels of digestible protein and digestible energy in diets of
Nile tilapia juveniles raised in brackish water. Aquaculture and
Fisheries 5:42–51
Dutta H (1994) Growth in fishes. Gerontology 40:97–112
Eissa N, Wang H-P (2016) Transcriptional stress responses to environ-
mental and husbandry stressors in aquaculture species. Reviews
in Aquaculture 8:61–88
Ern R, Esbaugh AJ (2018) Effects of salinity and hypoxia-induced
hyperventilation on oxygen consumption and cost of osmoregula-
tion in the estuarine red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Comparative
Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative
Physiology 222:52–59
Esam F, Khalafalla MM, Gewaily MS, Abdo S, Hassan AM, Dawood
MAO (2022) Acute ammonia exposure combined with heat stress
impaired the histological features of gills and liver tissues and the
expression responses of immune and antioxidative related genes in
Nile tilapia. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 231:113187
Falconer L, Hjøllo SS, Telfer TC, McAdam BJ, Hermansen Ø, Ytteborg
E (2020) The importance of calibrating climate change projections
to local conditions at aquaculture sites. Aquaculture 514:734487
Galappaththi EK, Ichien ST, Hyman AA, Aubrac CJ, Ford JD (2020)
Climate change adaptation in aquaculture. Reviews in Aquaculture
12:2160–2176
Ghelichpour M, Taheri Mirghaed A, Hoseini SM, Perez Jimenez A
(2020) Plasma antioxidant and hepatic enzymes activity, thyroid
56368
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2022) 29:56357–56369
1 3
hormones alterations and health status of liver tissue in com-
mon carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to lufenuron. Aquaculture
516:734634
Hazon N, Wells A, Pillans RD, Good JP, Gary Anderson W, Franklin
CE (2003) Urea based osmoregulation and endocrine control in
elasmobranch fish with special reference to euryhalinity. Com-
parative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and
Molecular Biology 136:685–700
Hlordzi V, Kuebutornye FKA, Afriyie G, Abarike ED, Lu Y, Chi S,
Anokyewaa MA (2020) The use of Bacillus species in main-
tenance of water quality in aquaculture: a review. Aquaculture
Reports 18:100503
Islam MJ, Kunzmann A, Thiele R, Slater MJ (2020) Effects of extreme
ambient temperature in European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax
acclimated at different salinities: growth performance, metabolic
and molecular stress responses. Science of The Total Environ-
ment 735:139371
Iturburu FG, Bertrand L, Mendieta JR, Amé MV, Menone ML (2018)
An integrated biomarker response study explains more than the
sum of the parts: oxidative stress in the fish Australoheros facetus
exposed to imidacloprid. Ecological Indicators 93:351–357
Kim J-H, Park H-J, Kim K-W, Hwang I-K, Kim D-H, Oh CW, Lee
JS, Kang J-C (2017) Growth performance, oxidative stress, and
non-specific immune responses in juvenile sablefish, Anoplopoma
fimbria, by changes of water temperature and salinity. Fish Physi-
ology and Biochemistry 43:1421–1431
Magouz FI, Amer AA, Faisal A, Sewilam H, Aboelenin SM, Dawood
MAO (2022) The effects of dietary oregano essential oil on the
growth performance, intestinal health, immune, and antioxida-
tive responses of Nile tilapia under acute heat stress. Aquaculture
548:737632
Mitra, A., 2013. Brackish-water aquaculture: a new horizon in cli-
mate change matrix. In: Sensitivity of Mangrove Ecosystem to
Changing Climate. Springer, New Delhi. https:// doi. org/ 10. 1007/
978- 81- 322- 1509-7_8.
Mohamed NA, Saad MF, Shukry M, El-Keredy AMS, Nasif O, Van
Doan H, Dawood MAO (2021) Physiological and ion changes of
Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) under the effect of salinity
stress. Aquaculture Reports 19:100567
Nepal V, Fabrizio MC (2020) Sublethal effects of salinity and tempera-
ture on non-native blue catfish: implications for establishment in
Atlantic slope drainages. PLoS One 15:e0244392
Ogunji JO, Awoke J (2017) Effect of environmental regulated water tem-
perature variations on survival, growth performance and haematol-
ogy of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Our Nature 15:26–33
Patel SS, Molnar MZ, Tayek JA, Ix JH, Noori N, Benner D, Heymsfield
S, Kopple JD, Kovesdy CP, Kalantar-Zadeh K, muscle (2013)
Serum creatinine as a marker of muscle mass in chronic kidney
disease: results of a cross-sectional study and review of literature.
Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia 4:19–29
Perussolo MC, Guiloski IC, Lirola JR, Fockink DH, Corso CR, Bozza
DC, Prodocimo V, Mela M, Ramos LP, Cestari MM, Acco A,
Silva de Assis HC (2019) Integrated biomarker response index to
assess toxic effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of
paracetamol in a neotropical catfish (Rhamdia quelen). Ecotoxi-
cology and Environmental Safety 182:109438
Pountney SM, Lein I, Migaud H, Davie A (2020) High temperature is
detrimental to captive lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus L.) reproduc-
tive performance. Aquaculture 522:735121
Prokešová M, Drozd B, Kouřil J, Stejskal V, Matoušek J (2015) Effect
of water temperature on early life history of African sharp-tooth
catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). Journal of Applied
Ichthyology 31:18–29
Reid GK, Gurney-Smith HJ, Flaherty M, Garber AF, Forster I, Brewer-
Dalton K, Knowler D, Marcogliese DJ, Chopin T, Moccia RD,
Smith CT, De Silva S (2019a) Climate change and aquaculture:
considering adaptation potential. Aquaculture Environment Inter-
actions 11:603–624
Reid GK, Gurney-Smith HJ, Marcogliese DJ, Knowler D, Benfey T,
Garber AF, Forster I, Chopin T, Brewer-Dalton K, Moccia RD,
Flaherty M, Smith CT, De Silva S (2019b) Climate change and
aquaculture: considering biological response and resources. Aqua-
culture Environment Interactions 11:569–602
Rivera-Ingraham GA, Lignot J-H (2017) Osmoregulation, bioenergetics and
oxidative stress in coastal marine invertebrates: raising the questions
for future research. Journal of Experimental Biology 220:1749–1760
Shahjahan M, Uddin MH, Bain V, Haque MM (2018) Increased water
temperature altered hemato-biochemical parameters and struc-
ture of peripheral erythrocytes in striped catfish Pangasianodon
hypophthalmus. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 44:1309–1318
Shukry, M., Abd El-Kader, M.F., Hendam, B.M., Dawood, M.A.O.,
Farrag, F.A., Aboelenin, S.M., Soliman, M.M., Abdel-Latif,
H.M.R., 2021. Dietary Aspergillus oryzae modulates serum bio-
chemical indices, immune responses, oxidative stress, and tran-
scription of HSP70 and cytokine genes in Nile tilapia exposed to
salinity stress. Animals 11.
Šimková A, Vojtek L, Halačka K, Hyršl P, Vetešník L (2015) The effect
of hybridization on fish physiology, immunity and blood biochem-
istry: a case study in hybridizing Cyprinus carpio and Carassius
gibelio (Cyprinidae). Aquaculture 435:381–389
Stewart-Sinclair PJ, Last KS, Payne BL, Wilding TA (2020) A global
assessment of the vulnerability of shellfish aquaculture to climate
change and ocean acidification. Ecology and Evolution 10:3518–3534
Thomas D, Kailasam M, Rekha MU, Jani Angel R, Sukumaran K, Sivar-
amakrishnan T, Raja Babu D, Subburaj R, Thiagarajan G, Vijayan
KK (2020) Captive maturation, breeding and seed production of
the brackishwater ornamental fish silver moony, Monodactylus
argenteus (Linnaeus, 1758). Aquaculture Research 51:4713–4723
Trinder P (1969) Determination of blood glucose using an oxidase-
peroxidase system with a non-carcinogenic chromogen. Journal
of clinical pathology 22:158–161
Trong N, Phuc H, Mather PB, Hurwood DA (2017) Effects of sublethal
salinity and temperature levels and their interaction on growth per-
formance and hematological and hormonal levels in tra catfish (Pan-
gasianodon hypophthalmus). Aquaculture International 25:1057
Uchiyama M, Mihara M (1978) Determination of malonaldehyde pre-
cursor in tissues by thiobarbituric acid test. Analytical Biochem-
istry 86:271–278
Waheed R, El Asely AM, Bakery H, El-Shawarby R, Abuo-Salem M,
Abdel-Aleem N, Malhat F, Khafaga A, Abdeen A (2020) Thermal
stress accelerates mercury chloride toxicity in Oreochromis niloti-
cus via up-regulation of mercury bioaccumulation and HSP70
mRNA expression. Science of The Total Environment 718:137326
Wang J, Zhu X, Huang X, Gu L, Chen Y, Yang Z (2016) Combined
effects of cadmium and salinity on juvenile Takifugu obscurus:
cadmium moderates salinity tolerance; salinity decreases the tox-
icity of cadmium. Scientific Reports 6:30968
Webb NA, Wood CM (2000) Bioaccumulation and distribution of silver
in four marine teleosts and two marine elasmobranchs: influence
of exposure duration, concentration, and salinity. Aquatic Toxicol-
ogy 49:111–129
Wilkie MP (2002) Ammonia excretion and urea handling by fish gills:
present understanding and future research challenges. Journal of
Experimental Zoology 293:284–301
Zhou C, Zhang Z-Q, Zhang L, Liu Y, Liu P-F (2021) Effects of tem-
perature on growth performance and metabolism of juvenile sea
bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Aquaculture 537:736458
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to
jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
56369
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Terms and Conditions
Springer Nature journal content, brought to you courtesy of Springer Nature Customer Service Center GmbH (“Springer Nature”).
