Preprint

Promoting Occupational Health and Teaching Quality: The Impact of a Mindfulness Intervention in Teacher Training

Authors:
To read the file of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

A mindfulness intervention was conducted during the critical and formative phase of teacher training in Germany. This study aims to investigate whether early career teachers benefit from this by better coping with occupational stress and improving their practical teaching skills. In a quasi-experimental design, 42 participants' stress, mindfulness, and occupational coping were assessed via self-reports at three time points. Additionally, teaching quality was evaluated by their students. Linear mixed-effects model analyses revealed that mindfulness-trained teachers were less stressed, more satisfied with work and, in the long run, developed better classroom management than the control group.

No file available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the file of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Book
Full-text available
This open access book provides a comprehensive and informative overview of the current state of research about student perceptions of and student feedback on teaching. After presentation of a new student feedback process model, evidence concerning the validity and reliability of student perceptions of teaching quality is discussed. This is followed by an overview of empirical research on the effects of student feedback on teachers and instruction in different contexts, as well as on factors promoting the successful implementation of feedback in schools. In summary, the findings emphasize that student perceptions of teaching quality can be a valid and reliable source of feedback for teachers. The effectiveness of student feedback on teaching is significantly related to its use in formative settings and to a positive feedback culture within schools. In addition, it is argued that the effectiveness of student feedback depends very much on the support for teachers when making use of the feedback. As this literature review impressively documents, teachers in their work - and ultimately students in their learning - can benefit substantially from student feedback on teaching in schools.
Article
Full-text available
Background Mindfulness-based programs are a novel and promising approach for supporting teachers’ occupational health and well-being. Although rationales for mindfulness programs for teachers have been offered, the empirical research base evaluating approaches for educating teachers in mindfulness is still developing. This study reports the findings of a pilot study of a mindfulness-based program. This study is unique in that it is one of the only studies of the Mindfulness-Based Emotional Balance (MBEB) program to focus on early elementary teachers, to be implemented by a new instructor, and to recruit teachers via extrinsic motivators. Methods A pre-post, uncontrolled pilot study of a 27.5-h mindfulness-based program for teachers was conducted with 21 pre-kindergarten–third-grade teachers from the Pacific Northwest of the USA. Program acceptability was assessed based on attendance and teacher reports of program benefits. Effect sizes for within-person changes (from pre- to post-program) in teachers’ skills and mindsets, well-being, occupational health, and teaching practices were calculated. Teachers also suggested improvements to the program. Results With regard to program attendance and acceptability, teachers attended 87% of sessions, with 58% of teachers reporting a personal benefit and 58% of teachers reporting a professional benefit of the program. Effect sizes for changes in teachers’ skills and mindsets ranged from small to large, |d| = 0.30 to 0.83, and ranged from small to medium for changes in teachers’ well-being |d| = 0.07 to 0.48, occupational health |d| = 0.14 to 0.39, and teaching practices |d| = 0.15 to 0.48. Teachers suggested shortening the program and linking it more closely to their work in the classroom. Conclusions This study suggests that the MBEB program may be beneficial to early elementary teachers, even when implemented by someone other than the program developer, and when provided with extrinsic motivation to participate (more closely mapping to a larger-scale trial of the program). Teachers’ suggestions regarding program length and structure are considered, along with useful avenues for future research on mindfulness-based programs for teachers.
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Elucidating the active ingredients of psychological treatments is an important step in the scientific validation of these interventions. Component studies are one way to test which aspects of psychological treatments impact outcomes or, in other words, are the active ingredients of treatment. As research and popular interest in mindfulness-based programs grows, it is important to evaluate the active ingredients of these programs and to continually refine theorized models of the mechanisms of mindfulness. Studying active ingredients may help clarify which elements of mindfulness-based programs are most important for dissemination.Methods We conducted a systematic review of component studies of mindfulness-based programs for adults with psychological conditions. PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews were followed.ResultsEight component studies were identified. These studies dismantled mindfulness-based stress reduction, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, unified mindfulness, and core mindfulness processes. The eight studies differed with respect to types of programs and populations studied, yet similarities emerged. Notably, acceptance coupled with awareness and mindfulness meditation training may be two promising active ingredients of these different programs.Conclusions Future studies examining mindfulness-based programs should continue to attempt to dismantle active ingredients of treatment and use the findings to update theoretical models of mindfulness.
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined the effects of mindfulness training on attention regulation in university students and whether the potential benefits of implementation are influenced by the yoga component of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) and/or by MBI homework practice. In a non-randomized trial with pre-and post-assessments, n = 180 university students were allocated to either mindfulness training (experimental groups), awareness activities (active control group), or no training (passive control group). Mindfulness was taught through two MBIs, one including yoga and the other excluding yoga. Attention regulation was operationalized via behavioral indicators, namely sustained attention, cognitive flexibility, cognitive inhibition, and data-driven information processing. With the exception of speed in a cognitive flexibility task, the results indicated no systematic or differential advantage arising from mindfulness training, with or without yoga, regarding the aspects of attention regulation. There was no consistent influence of homework quantity or quality. The implications for mindfulness training in academic contexts are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Considerable evidence points to stress and health risks among students and teachers in modern schools. In recent years, mindfulness-based interventions have emerged as an answer to this growing strain. The present study implemented and evaluated a dual approach that introduced mindfulness simultaneously to students and teachers in three different German high schools. We investigated hypothesized improvements in areas of mental health, social-emotional competencies, and creativity among participants who engaged in a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Course (MBSR) as well as the processes and mechanisms that underlie the potential effects. Methods The study employed a controlled waitlist design across three schools. A total of 81 students (grade 11, mean age 16; 63 female, 18 male) and 90 teachers (mean age 45; 66 female, 24 male) participated in this study. In a mixed-methods approach, participants completed psychometric assessment (pre, post, and follow-up measurements) and qualitative semi-structured interviews. Results Among students, group comparisons revealed significant improvements with small to medium effect sizes on self-reported mindfulness, perceived stress, anxiety, depression, self-regulation, and emotional competencies. By contrast, teachers showed a significant improvement in medium effect size only on self-reported mindfulness. Explorative analyses and qualitative results expand teachers’ findings and point to benefits in stress management and social emotional competencies. Qualitative results further shed light on course mechanisms and processes among teachers and students. Conclusions Results indicate a clearer benefit among students, yet also point to the supportive role mindfulness can assume among teachers. Systemic and implementation factors significantly shaped course results and experience in both populations.
