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STRATEGIES TO CHANGE STUDENTS' NEGATIVE PERCEPTIONS ABOUT GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING TEACHER

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Abstract

The study aims to change students' negative perceptions of teacher guidance and counseling. This research method uses this literature review by looking for relevant literature that is done using databases such as Google Scholar. The findings of the Systematic Literature Review (SLR) study are that there are various strategies on the implementation of guidance and counseling programs in schools, the role of guidance and counseling teachers and collaboration between other parties related to the implementation of guidance and counseling programs in an effort to achieve the goals of comprehensive guidance and counseling itself. In the implementation of guidance and counseling programs there is optimal system support in the implementation of guidance and counseling programs because as an optimization on guidance and counseling program services provided to students. Keywords: Guidance and Counseling, Negative Perception, Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling
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STRATEGIES TO CHANGE STUDENTS' NEGATIVE
PERCEPTIONS ABOUT GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING TEACHER
Muhammad Islahuddin1
1SMA Integral Ar-Rohmah, Malang, Indonesia
E-mail: 1) dd1nns@gmail.com
Abstract
The study aims to change students' negative perceptions of teacher guidance and counseling. This
research method uses this literature review by looking for relevant literature that is done using
databases such as Google Scholar. The findings of the Systematic Literature Review (SLR) study are
that there are various strategies on the implementation of guidance and counseling programs in
schools, the role of guidance and counseling teachers and collaboration between other parties
related to the implementation of guidance and counseling programs in an effort to achieve the goals
of comprehensive guidance and counseling itself. In the implementation of guidance and counseling
programs there is optimal system support in the implementation of guidance and counseling
programs because as an optimization on guidance and counseling program services provided to
students.
Keywords: Guidance and Counseling, Negative Perception, Comprehensive Guidance and
Counseling
1. INTRODUCTION
Guidance and counseling (also referred to as BK) is a vital component of the educational
process that cannot be separated from it, and it plays an important role in the overall success
of the student educational process. Guidance and counseling (Bimbingan dan Konseling)
were first present in Indonesia in 1960 under the term Guidance and Counseling (Bimbingan
dan Penyuluhan). As a result of the Pioneer School Development Project (PPSP), which was
established at the 8 Institute of Teacher Training and Education (IKIP) in Indonesia and later
resulted in the “Basic Pattern of Guidance and Counseling Planning and Development”,
guidance and counseling were included in the Senior High School (SMA) curriculum in
1975 (Zamroni & Rahardjo, 2015).
According to Busmayaril & Heldayani (2016) the role of guidance and counseling is to
provide opportunities for students to explore their potential in accordance with their needs,
interests, and talents, as well as to provide assistance to students who are experiencing
problems that need to be resolved immediately.
One interpretation of this is that the educational process will not be successful without
the direction and counseling offered by teachers who specialize in mental health and human
development. When a comprehensive guidance and counseling program is implemented in
its whole, services are no longer focused on curating, but rather on the development of
student potential and the prevention of difficulties that may be confronted by the students
themselves. As Sugiyo explained (Bhakti, 2017) that Comprehensive Guidance and
Counseling is a series of activity plans or counselor activities aimed at providing assistance
to clients for optimal self-development efforts.
STRATEGIES TO CHANGE STUDENTS' NEGATIVE PERCEPTIONS ABOUT GUIDANCE AND
COUNSELING TEACHER
Muhammad Islahuddin
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Furthermore, Suherman (Bhakti, 2017) highlights that when providing Comprehensive
Guidance and Counseling, it is important to pay attention to the following factors: (1) a
comprehensive scope; (2) designed to be more prevention oriented; and (3) the goal of
developing the potential of students.
Moreover, Gysbers & Henderson (2016) argues that there are 5 basic premises in the
implementation of a Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling program, including: (1)
Guidance and counseling is a program; (2) The guidance and counseling program is
developmental and comprehensive; (3) The guidance and counseling program features a
team approach; (4) Guidance and counseling programs are developed through a systematic
process of planning, design, implementation, evaluation, and development; (5) The guidance
and counseling program has established leadership. Of these five stages, the implementation
stage is an interesting study to discuss.
