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Abstract

CPTED studies has been popular since 1960-1970s, however studies in Indonesian city context showed limited references. This paper identified the need of CPTED study followed a massive MRT network development in Jakarta City, as the need for re-design and city beautification to fit with the vibrant TOD urban lifestyle may create moments as well to promote CPTED implementation. The perception survey was developed to understand the perceived crime risk level among the MRT users of Bundaran HI Station. The survey conducted in two scopes of context, i.e. the TOD precinct, an area of 800 radius from the station, and inside the station itself. Finding from the TOD context showed that the maintenance and information have been the most significant but often mostly ignored. These two component may lead to under-rated other CPTED components, weaken the territorial reinforcement and natural surveillance. Out of 56 parameters, 26 parameters or almost halve have rated below 3, alarmed for a more comprehensive design and intervention at the TOD neighbourhood level that emphasizes on the implementation of CPTED principles. Finding from the Bundarin HI station context showed that under the Likert scale 1 (the lowest risk) to 5 (the highest risk), most of the CPTED rated from 4 – 5. There were a variation in the perceived security among different respondents based on gender, time pattern, location pattern, and mode chosen for station access. However, these rating differences were not significant according to the ANOVA and the t-test statistics. The chi-square test found no association between the perceived securities with the type of mode uses for station access. These preliminary findings suggested that the Bundaran HI TOD station is secured from crime risk according to perception of MRT users; therefore little variation in the rating of perceived security gave little information to draw any association with other important variables such as the mode choice for station access. However, taken the measures on wider context at the TOD precinct, the rating of CPTED consistently lower in all components, suggested the urban design and land use zoning-and transportation intervention that consider CPTED principles to be emphasizing at wider area to support the security of the station.
TATA LOKA
VOLUME 23 NOMOR 4, NOVEMBER 2021, 536-552
© 2021 BIRO PENERBIT PLANOLOGI UNDIP
P ISSN 0852-7458- E ISSN 2356-0266
DOI : https://doi.org/10.14710/TATALOKA.23.4.536-552
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Assessment of the Perception of Security Based on
Crime Prevention through Environmental Design in
Bundaran HI
Siti Nurlaela
1
, Sugiono
2
, Nadhila Alda Ismiralda1, Ardy Maulidy Navastara1, Ema Umilia1,
Arwi Yudhi Koswara1
Received: 10 December 2020 Accepted: 17 February 2021
Abstract: CPTED studies have been popular since 1960-1970s, however studies in Indonesian
context showed limited references. This paper identified the need of CPTED study following the
massive MRT development in Jakarta to promote CPTED implementation. The perception survey
was developed to understand the perceived crime risk. Findings showed that maintenance and
information have been the most significant but often ignored. These two components may
underrate other CPTED components, weakening the territorial reinforcement and natural
surveillance, alarming for a more comprehensive design of TODs. Findings from Bundaran HI
station context showed that there was a variation in the perceived security among different
respondents based on gender, time pattern, location pattern, and mode chosen for station access.
However, the chi-square test found no associations between the perceived securities with the type
of mode uses for station access. These preliminary findings suggested that Bundaran HI TOD
station is perceived secure from crime risk; therefore little variation in the rating has given little
information to draw any association with other important variables such as the station mode
access. Taking measures on wider contexts at the TOD precinct, the ratings of CPTED consistently
lower in all components, suggesting the urban design and LUTI intervention based on CPTED
need to be implemented at wider areas to support the security of the station.
Keywords: Security Perception, CPTED, Transit Area, Jakarta
INTRODUCTION
The urban environment characteristics may impact the level of crime in an urban
locality. International Center for Prevention of Crime (ICPC)’s study in 2012 showed the
dynamic urban crime has significance impacted on the level of crime on public
transportation system. The ICPC study has been alligned with other studies such that
compare the level of crime took place on the network public transportation with the level
of urban crime and showed a significant positive correlation (The international center for
the prevention of crime., 2014).
Furthermore, a design characteristic of urban environment suggested to also impact
on the level of crime. As experts in the field pointed out, crimes happened not only due to a
chance and an intention, but also due to the environment situation that may support or
disregard them to happen (Pauls et al., 2000; Steventon, 2012). An area with dark corners
and high level of accessibility to detour from a crime scene may inspired criminals to do
1
Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember
2
Universitas Brawijaya
Correspondence: nurlaela@urplan.its.ac.id
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more crimes (Sorensen et al., 2013). Crime prevention through environmental design
(CPTED) has been one field of research that believed in the association between crime and
urban design. Design aspect provides amenities, aesthetic value, cultural preservation, and
at the same time increases the sense of belonging among the community. The sense of
belonging, according to William White, can reduce the risk of crime in which the
community have higher motivation of doing activities on public space. While the
participation in the public space increased, at the same time, created the eyes on streets
for natural surveillance and may prevent those one who initially have crime intention to
do such crime acts (Jane Jacobs, in (雨宮 & 樋野, 2005)).