Article
Full-text available
Teachers are reporting increased incidence of stress, depression, burnout, and anxiety resulting in overall poor mental health and well‐being outcomes. Recently, mindfulness‐based interventions have emerged as having the potential to improve these deleterious impacts. This meta‐analysis investigated the effects of mindfulness‐based interventions on educators in schools. To be included in the review, studies must have been printed in English, used a methodology that included a control group with in‐service teachers as the primary participants. In addition, the intervention needed to have mindfulness as a major component. The search procedures led to the identification of 18 manuscripts that included a total sample of 1,001 educators. Mindfulness interventions ranged greatly in dosage, frequency, and delivery model. Using a random effects model, mindfulness‐based interventions were found to have significant positive effects across all domains. Mindfulness‐based interventions resulted in large effects on feelings of mindfulness, moderate effects for decreases in stress and anxiety, and small effects on feelings of depression and burnout. Discussion includes the quality of the literature base as well as implications for future research.
Article
Full-text available
Asked about major job stressors, teachers consistently name classroom disturbances or disciplinary problems. Furthermore, student misbehavior has been linked to reduced occupational well-being. However, there is a pressing need to uncover the psychological processes explaining this association. In their model of teacher well-being, Spilt, Koomen, and Thijs (2011) suggested the teacher-student relationship as a mediator. To test this assumption, the present study used longitudinal data from N = 222 teachers who rated student misbehavior in their classroom, the teacher-student relationship, and their well-being in terms of emotional exhaustion and work enthusiasm. In addition, the teachers' students (N = 4111) were asked about behavior problems in their class. The results revealed links between teacher-rated student misbehavior, increased exhaustion, and decreased enthusiasm. Student-rated misbehavior was correlated with teacher well-being to a lesser extent. Furthermore, the teacher-student relationship was positively associated with teacher well-being and mediated the link between teacher-perceived misbehavior and enthusiasm.
Article
Full-text available
Stress and stress‐related mental health problems are major causes of illness and disability. Mindfulness‐based stress reduction (‘MBSR’) is a group‐based health promotion intervention to improve health and the way people deal with stress and life?s challenges. The core ingredient is mindfulness training through physical and mental exercises practiced daily for eight weeks. The mindful non‐judgmental attitude of being present with what arises is practiced in the formal exercises and in everyday situations. This review assesses the effect of MBSR programs on outcome measures of mental and physical health, quality of life and social functioning in adults. MBSR has a moderately large effect on outcome measures of mental health, somatic health, and quality of life including social function at post‐intervention when compared to an inactive control. If 100 people go through the MBSR program, 21 more people will have a favourable mental health outcome compared to if they had been put on a wait‐list or gotten only the usual treatment. These results may be inflated by underreporting of negative trials and moderate heterogeneity (indicating differences between the trials). MBSR has a small but significant effect on improving mental health at post‐intervention compared to other active treatments. MBSR has the same effect as other active interventions on somatic health, and quality of life (including social function). There was no underreporting of negative trials, and heterogeneity (differences between trials) were small for mental health, moderate for quality of life and large for somatic health. The effects were similar across all target groups and were generally maintained at follow‐up (1?34 months). The effects were largely independent of gender and study sample. The effects seemed also largely independent of duration and compliance with the MBSR intervention. No studies report results regarding side‐effects or costs. Effects were strongly correlated to the effects on measures of mindfulness, indicating that the effects may be related to the increase in self‐reported mindfulness. Two thirds of the included studies showed a considerable risk of bias, which was higher among studies with inactive than active control groups. Studies of higher quality reported lower effects than studies with low quality. The overall quality of the evidence was moderate, indicating moderate confidence in the reported effect sizes. Further research may change the estimate of effect. Plain language summary Mindfulness training improves health and quality of life for adults Mindfulness‐based stress reduction (MBSR) is used to improve health, quality of life and social functioning. MBSR has a positive effect on mental health outcomes measured right after the intervention and at follow up. It also improves personal development, quality of life, and self‐reported mindfulness. What is this review about? Stress and stress‐related mental health problems are major causes of illness and disability. MBSR is a group‐based health promotion intervention to improve health and the way people deal with stress and life's challenges. The core ingredient is mindfulness training through physical and mental exercises practiced daily for eight weeks. The mindful non‐judgmental attitude of being present with what arises is practiced in the formal exercises and in everyday situations. This review assesses the effect of MBSR programs on outcome measures of mental and physical health, quality of life and social functioning in adults. What is the aim of this review? This review summarizes all studies that compare the effect of a MBSR program to a control group intervention, in which the participants had been randomly allocated to be in either the MBSR group or a control group. The review summarizes the results in two categories. First, where the effect of the MBSR program was compared to an inactive group (either a wait list group or one receiving ordinary care also received by the MBSR group). Second, where MBSR was compared with an alternative active group intervention. What studies are included? The review summarizes 101 randomized controlled trials with a total of 8,135 participants from USA, Europe, Asia and Australia. Twenty‐two trials included persons with mild or moderate psychological problems, 47 targeted people with various somatic conditions and 32 of the studies recruited people from the general population. Seventy‐two studies compared MBSR to an inactive control group, while 37 compared MBSR to an active control intervention. Seven studies compared MBSR to both. Ninety‐six studies contributed data to the meta‐analyses, with data from 7,647 participants. Is mindfulness effective? MBSR has a moderately large effect on outcome measures of mental health, somatic health, and quality of life including social function at post‐intervention when compared to an inactive control. If 100 people go through the MBSR program, 21 more people will have a favourable mental health outcome compared to if they had been put on a wait‐list or gotten only the usual treatment. These results may be inflated by underreporting of negative trials and moderate heterogeneity (indicating differences between the trials). MBSR has a small but significant effect on improving mental health at post‐intervention compared to other active treatments. MBSR has the same effect as other active interventions on somatic health, and quality of life (including social function). There was no underreporting of negative trials, and heterogeneity (differences between trials) were small for mental health, moderate for quality of life and large for somatic health. The effects were similar across all target groups and were generally maintained at follow‐up (1–34 months). The effects were largely independent of gender and study sample. The effects seemed also largely independent of duration and compliance with the MBSR intervention. No studies report results regarding side‐effects or costs. Effects were strongly correlated to the effects on measures of mindfulness, indicating that the effects may be related to the increase in self‐reported mindfulness. Two thirds of the included studies showed a considerable risk of bias, which was higher among studies with inactive than active control groups. Studies of higher quality reported lower effects than studies with low quality. The overall quality of the evidence was moderate, indicating moderate confidence in the reported effect sizes. Further research may change the estimate of effect. What do the findings of this