The implementation stage is actually the result of the implementation of the previous
stages, namely planning and design. In carrying out the implementation phase, Gysbers and
Henderson (2016) suggest to always pay attention to 3 resources in order to maximize the
results obtained. The three sources are financial resources, personnel resources, and political
resources.
In the implementation of guidance and counseling, we still face many negative
perceptions in today's life. According to Sari et al. (2014), it is explained that the
understanding and utilization of guidance and counseling services is still low, as evidenced
by the infrequent number of students who come to the counseling room and meet with
counseling teachers to seek assistance in resolving problems that they are experiencing.
As an additional point of concern, there are still many negative perceptions about the
implementation of guidance and counseling, such as an assumption that the presence of
counseling teachers is merely an extension of the school police officer whose job it is to
maintain security and regulate school order. Based on the findings of Mudjijanti (2017),
students believe that counseling teachers are furious, intimidating individuals who cannot
joke and who can only be enraged when students break school regulations. They also believe
that counseling teachers penalize students who break school rules. In the process of guidance
and counseling, it is very clear that there is a process of aid, as previously explained.
Teenagers or students at school, on the other hand, continue to be misinformed about this
issue. There are numerous errors that might be made while interpreting advice and
counseling. With the numerous inaccuracies in interpreting this guidance and counseling,
negative perceptions of guidance and counseling teachers develop among students, which
can cause delays in the process of giving guidance and counseling in educational institutions.
There are still many students who hold negative perceptions of guidance and counseling
teachers in schools. Student perceptions can be narrowed down to a specific form of vision
or broadened to include their views or interpretations of the world around them. Sensitivity-
response situations might not always require emotion and logic, but in general, it's assumed
that one or both of these factors influence an individual's consciously and independently
generated response to a stimulus or a field of stimulation (Sobur, 2019).
The process of perception can occur because the individual is considered to be
influenced by his mind, emotions, or even both, namely reason and emotion. There are
internal factors that influence the selection of perceptions including psychological needs,
background, experience, personality, general attitudes and beliefs, and self-acceptance
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(Sobur, 2019). With this negative perception, there will be one thing we don't want, that the
facts on the ground, the existence of guidance and counseling is identical with student
problems. Then students will feel reluctant to get in touch with guidance and counseling
teachers, even students will feel afraid of being considered problematic by other teachers
and students.
The existence of this negative perception makes the counselor play a role and does not
work according to his profession. Counselors should provide services with four areas of
guidance according to the needs of elementary school students. Counselors also assist
students in developing their potential, so they can maximize the educational process at
school. Therefore, the focus of the literature review that will be studied is on the strategy of
changing negative perceptions of counseling teachers.
2. RESEARCH METHOD
The method used in writing this literature review is to search the literature using a
database such as Google Scholar. At the beginning of the search with the keywords:
“Counseling Teacher Competence”, and “Student's Negative Perception'”, a total of 23,490
articles were obtained, after being filtered by looking at the inclusion criteria, 9 articles were
obtained from the period 2017 to 2022.
The following inclusion criteria were used for the selection of studies for the literature
review, namely the research related to “Counseling Teacher Competence”, and “Student's
Negative Perception'”. Meanwhile, non-original publications such as abstracts only, for
articles with unclear and irrelevant titles, abstracts will be checked and evaluated from all
publications taken.
3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1. Research Result
Using this review's criteria as a guide, we were able to identify 9 papers for further
investigation, the results can be seen in the table below.
Table 1 Characteristic of Previous Study
No
Researcher
Method
Results
1
(Maâ, 2017)
Qualitative
There is an increase in the number of
students who come to the Guidance and
Counseling room without a call then that's it
indicates a change in perception (negative
perception becomes positive perception).
2
(Sartini, 2018)
Guidance and
Counseling Class
Actions.