Springer Nature supports a reasonable amount of sharing of research papers by authors, subscribers and authorised users (“Users”), for small-
scale personal, non-commercial use provided that all copyright, trade and service marks and other proprietary notices are maintained. By
accessing, sharing, receiving or otherwise using the Springer Nature journal content you agree to these terms of use (“Terms”). For these
purposes, Springer Nature considers academic use (by researchers and students) to be non-commercial.
These Terms are supplementary and will apply in addition to any applicable website terms and conditions, a relevant site licence or a personal
subscription. These Terms will prevail over any conflict or ambiguity with regards to the relevant terms, a site licence or a personal subscription
(to the extent of the conflict or ambiguity only). For Creative Commons-licensed articles, the terms of the Creative Commons license used will
apply.
We collect and use personal data to provide access to the Springer Nature journal content. We may also use these personal data internally within
ResearchGate and Springer Nature and as agreed share it, in an anonymised way, for purposes of tracking, analysis and reporting. We will not
otherwise disclose your personal data outside the ResearchGate or the Springer Nature group of companies unless we have your permission as
detailed in the Privacy Policy.
While Users may use the Springer Nature journal content for small scale, personal non-commercial use, it is important to note that Users may
not:
use such content for the purpose of providing other users with access on a regular or large scale basis or as a means to circumvent access
control;
use such content where to do so would be considered a criminal or statutory offence in any jurisdiction, or gives rise to civil liability, or is
otherwise unlawful;
falsely or misleadingly imply or suggest endorsement, approval , sponsorship, or association unless explicitly agreed to by Springer Nature in
writing;
use bots or other automated methods to access the content or redirect messages
override any security feature or exclusionary protocol; or
share the content in order to create substitute for Springer Nature products or services or a systematic database of Springer Nature journal
content.
In line with the restriction against commercial use, Springer Nature does not permit the creation of a product or service that creates revenue,
royalties, rent or income from our content or its inclusion as part of a paid for service or for other commercial gain. Springer Nature journal
content cannot be used for inter-library loans and librarians may not upload Springer Nature journal content on a large scale into their, or any
other, institutional repository.
These terms of use are reviewed regularly and may be amended at any time. Springer Nature is not obligated to publish any information or
content on this website and may remove it or features or functionality at our sole discretion, at any time with or without notice. Springer Nature
may revoke this licence to you at any time and remove access to any copies of the Springer Nature journal content which have been saved.
To the fullest extent permitted by law, Springer Nature makes no warranties, representations or guarantees to Users, either express or implied
with respect to the Springer nature journal content and all parties disclaim and waive any implied warranties or warranties imposed by law,
including merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose.
Please note that these rights do not automatically extend to content, data or other material published by Springer Nature that may be licensed
from third parties.