review mean? Based on this review it is reasonable to consider MBSR a moderately well‐documented method for helping adults improve their health and cope better with the challenges and stress that life brings. New research should improve the way the trials are conducted addressing the pitfalls in research on mind‐body interventions. How up‐to‐date is this review? The review authors searched for studies up to November 2015. This Campbell Systematic Review was published in October 2017. Executive summary/Abstract Background There is an increasing focus on mind‐body interventions for relieving stress, and improving health and quality of life, accompanied by a growing body of research trying to evaluate such interventions. One of the most well‐known Programs is Mindfulness‐Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), which was developed by Kabat‐Zinn in 1979. Mindfulness is paying attention to the present moment in a non‐judgmental way. The Program is based on old contemplative traditions and involves regular meditation practice. A number of reviews and meta‐analyses have been carried out to evaluate the effects of meditation and mindfulness training, but few have adhered to the meta‐analytic protocol set out by the Cochrane Collaboration and Campbell Collaboration, or focused on MBSR only. The first edition of this review was published in 2012 with a literature search done in 2010, comprising 31 studies. As the field is rapidly developing, an update is called for. Objectives To evaluate the effect of Mindfulness‐Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) on health, quality of life and social functioning in adults. Search methods The following sources were searched, most recently in November 2015: PsycINFO (Ovid), MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine) (Ovid), CINAHL (Ebsco), Ovid Nursing Full Text Plus (Ovid), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), British Nursing Index, (ProQuest), Eric (ProQuest), ProQuest Medical Library, ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health Source, ProQuest Psychology Journals, Web of Science, SveMed+, Social Services Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts and International Bibliography of Social Sciences. Selection criteria The review included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) where the intervention followed the MBSR protocol developed by Kabat‐Zinn, allowing for variations in the length of the MBSR courses. All target groups were accepted, as were all types of control groups, and no language restrictions were imposed. Data collection and analysis Two reviewers read titles, retrieved studies, and extracted data from all included studies. Standardized mean differences (as Hedges’ g) from all study outcomes were calculated using the software Comprehensive Meta Analysis. The meta‐analyses were carried out using the Robumeta Package within the statistical program R, with a technique for handling clusters of internally correlated effect estimates. We performed separate meta‐analyses for MBSR compared to either waitlists or treatment as usual (WL/TAU – named inactive), and for MBSR compared to control groups that were offered another active intervention. Results The review identified 101 RCTs including the 31 from the first review, with a total of 8,135 participants. Twenty‐two trials included persons with mild or moderate psychological problems, 47 targeted people with various somatic conditions and 32 of the studies recruited people from the general population. Seventy‐two studies compared MBSR to a WL/TAU control group, while 37 compared MBSR to an active control intervention. Seven studies compared MBSR to both a WL/TAU condition and to an active control group. Ninety‐six studies contributed to the meta‐analyses (based on information from 7,647 participants). Two thirds of the included studies showed a considerable risk of bias, and risk of bias was higher among studies with inactive than active control groups. Post‐intervention Hedges’ g effect sizes for MBSR versus WL/TAU for the outcome measures of mental health, somatic health, and quality of life including social function were, respectively, 0.54 (95% CI 0.44, 0.63), 0.39 (95% CI 0.24, 0.54), and 0.44 (95% CI 0.31, 0.56). Some funnel‐plot asymmetry points to a small degree of underreporting of negative trials. Heterogeneity was moderate for mental health and quality of life, and high for somatic health. Assuming a favourable outcome for 50% of the control group, the main finding of an effect size of 0.54 for improving mental health corresponds to a 65% chance that a random person from the treatment group will have a higher score than a person picked at random from the control group (probability of superiority). Another way of putting it, is that in order to have one more favourable mental health outcome in the treatment group compared to the control group at end of intervention, five people need to be treated (NNT=4.9, 95% CI 4.2, 5.9). Thus, if 100 people go through the treatment, 21 more people will have a favourable outcome compared to if they had been put on a wait‐list or gotten the usual treatment. For 21 studies with follow‐up data, the effect size was generally maintained at follow‐up (1–32 months). For the comparison of MBSR versus alternative psychosocial interventions at post‐intervention there was a small, statistically significant difference in favour of MBSR improving mental health with a Hedges’ g effect of 0.18 (95% CI 0.05, 0.30), and MBSR was not more effective than other active interventions on outcome measures of somatic health, 0.13 (95% CI ‐0.08, 0.34) and quality of life (including social function), 0.17 (95% CI ‐0.02, 0.35). Heterogeneity was low for mental health, moderate for quality of life and high for somatic health, and there was no funnel‐plot asymmetry. Assuming a favourable outcome for 50% of the control group, the main finding of an effect size of 0.18 for improving mental health corresponds to a 57% chance that a random person from the treatment group will have a higher score than a person picked at random from the control group and the NNT=14, 95% CI 8, 50). Since the measure of mental health includes outcomes from a larger proportion of the included studies compared to somatic health or quality of life, it is a more robust measure for the effect of the MBSR intervention. It is therefore treated as the main primary outcome for the meta‐analyses. For all comparisons effect sizes were fairly similar across the range of target groups and the effects were generally maintained at follow‐up (1–34 months). Effect sizes for measures of mental health were not particularly influenced by length of intervention, attendance or self‐reported practice, but they were strongly correlated to the effects on measures of mindfulness, indicating that the effects of the MBSR intervention may be related to the increase in self‐reported mindfulness. Sensitivity analyses with exclusion of studies with exceptional findings did not substantially change the results. A majority of studies suffered from risk of bias, and studies of higher quality reported lower effects than studies with low quality. We found no reports of side‐effects or costs in any of the trials. The overall quality of the evidence was moderate, indicating moderate confidence in the reported effect sizes. However, further research could impact on our confidence in the estimate of effect and may change the estimate. Authors’ conclusions MBSR has moderate effect on mental health across a number of outcome measures, for a range of target groups and in a variety of settings, compared to a WL or TAU control group. NNT was 4.9 (95% CI 4.2, 5.9) post‐intervention; on par with other well‐established interventions in the health service. The effect on somatic health is smaller, but still statistically significant. MBSR also seems to improve measures of quality of life and social function when compared to inactive control groups. MBSR improved mental health compared to other active psychosocial interventions, with a NNT = 14 (95% CI 8, 50), and had a similar effect on improving somatic health, and quality of life and social function. For all comparisons, the effects were maintained at follow‐up and correlated to effects on mindfulness. The quality of the evidence was moderate and should be improved in future studies. There were many studies with considerable bias, and heterogeneity was mostly moderate. In addition, there is indication of underreporting of negative studies when MBSR was compared to inactive controls. These factors might have influenced the results found. MBSR might be an attractive option to improve health, handle stress, and cope with the strains of life. Ways to further strengthen the effect should be sought. All new trials should include measures of mindfulness and explore moderators and mediators of effects. New studies should register study protocols and adhere to guidelines for reporting of randomized controlled trials.