Negative perceptions of students towards
Guidance and Counseling teachers, namely,
reduced negative perceptions of students
towards Guidance and Counseling teachers,
increased student good relations with
Guidance and Counseling teachers, reduced
student anxiety towards Guidance and
Counseling teachers, increased student
STRATEGIES TO CHANGE STUDENTS' NEGATIVE PERCEPTIONS ABOUT GUIDANCE AND
COUNSELING TEACHER
Muhammad Islahuddin
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understanding of the role of Guidance and
Counseling in schools. Thus, efforts to reduce
students' negative perceptions of Guidance
and Counseling teachers have experienced a
significant decline, both from cycle I and
cycle
3
(Arbianto* &*
NAQIYAH,*
2019)
One group pre-test
post-test design
Cognitive restructuring strategies can
reduce students' negative perceptions of
guidance and counseling services for class
VII-I SMP Negeri 3 Gresik.
4
(FITRIA,
2019)
Pre-experimental
design with one
group pretest
posttest design.
Counseling group with reframing
techniques can change the negative
perspective of students towards Guidance and
Counseling teachers
5
(Mahri, 2020)
Qualitative
descriptive
With the observed aspects of the
existence of facts regarding positive
perceptions of guidance and counseling
teachers, increasing good relations with
Guidance and Counseling teachers, reducing
student anxiety, increasing students'
understanding of Guidance and Counseling
teachers in schools, thus efforts to increase
positive perceptions of Guidance and
Counseling teachers are increasing.
6
(Candra et al.,
2020)
Counseling
guidance action
research approach.
The implementation of classical
guidance can foster a positive perception of
students towards Guidance and Counseling
teachers
7
(Marlisa, 2021)
ADDIE
(1) The main result of this research and
development is that information services use
Adobe After Effects as an audio visual for
understanding the duties of guidance and
counseling teachers. (2) Design stage, media
creation using Adobe After Effects
application. (3) Design validation, the results
of the expert's assessment based on the
questionnaire results of media experts and
material experts, information service media
developed with 2 validation stages.
8
(Kumalasari et
al., 2021)
Qualitative
The orientation of students towards
Guidance and Counseling teachers themselves
is still negative, besides that Guidance and
Counseling teachers use individual and group
counseling services in order to build closeness
with students, and also Guidance and
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Counseling teachers do not use violence with
their students such as pinching or pinching but
rather use firm actions such as giving
acceptable punishment.
9
(Amina, 2021)
Study carried out in
3 cycles consisting
of 4 stages,
namely: planning,
implementation,
observation, and
reflection
Making a consultation schedule is one
technique to serve students proactively so that
all students are served in guidance and
counseling at school. The consultations that
have been carried out have shown a positive
change in students' views of Guidance and
Counseling based on initial observations and
after the activities were held.
4.2. Discussion
Analysis result by Marlisa (2021) using the Adobe After Effects software application
shows that students' negative perceptions of Guidance and Counseling teachers are not good,
judging from the results of the data collection techniques carried out, students do not just
choose one indicator but choose the five indicators that the author presents. Due to the lack
of understanding of counseling guidance, which has many benefits for students, in their
duties and functions of guidance and counseling teachers in various schools. Lack of
understanding of the duties of guidance and counseling teachers and interesting media that
aims as information service media that can add insight to students in accommodating the
information obtained, thus enabling researchers to develop video-based information service
media about the duties of guidance and counseling teachers in schools.
The follow-up of the counseling guidance teacher in building a positive image for
students is by evaluating both the monthly and yearly program which is said to be each class
has different services according to its class (Kumalasari et al., 2021).
Aminah (2021) said that An aspect that also needs attention is the student's view in terms
of trust in the supervising teacher. In this case, students' beliefs may still need time to
improve, given the various negative conditions that have occurred so far. Therefore, need
the right approach and way for students to be more open to the supervising teacher. One
thing that should be evaluated is the personality of the supervising teacher, which may be an
obstacle to students' openness and trust. Because one of the facts at school is that there are
still supervising teachers who have not shown an attitude that is able to keep students' secrets
so that it has an impact on their confidence in raising problems.