If you would like to use or distribute our Springer Nature journal content to a wider audience or on a regular basis or in any other manner not
expressly permitted by these Terms, please contact Springer Nature at
onlineservice@springernature.com
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Ammonia exposure can be considered more stressful for aquatic animals when it coincides with high temperature. This study was conducted to detect the effects of ammonia exposure and heat stress and their interactions on the histological features of gills and liver tissues and the expression responses of immune and antioxidative related genes in Nile tilapia. Thus, 180 fish were divided into four groups (triplicates), where the first and third groups were kept in clean water without total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) exposure. At the same time, the second and fourth groups were exposed to 5 mg TAN/L. After seven days, the water temperature was raised in the third (without ammonia toxicity) and fourth (exposed with 5 mg TAN/L) groups up to 32 °C and kept under these conditions for 24 h. While the first (without ammonia toxicity) and second (exposed with 5 mg TAN/L) groups were kept under optimum water temperature (27.28 °C) then gills and liver tissues were dissected. Marked upregulation of keap1 was seen in the gills of fish exposed to ammonia/heat stress. The expression of mRNA levels for nrf2, nqo-1, cat, and gpx genes were downregulated in all stressed groups, with the lowest was recorded in the ammonia/heat stress group. The transcription of ho-1 was upregulated in the ammonia and heat stress groups while downregulated in the ammonia/heat stress group. The transcription of the complement C3 gene was downregulated in the livers of heat stress and ammonia/heat stress groups, while the lysozyme gene was downregulated in the ammonia/heat stress group. The mRNA expression levels of nf-κB, il-1β, and tnf-α genes were higher in the ammonia group than in the heat stress group. The highest transcription level of nf-κB, il-1β, tnf-α, il-8, and hsp70 genes and the lowest C3 and lysozyme genes were observed in fish exposed to ammonia/heat stress. The co-exposure to ammonia with heat stress triggered degeneration of primary and secondary gill filaments with telangiectasia and vascular congestion of secondary epithelium while, the liver showed hepatic vascular congestion and visible necrotic changes with nuclear pyknosis. In conclusion, the combined exposure of ammonia and heat stress induced oxidative stress, immunosuppression, and inflammation in Nile tilapia.
Article
Full-text available
Nile tilapia Juveniles (19.50 ± 0.5 g) were fed on a basal diet (control group (CTR)) and a diet supplemented with 1 g Aspergillus oryzae (ASP) per kg diet for 12 weeks. Fish were then subjected to different salinity levels (0, 10, 15, and 20 practical salinity units (psu)) for another 15 days. Two-way ANOVA analysis revealed that the individual effects of ASP in Nile tilapia exposed to salinity levels presented a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in values of haemato-biochemical indices (such as glucose, cortisol, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and malondialdehyde) compared to those in the CTR group exposed to the same salinity levels. Moreover, significant increases (p < 0.05) of blood protein profile (albumin, globulin, and total protein), non-specific immune responses (lysozyme activity, phagocytic activity, and phagocytic index), and antioxidant enzymes activities (glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase) were observed in ASP-supplemented groups. Interestingly, there was significant (p < 0.05) downregulation of the mRNA expression values of heat shock protein 70 and interferon-gamma genes, alongside upregulation of the mRNA expression values of interleukin 1 beta and interleukin 8 genes, in the hepatic tissues of Nile tilapia in ASP-supplemented groups exposed to different salinities compared to those in the CTR group exposed to the same salinity levels. Taken together, these findings supported the potential efficacy of dietary supplementation with ASP in alleviating salinity stress-induced haemato-biochemical alterations, immune suppression, and oxidative stress in the exposed Nile tilapia.
Article
Full-text available
In the present study, fish were exposed to sub-lethal doses of CuONPs (68.92 ± 3.49 nm) (10 mg/L, 20 mg/L, and 50 mg/L) for a long exposure period (25 days). Compared to the control group (0.0 mg/L CuONPs), a significant dose-dependent elevation in blood urea and creatinine values, serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase enzyme activities were evident in CuONPs-exposed groups (p < 0.05). Fish exposure to 50 mg/L CuONPs significantly upregulated the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, interleukin 12, and interleukin 8), heat shock protein 70, apoptosis-related gene (caspase 3), and oxidative stress-related (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) genes in liver and gills of the exposed fish in comparison with those in the control group (p < 0.05). Moreover, varying histopathological injuries were noticed in the hepatopancreatic tissues, posterior kidneys, and gills of fish groups correlated to the tested exposure dose of CuONPs. In summary, our results provide new insights and helpful information for better understanding the mechanisms of CuONPs toxicity in Nile tilapia at hematological, molecular levels, and tissue levels.
Preprint
Full-text available
In the present study, fish were exposed to sub-lethal doses of CuONPs (68.92 ± 3.49 nm) (10, 20, and 50 mg/L) for a long exposure period (25 days). Compared to the control group (0.0 mg/L CuONPs), a significant dose-dependent elevation in blood urea and creatinine values, serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase enzyme activities were evident in CuONPs-exposed groups (P < 0.05). Fish exposure to 50 mg/L CuONPs significantly upregulated the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, interleukin 12, and interleukin 8), heat shock protein 70, apoptosis-related gene (caspase 3), and oxidative stress-related (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) genes in liver and gills of the exposed fish in comparison with those in the control group (P < 0.05). Moreover, varying histopathological injuries were noticed in the hepatopancreatic tissues, posterior kidneys, and gills of fish groups correlated to the examined exposure dose of CuONPs. In summary, our results provide new insights and helpful information for better understanding the mechanisms of CuONPs toxicity in Nile tilapia at hematological, molecular levels, and tissue levels.