The relationship between security from crime and the design aspect of CPTED has
been implemented as one of Transit Oriented Development (TOD) sustainability principle.
Gupta, 2017 specified 7 (seven) component of TOD sustainability principles, namely
transit, walk and bike, shift, mixed uses, liveable, security, participate, and safety (Gupta,
2017). In accordance, Renne (2007) described the balancing value of economic,
transportation, and environment in the sustainable TOD, in which, the safety and security
aspect was part of the environment sustainability principle (in Brookings et al., 2002). The
CPTED as applied in many of guidance and best practices throughout cities in the world,
basically consisted of the design principles to increase natural surveillance, natural access
control, territorial reinforcement, and maintenance, since these four aspects has been
regarded to deter the act of crimes (APTA, 2010; Cozens & Love, 2015; Lee et al., 2016;
Pauls et al., 2000; Queensland Government, 2007), explained below. In addition to these
four components, the information component is added accordingly, as information can
create situational crime prevention by reducing crime opportunities (Felson & Clarke,
1996). The five CPTED components explained as follows:
1. Natural surveillance
This strategy aims to observe the criminals that may intrude the public spaces. Design
creativity has been applied to increase the visibility of building and open spaces. The
design of windows in the building, lighting, layout or landscape all supported the ability
to observe environment. Natural surveillance may be achieved when a good
visualization existed between residential areas and commercial and open space areas
such as park, parking areas, alleys, and so on.
2. Natural access control
Natural access control applied to building elements such as doors, gates, entrance and
exit points to limit access the criminal and create perception among criminals about the
high risks of caught on of doing crime.
3. Territorial reinforcement
The landscape design, pedestrian and other design component that separate the public
and private areas can clearly define the property right and the territorial boundary.
This concept influence criminals to avoid them to entrance or trespassed the territory
4. Maintenance
The continuation of maintenance to keep the function of a place is not only good to
preserve the public health but also can increase the safety and security according to the
standard. On the other hand, low quality place inspires and motivates more crimes.
5. Information
The clarity of information that provides signage, way of findings, and the identification
of places can strengthened the place function and avoid confusion to people in the
vicinity, especially those who bypassing or travelling by walking in the TOD area.
This paper was a feasibility study on public perception about the level sufficiency of
CPTED implementation and the overall perceived security among people who used MRT
and who conducted activities in the area of 800 meter of TOD station precinct. The case
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study conducted in the Bundaran HI MRT Station. Bundaran HI station is part of the North-
South corridor of MRT Jakarta that connects Lebak Bulus and KMP. Bandan. The corridor
is 25km in length, covered some underground and elevated stations, included Bundaran
HI as one of the underground station.
The overall study consisted of (1) the preliminary data on rapid assessment of
CPTED implementation in Bundaran HI Station and its perceived security and (2) the
extended survey of CPTED implementation in the TOD Bundaran HI Station precinct and
its perceived security (3) the extended survey of CPTED and its perceived security,
adjusting for population influx and diffusion of benefits. This paper covers only the first
and second part of the research.
Figure 1. Map of North-South Corridor of the MRT Jakarta
METHODS
This paper covers two discussion on implementation of CPTED according to the
scope of location. The first one is the assessment of CPTED in the TOD station area, a 800
meter radius from Bundaran HI station, refers as dataset 1. The second one is the
assessment of CPTED that focuses especially inside the Bundaran HI MRT Station, refers as
dataset 2.
The first dataset consisted of data from a primary survey that was conducted on 2 -
4 Febuari 2020. The survey located on the entry and exit gate of Bundaran HI Stasiun,
resulting in 100 participants by accidental survey method. The second dataset collected
during the observation survey on 20 to 22 June 2019 inside the Bundaran HI station and
continued with the online survey on 22 June to 3 July 2019, recorded in 45 participants.
The perception survey conducted based on 1 to 5 Likert Scale. The Likert method
used in this study followed the Asian Development Bank (ADB)’s study (Leather et al.,
2011) which used the standard 5 point scale Likert to survey the perception on crime
aspect. The criteria is explained as follows:
Scale 1: Environment feels very dangerous pedestrians are highly susceptible to crime
Scale 2: Environment feels dangerous pedestrians are at some risk of crime
Scale 3: Difficult to ascertain perceived degree of security for pedestrians
Scale 4: Environment feels secure pedestrians at minimal crime risk
Scale 5: Environment feels secure pedestrian at virtually no risk of crime
The perception on crime was collected to assess the overall perceived security and
the role of the CPTED components had to increase the security feeling toward crime as
perceived by the respondents.