In line with Aminah (2021), Maâ, (2017) explained that the stages of the approach for
students to change negative perceptions of Guidance and Counseling teachers can be done
with several alternatives including visiting each class, being more intensive, talking about
problems that may occur to students and possible solutions, explaining the role of school
counseling guidance kites, inviting jokes and eating. together and act like friends. With an
increase in the number of students who come to the Guidance and Counseling room without
STRATEGIES TO CHANGE STUDENTS' NEGATIVE PERCEPTIONS ABOUT GUIDANCE AND
COUNSELING TEACHER
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a call, it shows a change in perception (negative perception becomes positive perception)
which is accordance with the purpose of guidance and counseling services.
Meanwhile, in Arbianto & NAQIYAH (2019) using cognitive restructuring techniques in group
counseling settings proves that it can reduce students' negative perceptions of counseling
services. The cognitive restructuring technique itself is changing negative or self-destructive
thoughts or self-statements and replacing them with more positive thoughts. In addition,
there are steps in this strategy such as the introduction and exercise of coping thoughts, the
transfer from irrational thoughts to coping thoughts, as well as positive recognition and
reinforcement that can gradually erode all negative perceptions in the counselee's mind that
he has believed.
If the student is serious about altering his unfavorable point of view about the counseling
teacher, there are still numerous opportunities to build interest and drive for the counseling
process. Students will be more engaged in the problem-solving process and their growth can
be maximized if they are encouraged to participate in the counseling process voluntarily.
When a student has a positive impression of their guidance counselor, they will always be
open to the process of counseling and regard the counselor to be a friend, and the counselor
teacher not intimidating at all (FITRIA, 2019).
Counseling services carried out in a group atmosphere can be used as a medium for
delivering information using reframing techniques (FITRIA, 2019), sharing experiences and
exchanging ideas/thoughts as well as helping students change negative perspectives on
Guidance and Counseling teachers, and can help students make the right decisions so that it
is hoped that it will have a positive impact on students' perceptions of Guidance and
Counseling teachers. Thus, it will build a warm atmosphere in order to facilitate the
Guidance and Counseling process to run well, between students and the Guidance and
Counseling teacher so that students become more optimally developed individuals and there
are no more negative perceptions about Guidance and Counseling teachers in schools, given
the importance of the role of guidance teachers. and counselling.
Efforts to foster positive perceptions of Guidance and Counseling teachers through
classical guidance services carried out by Candra et al., 2020 Classical guidance is a
preventive service as an effort to prevent the occurrence of problems that are specifically
directed at a proactive process. Classical guidance has an efficient value in relation to the
number of students served with Guidance and Counseling teachers and their services that are
prevention, maintenance and development. Classical guidance service is not a teaching
activity or delivering subject matter as in school subjects, but conveying information that
can affect the achievement of optimal development of all aspects of development and the
achievement of student independence. If students have a positive perception of the Guidance
and Counseling teacher, then service activities can run well to assist students in solving the
problems they face. This is confirmed by research Sartini (2018) in her research found that
information services can reduce students' negative perceptions of Guidance and Counseling
teachers. This study also found that if students' perceptions of Guidance and Counseling
teachers were positive, it would have a good impact on their learning achievement. Because
Guidance and Counseling teachers act as facilitators and motivators for students in helping
solve problems. So, it can be concluded that classical guidance can improve students' control
cells. If the student's self-control is good, it will increase students' confidence in the
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Guidance and Counseling teacher and can foster positive student perceptions of the
Guidance and Counseling teacher.
Sujadi (2018) mentions that not a few users of counseling services have negative
perceptions of the counselor profession, which actually stems from the mistakes of the
counselors themselves. Such as the lack of student trust in counseling Guidance and
Counseling teachers at schools with the reason that their secrets will be exposed, there are
even BK teachers/school counselors who carry out malpractice of counseling services
Implementing Guidance and Counseling services who lack competence.
Further, Sujadi (2018) also explained that many Guidance and Counseling teachers do
not have a Guidance and Counseling educational background. In addition, the willingness of
Guidance and Counseling teachers to develop competencies such as attending
training/seminars/workshops or continuing linear education is still low. The implication of
the low mastery of these competencies is the poor service provided to users of counseling
services, such as Guidance and Counseling teachers who become school police, Guidance
and Counseling teachers who are angry / fierce, Guidance and Counseling teachers who are
not able to arrange Guidance and Counseling programs, Guidance and Counseling teachers
who are unable to cooperate with colleagues, outside the profession or relationship with
institutions, the inability of Guidance and Counseling teachers to apply educational
knowledge when carrying out services, the inability of Guidance and Counseling teachers to
evaluate and follow up on evaluations, and much more.