Article
Climatic changes are impacting the aquaculture industry and result in low productivity and high economic loss. Herein, we evaluated the long-term acute heat stress on the productivity and performances of Nile tilapia and the ameliorative role of oregano essential oil. Fish were raised in outdoor concrete tanks during the summer season under high water temperature (32 °C) and fed four test diets supplemented with oregano essential oil at 0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 g/kg for eight weeks. The final weight, weight gain, and specific growth rate were markedly enhanced (P < 0.05) by 0.5 and 1 g oregano essential oil/kg diet. Nevertheless, the feed conversion ratio was reduced by oregano essential oil (P < 0.05). The foregut, midgut, and hindgut of the intestines of fish-fed oregano essential oil showed apparent branching of villi and increased villi length and width, with the highest being in fish treated with a 1 g/kg diet (P < 0.05). The activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were markedly reduced (P < 0.05) in Nile tilapia fed 0.5 and 1 g oregano essential oil/kg. At the same time, the total protein, albumin, and globulin levels were higher (P < 0.05) in fish-fed oregano essential oil than in the control. The superoxide dismutase, catalase, phagocytic index, and lysozyme activity were meaningfully increased (P < 0.05) in Nile tilapia fed oregano essential oil and raised under acute heat stress. The concentration of malondialdehyde and relative expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) were markedly decreased (P < 0.05) in fish treated with oregano essential oil, with the lowest level in fish fed 1 g/kg. In conclusion, dietary oregano essential oil relieved the impacts of heat stress on Nile tilapia by increasing the growth performance, regulating the blood biochemical traits, improving the immune and antioxidative responses.
Article
In aquaculture, fish are stressed with several factors involved in impacting the growth rate and health status. Although Nile tilapia can resist brackish water conditions, hypoxia status may impair the health condition of fish. Nile tilapia were exposed to salinity water at 0, 10, and 20‰ for four weeks then the growth behavior was checked. The results showed meaningfully lowered growth rate, feed utilization, and survival rate when fish kept in 20‰ for four weeks. Then fish were subdivided into six groups (factorial design, 2 × 3) in normoxia (DO, 6 mg/L) and hypoxia (DO, 1 mg/L) conditions for 24 h. High salinity (10 and 20‰) combined with hypoxia stress-induced inflammatory features in the intestines, gills, and livers of fish. The activities of SOD, CAT, and GPX were increased in the intestines, gills, and livers of fish grown in 10 and 20‰ and exposed with hypoxia stress. Fish grown in 20‰ and stressed with hypoxia had the highest ALT, AST, and ALP levels (p
Article
Increasing the stocking density of aquatic organisms becomes an urgent procedure in the current aquaculture practices. Concurrently, this study investigated the possibility of growing Nile tilapia under high stocking density while fortifying their feed with menthol essential oil (EO). Fish with the initial average weight of 17.19 ± 0.051 g/fish were allotted in eighteen tanks (80-L), representing six groups. The first and fourth groups stocked with 10 fish/tank (low density, LD), the second and fifth groups stocked with 20 fish/tank (medium density, MD), and the third and sixth groups stocked with 30 fish/tank (high density, HD). The first three groups received the basal diet without menthol EO, while the remaining groups received a menthol EO mixed diet. The values of water total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), ammonia‑nitrogen (NH3−N), and ammonium‑nitrogen (NH4⁺-N) increased in the HD group, followed by MD, and the lowest levels were seen in the LD group either with or without dietary menthol EO. There is a marked effect of stocking density and menthol EO on the final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate traits, and feed efficiency ratio (p < 0.05). Further, the stocking density and menthol EO were significant factors (p < 0.05) on the serum triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total protein, albumin, globulin, uric acid, urea, and creatinine levels. The cortisol levels were markedly (p < 0.05) increased in fish fed the basal diet and reared in HD but decreased in fish fed menthol EO and grown in LD and MD conditions. Nevertheless, the glucose level is sharply increased with increasing the stocking density in a linear trend (p < 0.05). The antioxidative-related factors (SOD, CAT, and GPx) were markedly impacted by menthol EO and stocking density and showed the highest activities by menthol EO. The histological study showed inflammatory features in the gills and liver of fish under HD conditions, while dietary menthol EO relieved the inflammation induced by high malonaldehyde concentration. Altogether, dietary menthol EO resulted in enhanced growth rate, health status, and antioxidative capacity in LD, MD, and HD conditions, referring to high immune status and well-being of Nile tilapia.