Article
Full-text available
Teacher wellbeing and performance is affected by their ability to cope with the demands of the profession. This pilot non- randomized, waitlist-controlled study investigated the impact of a mindfulness intervention (Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction) on teachers' wellbeing, self-regulation ability and classroom performance applying a mixed-method design. The sample was comprised of 32 German school teachers (93% female) which were distributed to a control and intervention group. Compared to the control condition, the intervention showed medium to high effect sizes on most outcome variables at post-test and results were sustained at follow-up. Mediation analyses showed that changes in mindfulness at post-test mediated changes in outcome variables at follow-up. Unexpectedly, the intervention seemed to negatively affect teacher engagement. Qualitative interviews highlighted the way mindfulness may influence teacher engagement and improve performance. Limitations of this study and future directions of research are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing teacher burnout. Online and reference lists searches yielded 513 unique results, and the final sample contains 23 controlled trials (19 journal articles and 4 unpublished dissertations). More than two-thirds of the studies had optimal quality, and the risk of bias was not related to the overall effectiveness of the interventions. The overall effects were small, but statistically significant (d = .18, SE = .05, Z = 3.26, p < .001, k = 23). Separate analyses on each burnout component showed similar intervention effects on emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment, but almost null effects on depersonalization (d = .03, SE = .06, Z = 0.53, p > .05, k = 11). Additional moderator analyses suggested that mindfulness interventions had significant effects on exhaustion and personal accomplishment. Interventions on primary and middle-school teachers reported effect sizes below the average effect. Similar to previous findings, interventions that lasted less than one month had the smallest levels of efficacy.
Article
Full-text available
Studies on small sample properties of multilevel models have become increasingly prominent in the methodological literature in response to the frequency with which small sample data appear in empirical studies. Simulation results generally recommend that empirical researchers employ restricted maximum likelihood estimation (REML) with a Kenward-Roger correction with small samples in frequentist contexts to minimize small sample bias in estimation and to prevent inflation of Type-I error rates. However, simulation studies focus on recommendations for best practice and there is little to no explanation of why traditional maximum likelihood (ML) breaks down with smaller samples, what differentiates REML from ML, or how the Kenward-Roger correction remedies lingering small sample issues. Due to the complexity of these methods, most extant descriptions are highly mathematical and are intended to prove that the methods improve small sample performance as intended. Thus, empirical researchers have documentation that these methods are advantageous but still lack resources to help understand what the methods actually do and why they are needed. This tutorial explains why ML falters with small samples, how REML circumvents some issues, and how Kenward-Roger works. We do so without equations or derivations to support more widespread understanding and use of these valuable methods.
Article
Full-text available
Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) emphasize the importance of mindfulness practice at home as an integral part of the program. However, the extent to which participants complete their assigned practice is not yet clear, nor is it clear whether this practice is associated with positive outcomes. For this systematic review and meta-analysis, searches were performed using Scopus and PubMed for studies published through to the end of 2015, reporting on formal home practice of mindfulness by MBSR or MBCT participants. Across 43 studies (N = 1427), the pooled estimate for participants' home practice was 64% of the assigned amount, equating to about 30 minutes per day, six days per week [95% CI 60–69%]. There was substantial heterogeneity associated with this estimate. Across 28 studies (N = 898), there was a small but significant association between participants’ self-reported home practice and intervention outcomes (r = 0·26, 95% CI 0·19,–0·34). MBSR and MBCT participants report completing substantial formal mindfulness practice at home over the eight-week intervention, albeit less than assigned amounts. There is a small but significant association between the extent of formal practice and positive intervention outcomes for a wide range of participants.
Article
Full-text available
Understanding teachers’ stress is of critical importance to address the challenges in today’s educational climate. Growing numbers of teachers are reporting high levels of occupational stress, and high levels of teacher turnover are having a negative impact on education quality. Cultivating Awareness and Resilience in Education (CARE for Teachers) is a mindfulness-based professional development program designed to promote teachers’ social and emotional competence and improve the quality of classroom interactions. The efficacy of the program was assessed using a cluster randomized trial design involving 36 urban elementary schools and 224 teachers. The CARE for Teachers program involved 30 hr of in-person training in addition to intersession phone coaching. At both pre- and postintervention, teachers completed self-report measures and assessments of their participating students. Teachers’ classrooms were observed and coded using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS). Analyses showed that CARE for Teachers had statistically significant direct positive effects on adaptive emotion regulation, mindfulness, psychological distress, and time urgency. CARE for Teachers also had a statistically significant positive effect on the emotional support domain of the CLASS. The present findings indicate that CARE for Teachers is an effective professional development both for promoting teachers’ social and emotional competence and increasing the quality of their classroom interactions.
Article
Full-text available
Background The Perceived Stress Scale Cohen (J Health Soc Behav 24:385-96, 1983) is a widely and well-established self-report scale measuring perceived stress. However, the German version of the PSS-10 has not yet been validated. Thus, the purposes of this representative study were to psychometrically evaluate the PSS-10, and to provide norm values for the German population. Methods The PSS-10 and standardized scales of depression, anxiety, fatigue, procrastination and life satisfaction were administered to a representative, randomly selected German community sample consisting of 1315 females and 1148 male participants in the age range from 14 to 90 years. Results The results demonstrated a good internal consistency and construct validity. Perceived stress was consistently associated with depression, anxiety, fatigue, procrastination and reduced life satisfaction. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a bi-dimensional structure with two related latent factors. Regarding demographic variables, women reported a higher level of stress than men. Perceived stress decreased with higher education, income and employment status. Older and married participants felt less stressed than younger and unmarried participants. Conclusion The PSS-10 is a reliable, valid and economic instrument for assessing perceived stress. As psychological stress is associated with an increased risk of diseases, identifying subpopulations with higher levels of stress is essential. Due to the dependency of the perceived stress level on demographic variables, particularly age and sex, differentiated norm values are needed, which are provided in this paper.