On the first dataset, survey was collected to assess the overall perceived security
about the TOD area of Bundaran HI station and the role of the CPTED components had, to
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increase the security feeling toward crime as perceived by the respondents. On this first
dataset of the perception survey, respondents were asked questions on the perception of
security level on the station precinct or TOD area. Questions are listed as follows, for
which each of this question has been accompanied with a photo taken from the TOD area.
Table 1. The Crime Perception Survey for the First Dataset
No. of
question
CPTED components and lists of questions:
I feel secure from crime when I live or work or doing activities in the vicinity of…
#
parameters
Natural surveillance
(ns)
Natural acess
control (nac)
Maintenance
(mat)
Information
(inf)
1.
Offices/commercial
with natural
landscape as
physical barrier
along the Arterial
corridor
Visible
aesthetic fence
for house
building
Good quality
office
material
made from
concrete
The
building
Icon for
station
entry with
signage
2.
Offices/commercial
with natural
landscape as
physical barrier
along the secondary
(collector road)
corridor
Fortress semi-
visible style
fence for house
building
good quality
office
material
made from
cheramic
Signage on
public
building
with
greenbelt as
territory
3.
Offices/commercial
with natural
landscape as
physical barrier
along the tertiary
(local road) corridor
Fortress non-
visible style
fence for house
building
Good quality
office
material
made from
glasses
Signage on
public
building
with
greenbelt as
territory
and fence
4.
Lighting on street
un-obstructed
Office or bank
without fence
Vandalism
on passive
(quiet) wall
5.
Lighting on street
obstructed
Visible
aesthetic fence
for
commercial/
bank building
Rubbish on
the passive
(quiet)
corridor
6.
Busy commercial
area at night with
sufficient lighting
Fortress semi-
visible style
fence for office
building
Rubbish on
active public
area
7.
Active residential
area at night with
sufficient lighting
Mechanic/
automatic
portal at entry
gate of office/
commercial
area
8.
Quiet residential
area at night without
portal
Manual portal
at entry gate of
office/
commercial
area
9.
Quiet residential
area at night with
portal
No-portal
available at
entry gate of
office/
commercial
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No. of
question
CPTED components and lists of questions:
I feel secure from crime when I live or work or doing activities in the vicinity of…
#
parameters
Natural surveillance
(ns)
Natural acess
control (nac)
Maintenance
(mat)
Information
(inf)
area
10.
Transparent
physical barrier for
offices building
11.
Transparent
physical barrier for
public area (park)
12.
Transparent
physical barrier for
retail inside the
building
13.
Transparent
physical barrier for
retail shop along the
street
14.
Area with CCTV
15.
Public area without
CCTV
16.
Supporting activity:
traditional market
17.
Supporting activity:
warung (traditional
shop) in residential
mix
18.
The presence of
security officer
19.
The presence of
police office
Source: Analysis, 2019
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On the second dataset of the perception survey, respondents were asked questions
on the perception of security level inside the station that are listed as follows:
1. The overall perceived security
I feel secure from crime when I walk around and inside the area of station
I feel secure from crime during travelling inside the MRT train
2. Security perception due to the CPTED “natural surveillance”
I feel secure from crime due to the instalment of the CCTV in the station
I feel secure from crime due to patrols and security staffs on duty in the station
3. Security perception due to the CPTED “lighting”
The level of lighting in the station before you get on to platform is sufficient
I feel secure from crime due to (the above stated) level of lighting in the area before
the platform
The level of lighting in the station on the platform is sufficient
I feel secure from crime due to (the above stated) level of lighting on the platform
4. Security perception due to the CPTED “territorial reinforcement”
I feel secure from crime due to the instalment of queueing line (ribbon) during
queueing for ticket
I feel secure from crime due to the instalment of barrier to entry during tap card in
and out
5. Security perception due to the CPTED “information level”
The level of information and signage in the station is sufficient
I feel secure from crime due to sufficiency of information and signage inside the
station
6. Security perception due to the CPTED “maintenance”
The number of rubbish bin facility inside the station is sufficient
I feel secure from crime due to the sufficiency of cleanliness inside the station
As for dataset 1, statistical descriptives in terms of spider graphs were used to
compare between CPTED parameter in each CPTED component, and compare then
compare the scale or rating between the CPTED components.
As for dataset 2, statistical descriptives in terms of spider graphs were used to
compare the scale values between set of categories of respondents. To fulfil a fair
comparison, a statistical test of ANOVA and t-test were carried out on the basis to compare
between categories as follows (table 2).