Article
Temperature and salinity are abiotic factors that affect physiological responses in aquaculture species. The European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is a temperate species that is generally farmed at 18 °C in seawater (SW). In the wild, its incursions in shallow habitats such as lagoons may result in hyperthermal damage despite its high thermal tolerance. Meanwhile, the milkfish (Chanos chanos), a tropical species, is generally reared at 28 °C, and in winter, high mortality usually occurs under hypothermal stress such as cold snaps. This study compared changes in hepatic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; and catalase, CAT) in these two important marine euryhaline aquaculture species in Europe and Southeast Asia, respectively, under temperature challenge combined with hypo-osmotic (fresh water, FW) stress. After a four-week hyper- or hypo-thermal treatment, hepatic SOD activity was upregulated in both species reared in SW and FW, indicating enhanced oxidative stress in European sea bass and milkfish. The expression profiles of sod isoforms suggested that in milkfish, the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) was mainly at the cytosol level, leading to increased sod1 expression. In European sea bass, however, no obvious difference was found between the expression of sod isoforms at different temperatures. A lower expression of sod2 was observed in FW compared to SW in the latter species. Moreover, no significant change was observed in the mRNA expression and activity of CAT in the livers of these two species under the different temperature treatments, with the exception of the lower CAT activity in milkfish challenged with SW at 18 °C. Taken together, our results indicated that the antioxidant responses were not changed under long-term hypoosmotic challenge but were enhanced during the four-week temperature treatments in livers of both the temperate and tropical euryhaline species.
Article
Considering environmental sustainability and vulnerability to the effects of climate change on fish production, one of the potential adaptation strategies is “Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS)”. RAS are eco-friendly, water efficient, highly productive intensive farming system, which are not associated with adverse environmental impacts, such as habitat destruction, water pollution and eutrophication, biotic depletion, ecological effects on biodiversity due to captive fish and exotic species escape, disease outbreaks, and parasite transmission. Moreover, RAS operate in indoor controlled environment, and thus, only minimally affected by climatic factors, including rainfall variation, flood, drought, global warming, cyclone, salinity fluctuation, ocean acidification, and sea level rise. However, energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are the two most stringent limiting factors for RAS. Despite these potentials and promises, RAS have not yet been widely practiced, particularly in developing countries, due to complex and costly system designs. Further research with technological innovations are needed to establish low-cost, energy efficient RAS for intensifying seafood production, reducing GHG emissions, and adaptation to climate change.
Article
The European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) has become an increasingly important aquaculture species due to the rapid expansion of farming in China and its commercial popularity in Asia. A 60 day growth trial was conducted to investigate the impact of temperature on growth and ingestion performance and metabolism of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Juvenile European sea bass were stocked in triplicate at 3 temperature conditions (10, 15, and 20 °C). The specific growth rate and feeding rate of European sea bass in both 10 and 15 °C were all significantly lower than fish in 20 °C (P < 0.05). The feed conversion rate of European sea bass was 20 °C > 15 °C (P > 0.05), and 20 °C > 10 °C (P < 0.05). We measured the levels of muscle metabolites of European sea bass, using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry-(LC-MS/MS) and compared the data among groups using principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). We also conducted Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathway analysis. OPLS-DA clearly discriminated the muscle metabolites of European sea bass under the three temperature conditions. The important differential metabolites mainly included β-Nicotinamide mononucleotide, nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide, nicotinic acid, UDP-glucose, glycerophosphatidylcholine, (±)-17-hydroxy-4Z, 7Z, 10Z, 13Z, 15E, 19Z-docosahexaenoic acid, (±)-15-hydroxy-5Z, 8Z, 11Z, 13E, 17Z-eicosapentaenoic acid, γ-linolenic acid, l-serine, inositol, L-citrulline, and succinic acid. The KEGG metabolic pathway analysis showed that lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the urea cycle, and nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism may closely related to temperature conditions. The findings of this research suggest that the growth and food intake of European sea bass can be promoted and production can be improved at a culture temperature of 20 °C. Our results provide a theoretical basis and technical guidance for formulating temperature control strategies for industrial recirculating aquaculture of European sea bass.