Article
Full-text available
Prior research has demonstrated that teachers’ professional knowledge and motivation are strongly related to students’ learning and motivation. Symptoms of teachers’ stress and burnout (e.g., emotional exhaustion) are also thought to influence students’ achievement, but no empirical study has tested this prediction. Using multilevel analyses and a representative sample consisting of 1,102 German elementary school teachers and their students, we addressed this gap in knowledge by examining the association between teachers’ emotional exhaustion and students’ achievement in mathematics, and by testing whether classroom composition moderates this relation. We controlled for teachers’ gender, their years of experience, their teaching certificate, and the composition of the class, and on the student level for students’ gender, language spoken at home, socioeconomic status, and cognitive ability. Results revealed that teachers’ emotional exhaustion was significantly negatively related to students’ mathematics achievement, even after teacher characteristics and classroom composition were controlled for. Classroom composition moderated this relation, whereby teachers’ emotional exhaustion was more strongly related to students’ achievement in classes with a high percentage of language minority students. These results highlight the importance of teachers’ well-being for students’ learning.
Article
Full-text available
Mindfulness meditation represents a mental training framework for cultivating the state of mindful awareness in daily life. Recently, there has been a surge of interest in how mindfulness meditation improves human health and well-being. Although studies have shown that mindfulness meditation can improve self-reported measures of disease symptomatology, the effect that mindfulness meditation has on biological mechanisms underlying human aging and disease is less clear. To address this issue, we conducted the first comprehensive review of randomized controlled trials examining the effects of mindfulness meditation on immune system parameters, with a specific focus on five outcomes: (1) circulating and stimulated inflammatory proteins, (2) cellular transcription factors and gene expression, (3) immune cell count, (4) immune cell aging, and (5) antibody response. This analysis revealed substantial heterogeneity across studies with respect to patient population, study design, and assay procedures. The findings suggest possible effects of mindfulness meditation on specific markers of inflammation, cell-mediated immunity, and biological aging, but these results are tentative and require further replication. On the basis of this analysis, we describe the limitations of existing work and suggest possible avenues for future research. Mindfulness meditation may be salutogenic for immune system dynamics, but additional work is needed to examine these effects.
Article
Full-text available
Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) can reduce teachers’ stress. The purpose of this mixed-method study, conducted within the context of a randomized-control trial of an MBI for teachers, was to examine four potential ways by which the MBI reduced teacher stress, including by (1) increasing their efficacy for regulating emotion on the job; (2) improving their ways of coping with stress at work; (3) increasing their efficacy for forgiving colleagues and students at work following conflict, as well as the tendency to do so; and (4) increasing teachers’ tendency to feel compassion for people generally, and for challenging students in particular. Public school teachers (n = 59) were randomized to an MBI or a waitlist control condition. They completed surveys at pre/post/follow-up and interviews at post-program designed to assess their coping with work stressors and their appraisals of their most challenging students. Survey data showed that efficacy beliefs and the tendency to forgive changed from pre/post for teachers in the MBI, and partially mediated reductions in stress from baseline to 4-month follow-up. Interview results showed a trend for teachers in the MBI to report more adaptive strategies for coping with job stress, and a tendency to evaluate challenging students in a more positive affective light. Implications for MBIs in teacher professional development are discussed.
Chapter
Full-text available
Teachers are the most important element of the education system. Their education and qualification can therefore play a decisive role in optimizing educational processes (Cochran-Smith and Zeichner 2005; Darling-Hammond and Bransford 2005; Kennedy et al. 2008). However, review of the literature on teacher qualification and professionalization (e.g., Cochran-Smith and Zeichner 2005; Zeichner 2005) reveals that terms such as “qualification,” “professionalism,” “expertise,” and “competence” are often imprecisely defined and that their use by different authors is inconsistent. Moreover, overarching theoretical structures that would allow relevant research questions to be translated into empirically testable hypotheses are lacking. As a result, there are few empirically sound research findings to back up the abundance of theorizing on the subject or the many recommendations for practice. It is here that COACTIV comes in: The aim of the COACTIV research program is to make a theoretical and empirical contribution to clarifying central concepts and to furthering the discussion on the professionalization of teachers.
Article
Full-text available
Two novel mindfulness-based interventions designed to be integrated either in academic or work settings to mitigate the effects of stress and promote well-being among human services professionals are described. Study 1 explored whether a brief mindfulness intervention was superior to a traditional relaxation intervention for nursing staff. Results demonstrated that both interventions significantly improved relaxation and life satisfaction, with mindfulness participants exhibiting a trend toward particular improvements in emotional exhaustion. In study 2, teacher trainees who participated in a Mindfulness- Based Wellness Education (MBWE) program as part of their academic training experienced significantly greater increases than controls in mindfulness, satisfaction with life, and teaching self-efficacy. We recognize that systemic factors need to be addressed for the long-term resolution of stress-related problems among human services professionals. In the interim, mindfulness-based interventions are proving to be an effective way to support these pivotal members of our society.
Article
Full-text available
The effects of randomization to mindfulness training (MT) or to a waitlist-control condition on psychological and physiological indicators of teachers’ occupational stress and burnout were examined in 2 field trials. The sample included 113 elementary and secondary school teachers (89% female) from Canada and the United States. Measures were collected at baseline, post-program, and 3-month follow-up; teachers were randomly assigned to condition after baseline assessment. Results showed that 87% of teachers completed the program and found it beneficial. Teachers randomized to MT showed greater mindfulness, focused attention and working memory capacity, and occupational self-compassion, as well as lower levels of occupational stress and burnout at post-program and follow-up, than did those in the control condition. No statistically significant differences due to MT were found for physiological measures of stress. Mediational analyses showed that group differences in mindfulness and self-compassion at post-program mediated reductions in stress and burnout as well as symptoms of anxiety and depression at follow-up. Implications for teaching and learning are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Maximum likelihood or restricted maximum likelihood (REML) estimates of the parameters in linear mixed-effects models can be determined using the lmer function in the lme4 package for R. As for most model-fitting functions in R, the model is described in an lmer call by a formula, in this case including both fixed- and random-effects terms. The formula and data together determine a numerical representation of the model from which the profiled deviance or the profiled REML criterion can be evaluated as a function of some of the model parameters. The appropriate criterion is optimized, using one of the constrained optimization functions in R, to provide the parameter estimates. We describe the structure of the model, the steps in evaluating the profiled deviance or REML criterion, and the structure of classes or types that represents such a model. Sufficient detail is included to allow specialization of these structures by users who wish to write functions to fit specialized linear mixed models, such as models incorporating pedigrees or smoothing splines, that are not easily expressible in the formula language used by lmer.