Table 2. The Type of Statistical Test for Comparison Among Two Population in The Design of Perceived Security
Responses
Dependent
variable
Independent variable
Comparison category
Independent variable
Crime
perception
Pattern of travel time when
using MRT
1 = daytime
2 = night time
Paired samples t-test
analysis
Gender
1 = male
2 = female
Independent sample t-
test analysis
Pattern of location when
access the station
1 = station as origin
2= station as destination
Independent sample t-
test analysis
Modes type for station
access
1 = private vehicles
2 = online paratransit
3 = public transport
One-way ANOVA
Source: Analysis, 2019
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FINDINGS
1. Dataset 1: Crime perception survey in the vicinity of TOD station precint of Bundaran
HI
Results from dataset 1 collected from 100 respondents on the entry and entrance
gate of the station were depicted in figure 2 and 6. Dataset 1 assessed the rate of security
in the Bundaran HI TOD precinct based on CPTED. There were 5 components CPTED, in
which each component described by set of parameters as discussed in table 1. Figure 2
consisted of the comparison of parameters in within each of CPTED components, while
figure 3 compares each of the components and the overall CPTED rating for Bundaran HI
TOD station precinct.
Fig. 2.a. CPTED rating for NS parameters
Fig. 2.b. CPTED rating for TR parameters
Fig. 2.c. CPTED rating for NAC
parameters
Fig. 2.d. CPTED rating for MAT
parameters
Fig. 2.e. CPTED rating for INF
parameters
Figure 2. CPTED Rating for Each Security Parameters
Figure 2, informs that for natural surveillance component, 10 out of 19 parameters has
been rated above 3, means residents, workers and bypasser are likely to feel secure in
doing activities in the area of Bundaran HI station precint. The lowest rating scored for
parameter quiet residential area without portal and public area without CCTV, both have
scored below 2.5. The rest of parameters rated below 3 have shown similar patterns, i.e.
for all land use types (residential, market, commercial/offices), the disturbance of the
role/function of the places with illegal activities has found to be a cause for feeling
insecurity in the vicinity. This happened, for example (see figure 3), the obstruction such
as road side friction due to intensity of road side activities had created obstruction for
surveillance and reduce the capability of having a clear sighltlines along the office and
commercial corridor, especially at/along the tertiary (local road) and secondary (collector
road) corridor. Illegal parking activities especially motorcylces and also illegal street
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merchant has also created obstruction for surveillance, although, for example, the
office/commercial/residential building already has landscaping as physical barriers. On
the other hand, the study for NS showed that transparent physical barriers score better
than landscape physical barriers. All remaining parameters that rated above 3 have
showed the pattern of a good and sufficient lighting, and other organisational or
mechanistic surveillance such as the presence of security officers/policeman/police
offices, and CCTV camera. Primary corridor such as corridor along the arterial road had
advantages on wide pedestrian, clear sightlines, and free from the obstruction due to
illegal street merchant or illegal parking along the corridor, thus simple landscaping as
physical barrier still created a good level of secure feeling (rating above 3).
Example of corridor with many obstruction
from road-side activities, obstructed
sightlines and weaken natural surveillance
Example of corridor with illegal street
merchant, illegal parking could obstructed
sightlined and weaken natural surveillance
Figure 3. CPTED Rating Below 3 for Natural Surveillance Parameters (Example)
As for the territorial reinforcement parameters, 13 out of 19 parameters rated
below 3, suggested residents, workers and bypasser are likely to feel insecure in doing
activities in the area of Bundaran HI station precint due to the weakness in territorial
reinforcement. The territorial reinforcement mainly discussed the security in vehicle
parking. Parking without sufficient territorial reinforcement is likely to expose to more
risks. For example, parking on street for individual in the residential area with typically
narrow alley, supposed to be more vulnerable, especially residential area with no portal,
and no security officer on patrol (see figure 4). Informal communal parking also scored
low although staff was presence, but the design and conventionality of the parking area
with no portal has created insecure feeling in the mind of residents for the presence of
threat (see figure 4). The remaining TR parameters that rated well comprise for full
measures in types of securing elements in TR, such as the presence of portals, security
officers on patrol, and CCTV altogether, especially to secure parking areas. Accompanied
these measures also the presence of sufficient lighting and a clear signage for information.
Natural access control rated mostly high (more than 3 in score), only 1 parameter
rated below 3 out of 9 parameters. Most of measures that perceived as sufficient access
control showed by the presence of territorial reinforecement in any types of measures that
furthermore will allow for access control (figure 5). For example, in residential buildings,
any types of fence rated above 3 (aesthetic, semi-fortress, and fortress-like fence). For
commercial area, any types of portals (manual or automatic portal) also rated above 3. The
full or complete measures also preferable, especially providing staff at patrols and CCTV
can strengthened the implementation of access control.