Moreover, Sujadi (2018) explanations are in line with opinion by Mahri (2020) which
states that individual counseling services are devoted to efforts to increase the positive
perception of Guidance and Counseling teachers in schools. should be the focus in carrying
out daily activities at school. The incompatibility of the roles and duties carried out at school
will redirect to the image of Guidance and Counseling that is not desired by a profession that
should be carried out by professional members.
Students' perceptions of counseling teachers occur because students pay attention to
things according to counseling teachers, such as physical appearance, behavior, and also the
scope of work of counseling teachers. If from the student's point of view, they see that they
are in sync with their hopes, their perception of the counseling teacher will be good (positive)
but on the other hand, if from the student's point of view, they see it as inconsistent with
their hopes, their perception will be bad (negative).
In dealing with students' negative perceptions, there are various strategies that can be
used to change this negative perception because basically this perception can be changed.
The role of the environment and teacher counseling greatly influences the success of efforts
to change this negative perception.
In practice, counseling teachers are not only needed to technically master all theoretical
aspects and are easy to follow through guidance and counseling. However, the crucial factor
is having a positive personality aspect to renew students' negative perceptions of teacher
guidance and counseling.
The strategy used by the counseling teacher at each school is not in harmony depending
on the work and aspirations of the school. Strategies that can be done are to increase
competence, increase the professionalism of counseling teachers, or use counseling theories
and techniques to change the mindset of students who previously had negative perceptions
as positive perceptions about teacher Guidance and Counseling and counseling.
STRATEGIES TO CHANGE STUDENTS' NEGATIVE PERCEPTIONS ABOUT GUIDANCE AND
COUNSELING TEACHER
Muhammad Islahuddin
16
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4. CONCLUSION
There are a variety of strategies for implementing the Guidance and Counseling program
in schools, as well as a variety of roles for Guidance and Counseling teachers and
collaboration between other parties who are involved in the implementation of the Guidance
and Counseling program, which all contribute to the achievement of the goals of
Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling. Students receive the best possible guidance and
counseling services when they participate in the Guidance and Counseling program, which
is supported by the best possible system support when they participate in the Guidance and
Counseling program because it is an optimization of the Guidance and Counseling program
services provided to students. Further research should look into the necessity of managing
efforts through a comprehensive Guidance and Counseling program that, in its
implementation, involves other connected parties (stakeholders) in order to fulfill the goals
of the comprehensive Guidance and Counseling program itself.
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Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat pengaruh penerapan metode Cooperative Learning model Jigsaw pada layanan Bimbingan Klasikal terhadap pemahaman Self Regulated Learning pada siswa kelas XI Tata Boga 3 SMK Negeri 30 Jakarta pada bulan Januari-April 2014. Metode penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Pre Eksperimental Designs (desain tanpa kelompok kontrol) dengan kelompok One-Group Pre-test-Post-test Design.Sampel dalam penelitian ini berjumlah 28 siswa. Berdasarkan data yang diperoleh, pada hasil pre-test rata-rata skor sebesar 12,29 dan hasil posttest rata-rata skor mengalami peningkatan menjadi 18,89. Hasil uji hipotesis menyatakan bahwa thitung = 4,89 > ttabel= 1,70 dengan ttabel pada taraf signifikan α= 5%, yang berarti Ho ditolak dan H1 diterima sehingga terdapat pengaruh penerapan metode Cooperative Learning model Jigsaw pada layanan Bimbingan Klasikal terhadap pemahaman Self Regulated Learning pada siswa kelas XI Tata Boga 3 SMK Negeri 30 Jakarta. Berdasarkan hasil pre-test dan post-test memperlihatkan peningkatan skor rata-rata, maka siswa dapat memahami mengenai Self Regulated Learning dengan baik.
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