Article
Full-text available
The authors propose a model of the prosocial classroom that highlights the importance of teachers’ social and emotional competence (SEC) and well-being in the development and maintenance of supportive teacher–student relationships, effective classroom management, and successful social and emotional learning program implementation. This model proposes that these factors contribute to creating a classroom climate that is more conducive to learning and that promotes positive developmental outcomes among students. Furthermore, this article reviews current research suggesting a relationship between SEC and teacher burnout and reviews intervention efforts to support teachers’ SEC through stress reduction and mindfulness programs. Finally, the authors propose a research agenda to address the potential efficacy of intervention strategies designed to promote teacher SEC and improved learning outcomes for students.
Article
Full-text available
The authors advance an argument that placing observation of actual teaching as a central feature of accountability frameworks, teacher preparation, and basic science could result in substantial improvements in instruction and related social processes and a science of the production of teaching and teachers. Teachers' behavioral interactions with students can be (a) assessed observationally using standardized protocols, (b) analyzed systematically with regard to sources of error, (c) validated for predicting student learning, and (d) changed (improved) as a function of specific and aligned supports provided to teachers; exposure to such supports is predictive of greater student learning gains. These methods have considerable promise; along with measurement challenges, some of which pertain to psychometrics, efficiency, and costs, they merit attention, rigorous study, and substantial research investments.
Article
Full-text available
Mindfulness-based interventions have been shown to alleviate symptoms of a wide range of physical and mental health conditions. Regular between-session practice of mindfulness meditation is among the key factors proposed to produce the therapeutic benefits of mindfulness-based programs. This article reviews the mindfulness intervention literature with a focus on the status of home practice research and the relationship of practice to mindfulness program outcomes. Of 98 studies reviewed, nearly one-quarter (N = 24) evaluated the associations between home practice and measures of clinical functioning, with just over half (N = 13) demonstrating at least partial support for the benefits of practice. These findings indicate a substantial disparity between what is espoused clinically and what is known empirically about the benefits of mindfulness practice. Improved methodologies for tracking and evaluating the effects of home practice are recommended.
Article
Full-text available
Teachers' occupational well-being (level of emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction) and quality of instruction are two key aspects of research on teaching that have rarely been studied together. The role of occupational engagement and resilience as two important work-related self-regulatory dimensions that predict occupational well-being and teachers' instructional performance in the classroom was investigated. In Part 1 of the study, self-regulatory data from 1,789 German mathematics teachers were subjected to a latent profile analysis, yielding four self-regulatory types (healthy-ambitious, unambitious, excessively ambitious, and resigned) that differed significantly on emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction. In Part 2, the association between teachers' self-regulatory type and instructional performance was examined in a subsample of 318 teachers. Results showed that teachers' self-regulatory type predicted the quality of instruction in three of the four aspects of instructional performance examined. Moreover, teachers' self-regulatory type was systematically linked to differences in students' motivation. No association was found between teacher self-regulation and student achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Mindfulness training (MT) for teachers has become popular, yet gaps remain in our understanding of the time-course of the impacts of MT on teacher- and classroom-outcomes; the generalizability of MT impacts on elementary versus secondary teachers; and how characteristics of teachers and schools may moderate the impacts of MT. In this randomized-controlled trial, we examine the near- and longer-term impacts of the Mindfulness-Based Emotional Balance (MBEB) program with regard to improving middle school teachers’ mindfulness, self-compassion, occupational health and well-being, and quality of interactions with students in their self-nominated “most stressful classroom.” The sample included 58 sixth through eighth grade teachers randomized to condition (n = 29 MBEB and n = 29 Waitlist Control) who were assessed at baseline, postprogram, and follow-up (4 months later). Results showed that compared with controls, MBEB teachers reported greater occupational self-compassion and less job stress and anxiety at postprogram and follow-up; as well as less emotional exhaustion and depression at follow-up. No observed differences in quality of teachers’ interactions with students in their most stressful classrooms (classroom organization or emotional support) were found at postprogram. At follow-up, however, results showed MBEB teachers had better classroom organization than control teachers. Exploratory analyses showed that longer-term impacts of MBEB were moderated by teaching experience and school type, with newer teachers (≤ 5 years) and teachers in Grades 6–8 schools showing more beneficial personal and classroom outcomes at follow-up compared with more experienced teachers or those working in Grades K–8 schools, respectively. Implications for future research and teacher professional development are discussed.
Article
Teachers vary in their ability to enact effective teaching practices. We randomly assigned 88 early education preservice teachers to standard teacher education or teacher education plus a 9-week mindfulness-based intervention. Using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) as our primary outcome, we assessed effective teaching practices at baseline and at a 6-month follow-up that occurred during full-time student teaching. Mindfulness, negative affect, and well-being were assessed at baseline, post-test, and follow-up. At follow-up, we observed significant GROUP × time interactions on all major CLASS domains: Instructional supports, Emotional supports, and Classroom organization favoring the intervention group (Cohen's d's 0.53-0.65). Daily mindfulness practice was significantly associated with intervention group improvements on Instructional supports (r = .39) and Classroom organization (r = .38). No group differences were observed on negative affect or well-being. Implications for teacher education are discussed.
Article
Teachers report high levels of occupational stress, which is associated with teacher turnover and potential negative consequences for students. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) may improve the protective factors that buffer educators against occupational stress. Although previous meta-analytic reviews synthesized the effects of MBIs for healthy and clinical samples of adults, this study was the first to synthesize the effects of MBIs for teachers (grades pre-K through 12). A total of 347 effect sizes from 29 studies (N = 1,493) were synthesized using metaregression with robust variance estimation. Overall, MBIs had a medium treatment effect on teacher outcomes (g = .601, SE = .089). Visual and statistical evidence of publication bias suggested this estimate may be positively biased. Three potential study-level moderators for overall effects were also examined, but none were statistically significant. MBIs were associated with small-to-medium positive effects on therapeutic processes and therapeutic outcomes. MBIs had the smallest effects on measures of classroom climate and instructional practices. Overall, findings were similar to other meta-analytic reviews of MBIs for nonclinical adult populations and working professionals. The literature on MBIs for teachers appears to have similar gaps as research on MBIs for adults (e.g., Davidson & Kaszniak, 2015), including the primary use of self-report measures, the lack of active treatment comparisons, and rare reporting of treatment fidelity data. Directions for future research and implications are discussed.