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Example of territory along the tertiary corridor
(neigborhood street or alley) which lack of
maintenance and informal activity along the
corridor weaken the ownership of territory and
territorial reinforcement.
Example of narrow pedestrian territory
that is obstructed by parking and rubbish
carts that weaken the territorial
reinforecement
Example of individual vehicle parking in
residential zone without portal or fence weaken
territorial reinforcement
Example communal parking with
conventional design without portal weaken
territorial reinforcement
Figure 4. CPTED Rating below 3 for Territorial Reinforcement Parameters (Example)
Example of natural access control with
fully measures: automatic portal,
security post and CCTV
Example of natural access control with partial
measures: with manual portal and without portal,
the presence of security officer
Example of natural access control with
fencing in residential zone: type of
aesthetic fencing
Example of natural access control with fencing in
residential zone and offices: type of semi-fortress
and fortress fencing
Figure 5. CPTED Rating Above 3 for Natural Access Control Parameters (Example)
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The last two components (maintenance and information) only measures in
limited way. However, these two components actually the most important one in
supporting the implementation of other CPTED components. Area with rubbish and illegal
vandalism created the lowest rating compare to the overall CPTED parameters in
comparison. Noted that from NS, TR, and NAC findings, the poor design aspects (no portal,
no barrier for illgal activity, no patrol) actually leads to poor maintenance; the area
became neglected since no maintenance established. Furtermore, these may create low
sense of belonging, low sense of place, and people are likely to avoid, thus no active place
in surrounds and altoghter weaken the abilty for natural surveillance and weaked the
ability for territorial reinforcement so it is difficult to avoid ‘outsider’ and if there were
criminal intention, it would be difficult to detect prior or eliminate the risk faster.
The overall CPTED rating for each component describes in figure 6. Figure 6.a.
presents the rating for all 56 parameters among the 5 components; while figure 6.b.
presents the overall rating for each of the CPTED component. Noted that 47.4% of natural
surveillance parameters rated below 3, while the territorial reinforcement 68.4% were
rated below 3, and for maintenance 50% were rated below 3. On the other hand, only 11%
of natural access control parameters were rated below 3 and no parameters for
information rated below 3. Overall, the rating averaged for all parameters were (from the
lowest mean to the highest mean values): maintenance (2.7), territorial reinforcement
(2.9), natural surveillance (3.2), information (3.4), and natural access control (3.5).
Fig. 6.a. CPTED rating for each parameter of the
components
Fig. 6.b. The overall CPTED rating for each of
the CPTED components
Figure 6. The Overall CPTED Rating
2. Dataset 2: Crime perception survey inside the Bundaran HI station
The first analysis applied the Likert Scale on each of the perception toward crime and on
the role of CPTED component had to reduce risk of crime. The results are listed in the
following table (table 3). The table compares and contrasts the rating based on nightime
and daytime activities; and from within the CPTED component and between component
comparison. The result showed all perception rated above 3 (between no dangerous to
almost feels secure),
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Table 3. CPTED Rating Inside TOD Bundaran HI Station Based on Daytime and Night Time Travelers’ Crime
Perception
The Perception Survey on CRIME Based on CPTED Rating
Daytime
Night time
I feel secure from crime when I walk around and inside the area of station
4.2
3.94
I feel secure from crime during travelling inside the MRT train
4.074
4.3125
Mean of the overall perceived security score
4.13
4.125
The level of lighting in the station before you get on to platform is sufficient
4.22
4.25
I feel secure from crime due to (the above stated) level of lighting in the area
before the platform
4
4.25
The level of lighting in the station on the platform is sufficient
4.185
4.3125
I feel secure from crime due to (the above stated) level of lighting on the
platform
4.074
4.25
Mean of the perceived security score due to CPTED "LIGHTING"
4.037
4.25
I feel secure from crime due to the instalment of the CCTV in the station
3.963
4.375
I feel secure from crime due to patrols and security staffs on duty in the
station
4.52
4.5
Mean of the perceived security score due to CPTED "NATURAL SURVEILLANCE"
4.24
4.44
I feel secure from crime due to the instalment of queueing line (ribbon)
during queueing for ticket
4.074
4.188
I feel secure from crime due to the instalment of barrier to entry during tap
card in and out
3.815
3.94
Mean of the perceived security score due to CPTED "TERRITORIAL
REINFORCEMENT"
3.94
4.0625
The level of information and signage in the station is sufficient
3.78
4.125
I feel secure from crime due to sufficiency of information and signage inside the
station
3.74
4.125
Mean of the perceived security score due to CPTED "INFORMASI"
3.76
4.125
The number of rubbish bin facility inside the station is sufficient
3.33
3.3125
I feel secure from crime due to the sufficiency of cleanliness inside the station
3.815
4.188
Mean of the perceived security score due to CPTED "MAINTENANCE"
3.574
3.75
The second analysis applied these Likert scale in the classification of responses based on
time pattern, location pattern, and the gender-based subject pattern. Based on time
pattern (figure 4.a), respondent that travelled during daytime scored “4.13” on “the overall
perceived security”. This score came from 37% respondent that gave responses “5”on the
scale, 48% respondents scored “4”, 11% respondents scored “3”, and only 3.7%
respondents scored “2”. The derived scores on each CPTD components were as followed:
Natural Surveillance” was scored “4.24” on average, then “Lighting”, “Territorial”,
“Information”, and “Maintenance” were scored “4.04”, “3.94”, “3.76” and “3.57” on Likert
scale respectively.