Article
In this paper, we argue that classroom management, student support, and cognitive activation are generic aspects of classroom teaching, forming Three Basic Dimensions of teaching quality. The conceptual framework was developed in research on mathematics instruction but it is supposed to generalize across subjects. It is based on general theories of schooling and teaching as well as established theories and research traditions from educational psychology. Although used frequently in German-speaking countries, no comprehensive overview of the theoretical foundation as well as the existing evidence regarding the framework, including its strengths and weaknesses, exists so far. The present paper therefore presents first an overview of the theoretical rationale of the framework. Second, it gives an overview of differences and commonalities in the operationalizations of the Three Basic Dimensions in different studies, including a comprehensive set of sub-dimensions. Third, evidence on the reliability and validity of the dimensions is reviewed, with good results for reliability and mixed results for predictive validity. Fourth, an analysis of three mathematics lessons using observer ratings illustrates how the framework of the Three Basic Dimensions can be used for investigating instructional quality. Finally, strengths and limitations of the framework for capturing instructional quality are discussed and we elaborate on the framework’s potential for further development. see: http://rdcu.be/GwyK
Article
The statistical tests used in the analysis of structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error are examined. A drawback of the commonly applied chi square test, in addition to the known problems related to sample size and power, is that it may indicate an increasing correspondence between the hypothesized model and the observed data as both the measurement properties and the relationship between constructs decline. Further, and contrary to common assertion, the risk of making a Type II error can be substantial even when the sample size is large. Moreover, the present testing methods are unable to assess a model's explanatory power. To overcome these problems, the authors develop and apply a testing system based on measures of shared variance within the structural model, measurement model, and overall model.
Article
This research addresses development in burnout-dimensions among beginning teachers. The purpose was to investigate (a) growth and shape in exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy and (b) effects of time-invariant and time-varying covariates. Beginning teachers (N=176) from twelve universities participated at the end of their studies (T1) and were followed over their first year of induction (T2: beginning, T3: after half a year, T4: after one year). Latent growth curve models revealed increases in exhaustion from T2-T3, which remained stable from T3-T4, a linear growth for cynicism, and no change in inefficacy. Variances in intercepts and slopes were explained by T1-values in burnout-dimensions and - for exhaustion - by the period of hospitation. While teacher self-efficacy affected each of the burnout-dimensions, satisfaction with mentors related to cynicism and inefficacy, and social support from peers related uniquely to cynicism, with all effects being stable throughout the year.
Article
Zusammenfassung. Achtsamkeit hat fur die Gesundheitspsychologie eine immer starkere Bedeutung, da achtsamkeitsbasierte Interventionen in der Pravention und Rehabilitation das korperliche Wohlbefinden und die Lebensqualitat steigern konnen. Wie valide lasst sich selbstberichtete Achtsamkeit mit der deutschen Ubersetzung des „Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire“ (FFMQ) erfassen? Der 39 Items umfassende FFMQ wurde ins Deutsche ubersetzt. An einer Stichprobe von 550 studentischen Versuchspersonen wurde die dimensionale Struktur, Reliabilitat und Validitat der funf Skalen bestimmt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen eine hohe Ubereinstimmung mit den Validierungsstudien zur englischsprachigen Originalfassung des FFMQ. Die funf-faktorielle Struktur konnte weitestgehend repliziert werden. Hypothesenkonform fanden sich korrelative Zusammenhange zur psychopathologischen Symptombelastung und zu Indikatoren der psychischen Gesundheit. Mit der deutschen Version des FFMQ liegt ein valides Instrument vor, das die Erfassung der von ...
Article
Prior research has shown that the agreement between teacher and student ratings of instructional quality is, at best, moderate, and the associations between measures of instructional quality and outcomes such as standardized achievement are typically small and somewhat mixed across both perspectives. One explanation for these low-to-moderate associations is the assumption that teacher and student ratings are not perfectly stable over time. By using a manifest-latent state-trait model, the present study investigated the following topics in a sample of 5th-grade students (74 classes) from vocational track schools: (a) the time consistency of teacher and student instructional quality ratings in math lessons over multiple measurement time points; (b) the agreement among teachers and students for time consistent rating components and single time point ratings; and © the predictive power of consistent rating components and single time point ratings with regard to a standardized math achievement test, and math self-concept. Results of multilevel factor analyses with 3 measurement time points over a period of 3 months showed a moderate-to-high time consistency for both teacher and student ratings. Furthermore, the agreement among teacher and student ratings regarding classroom management and goal clarity was higher for the consistent rating components than for ratings at single measurement time points, whereas this pattern was not found for support of autonomy. Finally, student consistent rating components predicted students' pretest adjusted math achievement and self-concept. The effect sizes for ratings at single measurement time points varied within quality dimensions. (PsycINFO Database Record
Chapter
Teacher education in Germany reflects the tiered structure of the country’s secondary school system. In addition to the common distinction between elementary and secondary education, German teacher education programs differ by secondary school type. Teacher training for the academic-track Gymnasium, which students leave with the general university entrance certificate (Abitur), goes through a rather rigorous training program focused on content knowledge. Teacher training for less-prestigious school types goes through a similar but less content-intensive training program. Regardless of track type, the teacher training program is strictly divided into a first academic phase at university (3–5 years) followed by an in-service training phase (1.5–2 years) run by the respective state’s education authority. Relative to many other countries, the income and job security of teachers in Germany is high. Assessment of teachers or teaching quality is all but unknown.