By the same method, analysis on respondents that travelled on night time resulted scored
“3.93” on “the overall perceived security”. The scores on each CPTD components were
collected as such that “Natural Surveillance” was scored “4.44” on average, then “Lighting”,
“Information”, “Territorial”, and “Maintenance” were scored “4.25”, “4.13”, “4.06” and
“3.75” on average in Likert scale respectively.
Comparison of the perceived security scores based on the location pattern (only for
respondents travelling during daytime) was performed in figure 4b. Location of station
defined as point of origin or point of destination. It was assumed that people who travelled
from the residential area would board on station as their origin point, and people who
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arrived to non-residential area would align on station as their destination point. The
results showed that the overall perceived security and the score for each of the CPTED
component were scored higher for station as origin than that of station as destination. On
the overall perceived security, station as origin scored 4.23 compared to 4.14 for station as
origin. “Natural Surveillance” scored 4.3 (origin) as compared to 4.18 (destination).
Subsequently, “Territorial reinforcement” was scored 4.115 (origin) compared to 3.786
(destination), “Lighting” was scored 4.07 (origin) compared to 4.0 (destination);
“Information” was scored 3.80 (origin) compared to 3.71 (destination), and lastly,
“Maintenance” was scored the lowest from all respondents, i.e. 3.80 (origin) compared to
3.36 (destination).
Comparison of the perceived security scores based on the subject pattern (only for
respondents travelling during daytime) was performed in figure 4.c. Subject pattern
defined as gender of respondents, i.e. category 1 (female) and category 2 (male). While the
score of overall perceived security was higher for male than female, the score pattern of
each component of CPTED from each gender category was inconsistent. Male scored 4.33
compared to female 4.14 in regard with the overall perceived security. Male scored higher
on some CPTED compared, such as “Lighting”, i.e. 4.25 compared to female that scored
3.98; and “Maintenance” was scored 3.58 (male) as compared to 3.57 (female). On the
other hand, female scored higher on ”Natural surveillance”, “Territorial reinforcement”
and “Information”, whereas the score subsequently were 4.3, 3.95 and 3.8 (female)
compared to 4.0, 3.92 and 3.50 (male). Illustration on the findings is presented in figure 7.
Figure 7.a
Figure 7.b
Figure 7.c
Source: Primary survey, 2019
Figure 7. Comparison Between CPTED Elements in Relation with the Responses Classification for the ((7.a) Time
Pattern; (7.b) Location Pattern; (7.c.) Subject Based on Gender)
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The third analysis tested the statistical differences in the responses among respondents to
determine the significance of statistics of comparing the mean value among two
population. The perceived overall security among night time and daytime travellers were
compared. The paired t-test sample showed on 95% level of confidence, there was no
statistical difference on the perceived security score among the two respondents.
Similarly, the t-test and the one-way ANOVA conducted to test differences in the perceived
security scores among responses based on location pattern and subject pattern found no
significance statistical differences.
The fourth analysis conducted the influence of perceived security on the type of modes
being used for station access. For the fourth analysis, many data are incompleted
(missing), therefore the data only pictured for 27 responses. The descriptive data on the
perceived security based on type of mode being used is described in the following graph
(figure 8). Descriptive data showed 51% of respondents used private vehicles to access
station, 18% used online paratransit, while the amount of 30% used Transjakarta. This
figure may subtle a good intermodal connectivity between MRT Bundaran HI and
Transjakarta Busway. However, the crosstab analysis (chi-square test) gave insignificant
results. The value of chi-square was 7.34. The p-value as showed in the “asymptotic
significance (2-sided)” showed the value 0.29 has resulted in the p-value higher that the
standard alpha value (0.05), therefore the null hypothesis was not rejected that asserted
that the perceived security scores was independent (no-association) with the type of mode
chosen for station access. There was no influence of the level of security as perceived by
respondents about the MRT station on the type of mode uses to access the MRT Station at
Bundaran HI.
DISCUSSION
Findings from dataset 1 highlighted the implementation of CPTED component in rather in
different natures and nuances as compared to the original concept formulated in
developed cities in USA cities. There are at least two reasons comprises the differences.
First, literatures in CPTED suggested that the three most importance CPTED component
has been always found consisted of access control, natural surveillance, and territorial
reinforecement (Jeffery, 1972; Sorensen et al., 2013; Steventon, 2012). These components
rooted from the same source about “eyes on street” concept developed by Jane Jacobs in
1961, and later modified and developed as Defensible Space theory by Oscar Newman in
1970s and Jeffrey in 1972 (Cozens & Love, 2015). The idea of defensible space was to able
to create the transition between public area and private area by creating semi-public and
semi-private space (Sorensen et al., 2013). However, findings from this study suggested
that as one could acknowledge, there are problems of poor territorial re-inforcement in
TOD precinct. These have emerged particularly in the second and third layer of the TOD
precinct, root-caused from the limited and rare space of the city. Provision of semi-private
and semi-public space in between the private and public area has become a “no man’s
island issue as no clear direction who should provide these area since the private
property owners and residents especially in local neighbourhood area and kampong are
still competing space for vehicle parking and other utilities. Narrow alley, narrow to
almost zero pedestrian are often found in most of local roads in neigborhood area. Thus, as
found in this study, poor territorial re-inforcement in the study area assigned with the
rating only 2.9 and almost 70% out of 19 parameters rated below 3. Therefore, the
important problem in design aspect of TOD precinct has laid on the ideas of re-claimed
more space for public uses and for the provision of semi-public and semi-private space. In
addition, another important problems is to ordering the clear place function and
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utilization based on strengthening the zoning and its implementation to avoid illegal use
for example illegal street merchant or parking.
Types of modes used for
station access
X-axis:
1= Private vehicle
2= Online paratransit
3= Public transport
(Transjakarta)
Y-axis:
Frequency of responses
Total responses= 27
CPTED “Lighting”
CPTED “Natural surveillance”
CPTED “Territorial”
CPTED “Information”
CPTED “Maintenance”
The Overall perceived security
Figure 8. CPTED Rating Based on Score Responses on Types of Modes Uses to Access Station
Second, the uniqueness of local nuisance in the implementation of CPTED in this
study is low maintenance. Low maintenance can come from low property ownership or
sense of belonging in the neighbourhood. The root cause for these issues can be again a
complex social-cultural issues that hard to be handled. As we found, the secondary or
tertiary layer of TOD, for example, in Bundaran HI precinct are comprised of informal
settlement or Kampung that sometimes has problems of poverty and slums. However, this
informal sector has actually living side-by-side with the urban life in metropolitan Jakarta
as it also give provision for services and cheap resources (labors, foods, etc) for the core
area. Jakarta that invites many migrants can create a vulnerability as well in terms of low
sense of belonging of the neigborhood area. As we found from the study, maintenance
component has rated the lowest, i.e. only 2.7 among all other CPTED components. Noted
that poor maintenance leads to the area became neglected and furthermore people are
likely to avoid, thus no active place in surrounds and altoghter weaken the abilty for
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natural surveillance and weaked the ability for territorial reinforcement. Therefore, low
maintenance may lead to weaken other CPTED components. It is difficult to avoid
‘outsider’ and if there were coming with some criminal intention, it would be difficult to
detect prior or eliminate the risk faster.
Finding from dataset 1 has resulted in at least two recommendation. First, territorial
reinforcement need to be strengthened in order that a place can have a clear of property
and ownership. This can be enhanced by providing a transition elements from private
building to semi private, and semi public to public building based on zoning regulation.
The transtition elements could be created by allowing more spaces that are signaged by a
clear information about who can/cannot allow to do what types of activities in the vicinity;
and to where bypassers should be directed in wayfinding in order not to intervene or
disturb the private property. More importantly, a strict zoning implementation should be
promoted especially to avoid unintended use of places due to illegal road side activities or
illegal public space utiliziation. Second, the promotion of place maintenance at community
level can be supported by local government by providing funding support or other form of
capacity buildings. These supported can be directed to local schools, local organization,
traditional markets, and many kampong that surroundings the city core, especially in the
vicinity of 800 meter radius from the station precinct. A collaborative planning based on
community development may help in the realization of ideas for example to design an
aesthetic Kampongs that are well maintain, clean, in a good order of place allocation and
function. All efforts could create a good degree of sense of belonging and active space for
natural surveillance.
Dataset 2 has focussed on the CPTED implementation in the MRT station itself.