Article
In der Diagnostik beruflicher Beanspruchung herrscht traditionell ein symptomorientierter Ansatz vor. Wir bemühen uns demgegenüber um eine Strategie, in deren Zentrum die Erfassung der persönlichen Ressourcen steht, die in die Auseinandersetzung mit den Anforderungen des Berufs eingebracht werden. Konkret geht es uns um die Identifizierung persönlichkeitsspezifischer Muster des Verhaltens und Erlebens, die sowohl auf eine gesundheitsförderliche als auch gesundheitsgefährdende Beanspruchung hinweisen. Mittels des von uns entwickelten psychodiagnostischen Verfahrens AVEM (Arbeitsbezogenes Verhaltens-und Erlebensmuster) werden unterschiedliche persönliche Bewältigungsmuster erfaßt. Alle bisherigen Erfahrungen sprechen für die hohe Gesundheitsrelevanz dieser Musterdifferenzierung. Sie belegen den Nutzen des Verfahrens für die Früherkennung gesundheitlicher Risiken sowie für die individuell angemessene Intervention und die Kontrolle der dabei erzielten Effekte. Introduction For decades, psychometric instruments have been used to measure the detrimental effects of work on people's health. The employment of numerous symptom and problem checklists reflects the central role that is ascribed to the psychological and physical (somatic) indicators of strain. Also, the conceptualization of the burnout syndrome is dominated by its physical or psychic effects. Based on modern models of health psychology, current research has gone beyond the mere identification of problems and disorders. For example, the salutogenetic approach by Antonovsky (1987) suggests taking into account personal and social resources as supporting and buffering factors. Here, the affected person is perceived as an active element in dealing with professional demands and strains rather than a passive victim of the circumstances. Analyzing one's coping resources leads to the early identification of possible future health risks. This constitutes an important advantage: Recommendation for intervention can be given on the basis of identified deficits in coping and could be applied before symptoms have occurred. In fact, utilizing one's resources is far more effective than intervention once disorders have become manifest. But the approach holds considerable advantages also for rehabilitation programs though fostering of individual potential in coping with diseases. The idea of salutogenesis has inspired a large body of research in health psychology as well as occupational psychology (Badura, 1981; Jerusalem,1990; Wieland-Eckelmann, 1992; Udris u. a. 1994, Schwarzer, 1996). Taking this as a point of departure, we have developed a diagnostic instrument that aims at the description of individual patterns in dealing with professional demands associated with beneficial or hazardous health effects. The advantages of this method are twofold: Firstly, health risks can be identified before any psychic or somatic symptoms occur. Those risks can be recognized by reviewing the person's tendency to engage in certain behavioral patterns, which in turn are known to be linked to various health problems. Secondly, intervention can be planned and administered early on, focussing primarily on individual resources. The enhancement of a person's coping capacity can be carried out either directly by influencing the person, or indirectly, by changing the working conditions and environment. In the following paragraph we will introduce the instrument.
Article
The contribution examines theoretical foundations, factorial structure, and predictive power of student ratings of teaching quality. Three basic dimensions of teaching quality have previously been described: classroom management, cognitive activation, and supportive climate. However, student ratings, especially those provided by primary school students, have been criticised for being biased by factors such as teacher popularity. The present study examines ratings of teaching quality and science learning among third graders. Results of multilevel confirmatory factor analyses (N = 1556 students, 89 classes) indicate that the three-dimensional model of teaching quality can be replicated in ratings of third graders. In a longitudinal study (N = 1070 students, 54 classes), we found ratings of classroom management to predict student achievement, and ratings of cognitive activation and supportive climate to predict students' development of subject-related interest after teacher popularity is controlled for. The analyses show that student ratings can be useful measures of teaching quality in primary school.
Article
Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) courses are being taught around the world in various contexts and targeted to various populations. The program has been intentionally designed without a detailed teaching manual so as to allow instructors to respond to what is called for in each teaching moment. It also affords tailoring the program to specific circumstances such as when working with persons suffering from depression or substance abuse. But how does one remain true to core teaching intentions and program components, while undertaking such tailoring? Modifications to the format and content of MBSR have been reported but little is known if these adaptations influence outcomes and processes underlying change compared to the basic curriculum. Here we discuss what we consider to be essential aspects of the program to be carefully considered when adapting it. We describe selected adaptations of MBSR to highlight the types of changes made and report results when data are available. We conclude with suggestions pertaining to how to best remain authentic while being imaginative regarding the administration of MBSR in non-medical settings (e.g., prison) and for special populations (e.g., women with addictions).
Article
A Monte Carlo simulation examined the performance of a recently available full information maximum likelihood (FIML) estimator in a multiple regression model with missing data. The effects of four independent variables were examined (missing data technique, missing data rate, sample size, and correlation magnitude) on three outcome measures: regression coefficient bias, R 2 bias, and regression coefficient sampling variability. Three missing data patterns were examined based on Rubin’s missing data theory: missing completely at random, missing at random, and a nonrandom pattern. Results indicated that FIML estimation was superior to the three ad hoc techniques (listwise deletion, pairwise deletion, and mean imputation) across the conditions studied. FIML parameter estimates generally had less bias and less sampling variability than the three ad hoc methods.
Article
In the organizational literature, the impact of group size on the magnitude of the group-level correlation has not been explicitly delineated, despite the fact that group sizes vary considerably in organizational research. This article discusses the relationship between group size, ICC(J) values, and the magnitude of the group-level correlation, and shows that group size and ICC(I) values are important because they influence the reliability of the aggregate variables. Based on this discussion, a correction for attenuation formula is proposed that permits one to estimate the magnitude of the actual group-level correlation corrected for the reliability of the aggregate variables. A simulation study demonstrates that the correction for attenuation formula provides accurate estimates of the actual group-level correlation under a wide range of conditions. Implications for multilevel analyses are discussed.
Article
Two aspects of the reliability of multidimensional measures can be distinguished: the amount of scale score variance that is accounted for by all underlying factors (composite reliability) and the degree to which the scale score reflects one particular factor (construct reliability). Confidence intervals for composite and construct reliabilities can be estimated by bootstrap methods. The authors demonstrate the application of these methods by analyzing the reliability of an eight-factor, nested-factor model that represents the structure of 45 tasks in an intelligence test (N= 1,233). Composite reliabilities ranged between .78 and .93, whereas construct reliabilities ranged between .17 and .68 when the scale indicators were equally weighted to compute the scale scores and between .52 and .90 with weights based on pattern coefficients. The results indicate the importance of distinguishing diagnostic from research applications when judging whether the reliability values of multidimensional measures are substantial.
Article
This article focuses on how mindfulness train-ing (MT) programs for teachers, by cultivating mindful-ness and its application to stress management and the social-emotional demands of teaching, represent emerging forms of teacher professional development (PD) aimed at improving teaching in public schools. MT is hypothesized to promote teachers' "habits of mind," and thereby their occupational health, well-being, and capacities to create and sustain both supportive relationships with students and classroom climates conducive to student engagement and learning. After defining mindfulness and its potential applications in teacher education and PD, this article dis-cusses emerging MT programs for teachers, a logic model outlining potential MT program effects in educational set-tings, and directions for future research. KEYWORDS—mindfulness; effective teaching; teacher pro-fessional development; habits of mind; stress reduction; occupational health; classroom climate Improving public education involves, in significant measure, improving the quality of teaching through teacher selection, education, mentorship, and ongoing professional development (Darling-Hammond & Bransford, 2005; Pianta & Hamre, 2009). Human services professions like education are often resistant to change, however, because reform necessitates that such profes-sionals make fundamental changes in longstanding mind-sets and skill sets that guide how they care for, interact with, and— in the case of schools—educate other human beings (Sarason, 1990). Furthermore, even when human services professionals consciously recognize the need to change their long-standing habits of practice, powerful and often unconscious personal and institutional commitments to traditional practices can render them "immune to change" (Kegan & Lahey, 2009).