Dataset 2 explored the perceived security among MRT users and found that all the CPTED
components have rated above 3 and some of the scored are 4 or more. The study also
explored the variation in the rating based on time pattern, place pattern, and subject that
travelled. It was interesting that based on the overall perceived security score,
respondents who travelled during night time have given lower scored on the overall
perceived security compared to those who travelled during daytime. This finding aligned
with other study that suggested the perceived security is lower at night compared to
daytime especially in the urban transit area (The international center for the prevention of
crime., 2014). Nevertheless, the score received on each CPTED component from night time
travellers were slightly higher than that of received from daytime travellers. These results
implied a higher appreciation or probably a higher need of night-time travellers toward
instalment and fulfilment of each of CPTED component to support a secure feeling from
crime as compare to their patron of daytime travellers. Night time travellers scored 4.4 for
“Natural Surveillance” as compared to 4.24 from daytime travellers. Subsequently,
“Lighting” was scored 4.25 compared to 4.04, “Information” was scored 4.13 compared to
3.76; “Territorial” was scored 4.06 compared to 3.94, and lastly, “Maintenance” was
scored the lowest from both respondents, i.e. 3.75 from night time travellers compared to
3.57 from daytime travellers.
The statistic descriptives according to the variation of time pattern, location pattern,
and subject based on gender from this study suggested that while they was variation on
the perception scores, nevertheless they had not been significance when statistically being
tested. However, the variation maybe regarded still important as other studies found the
similar results. According to the time pattern of crime may take place, certain types of
crime may take place in different time pattern. For example, theft often happened on busy
daytime, while violence often take place at nigh time on a quiet location such as public
transport or station. This classification may suggest the importance to differentiate the
time pattern of crime according to certain type of crime situation, for example, theft,
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violence, or sexual assault (The international center for the prevention of crime., 2014).
Nonetheless, this research recorded only perception on general crime.
On the other hand, a research conducted by Calgary Transit showed 20% of the
community perceived lower security during nigh time (The international center for the
prevention of crime., 2014). This finding similar to this study that found perceived security
during nigh time was lower than that of daytime. In addition, this study found that
perceived security during nigh time in the area inside the station had been lower than the
area inside the MRT Jakarta train. Similar finding also reported in other studies, for
example, in Bogota, 95% respondent said the route along the transit was not secure, while
the route to access the transit point was not secured as perceived by 79% of respondent,
while 68% feel insecurity inside the public transport vehicle (International Centre for the
Prevention of Crime, 2012, Camara de Comercio de Bogota, 2015 in CIPC, 2016). The
finding by CIPC also implied the differences in the perceived security according to location
pattern.
In terms of the perceived security among the subject according to gender type, this
study found mix results, reported that while the overall perceived security was higher
among male and the perceived security due to CPTED lighting and maintenance were
higher among male, but the perceived security due to CPTED natural surveillance,
territorial reinforcement and information were higher among female. Other study
suggested that although women in general had lower security perception (feel insecure),
data showed male frequently become the victim of crime than female (CIPC 2016).
Finally, the theoretical hypothesis as stated in some studies that stated the
perceived of crime about public transport environment and TOD station would influence
the choice of mode to access the station (Ferrell. et al., 2015), had not been proven true in
this study.
CONCLUSION
Finding from the first dataset at a wider context of CPTED implementation, out of 56
parameters, 26 parameters or almost halve have rated below 3, alarmed for a more
comprehensive design and intervention at the TOD neighbourhood level that emphasizes
on the implementation of CPTED principles. Finding from the Bundarin HI station context
showed that under the Likert scale 1 (the lowest risk) to 5 (the highest risk), most of the
CPTED rated from 4 5. There were a variation in the perceived security among different
respondents based on gender, time pattern, location pattern, and mode chosen for station
access. This study found perceived security during nigh time was lower than that of
daytime, and specifically found that perceived security during nigh time in the area inside
the station had been lower than the area inside the MRT Jakarta train. In terms of the
perceived security among the subject according to gender type, this study found mix
results, reported that while the overall perceived security was higher among male and the
perceived security due to CPTED lighting and maintenance were higher among male, but
the perceived security due to CPTED natural surveillance, territorial reinforcement and
information were higher among female. However, aside from these variations, there was
no significant differences in the perception among groups of MRT users when statistically
being tested. Furthermore, the theoretical hypothesis of whether perceived of crime on
public transportation environment would influence the choice of modes to access the
station, has not yet been confirmed. These preliminary findings suggested that the
Bundaran HI TOD station is secured from crime risk according to perception of MRT users;
therefore little variation in the rating of perceived security gave little information to draw
any association with other important variables such as the mode choice for station access.
However, taken the measures on wider context at the TOD precinct, the rating of CPTED
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consistently lower in all components, suggested the urban design and land use zoning-and
transportation intervention that consider CPTED principles to be emphasizing at wider
area to support the security of the station.
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