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A holistic approach to optimize and promote Bike-Sharing Systems, through an integrated action plan

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Bike-sharing systems are an important part of many cities’ transportation systems and they are constantly being introduced in more and more cities worldwide. Thus, the strategic decisions for these systems are essential both for their successful operation and the efficient operation of cities’ transportation systems. The present paper aims to develop a methodological approach for determining the optimal locations for installing bike-sharing stations, taking into account the operators’ perspective. Through the developed methodological approach, it is sought to select locations which maximize the demand and the area (built environment) coverage and at the same time minimize the needs for bike redistribution within the day. Thus, the optimal selection of locations for bike-sharing stations is being set as a multi-objective optimization problem. The proposed methodological approach is being applied in the city of Thessaloniki, Greece, where a dock-based and a dockless bike-sharing system operate. The results indicate that the selected stations slightly vary based on the assigned weights in each of the three objectives; higher weight in the demand coverage objective results in more selected stations close to the city’s waterfront where bicycling demand is higher, while higher weight in the area coverage results in more selected stations in the inner city.
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In this paper, we explore users' intentions to use bike-sharing systems (BSS) compared to traditional competitive transport modes-private car, bus and walking. Fueled by the increasingly rampant growth of shared economy and Information and Communication Technology (ICT), shared mobility is gaining increasing traction. The numbers of shared mobility schemes are rapidly growing worldwide and are accompanied by changes in the traditional vehicle ownership model. In order to pinpoint the factors that strongly affect the willingness to use BSS, a stated preference survey among car and bus users as well as pedestrians was designed and conducted. Binary logit models of the choice between the currently preferred transportation modes and BSSs were developed, for short and long-duration trips, respectively. The results highlight a distinctive set of factors and patterns affecting the willingness to adopt bike-sharing: choice is most sensitive to travel time and cost of the competitive travel options. In general, users are more willing to make the switch to a BSS, especially for short trip durations, when their typical mode of transport becomes more expensive. Bike-sharing also seems to be a more attractive option for certain user socio-demographic groups per mode and trip duration (age, education level, employment status, household income). Trip characteristics such as trip purpose and frequency were also found to affect the willingness to choose BSS. In general, BSS seem to mainly attract bus users and pedestrians, while car users may use BSS more sparingly, mainly for commuting purposes.
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The rapid emergence of dockless bikeshare systems has had a considerable influence on individuals’ daily mobility patterns. However, information is still limited regarding the role that sociodemographics, social environments, travel attitudes and the built environment play on the adoption and usage of dockless bikeshare systems. To gain insight into what influences individuals to start and continue to use dockless bikeshare systems, this study sets out to assess the influential factors that are related to individuals’ initial adoption and frequency of usage of this transportation mode. A survey was conducted among the residents of Beijing to assess their usage of dockless bikeshare systems. A binary logistic regression is employed to assess travel mode adoption, and a set of hurdle negative binominal regressions is used to assess the travel frequency for four trip purposes. The results reveal that dockless bikeshare systems are more popular among younger, higher educated, or median-income groups and appear to be gender-independent. The total number of kilometers of roads within an individual’s neighborhood was reported to be positively associated with having higher odds of dockless bikeshare adoption, while the total length of bicycle paths does not show a significant relationship. Having a pro-bicycle attitude was found to play a strong positive role in deciding whether to use the dockless bikeshare system initially, but it became less important in determining bikeshare users’ frequency of usage. Finally, this study confirms that it is relevant to consider various trip purposes when exploring individuals’ travel behavior and dockless bikeshare usage.
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Due to increased traffic congestion and carbon emissions, Bike Sharing Systems (BSSs) are adopted in various cities for short distance travels, specifically for last mile transportation. The success of a bike sharing system depends on its ability to have bikes available at the "right" base stations at the "right" times. Typically, carrier vehicles are used to perform repositioning of bikes between stations so as to satisfy customer requests. Owing to the uncertainty in customer demand and day-long repositioning, the problem of having bikes available at the right base stations at the right times is a challenging one. In this paper, we propose a multi-stage stochastic formulation, to consider expected future demand over a set of scenarios to find an efficient repositioning strategy for bike sharing systems. Furthermore, we provide a Lagrangian decomposition approach (that decouples the global problem into routing and repositioning slaves and employs a novel DP approach to efficiently solve routing slave) and a greedy online anticipatory heuristic to solve large scale problems effectively and efficiently. Finally, in our experimental results, we demonstrate significant reduction in lost demand provided by our techniques on real world datasets from two bike sharing companies in comparison to existing benchmark approaches.
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Gamification is dramatically transforming how behaviour change interventions are delivered in fields as diverse as health, physical activity, education, information studies and marketing. Most studies see gamification as a way of introducing gameful design (e.g., competition and social activity) into behavioural interventions. Gamification is often tied to using new digital technologies, especially smartphone apps and, although these might be enabling, there is no theoretical underpinning for making this a necessary condition. In comparison to other sectors, the design of gameful interventions in transport is under developed. Interventions that have or are introducing gamified designs include road safety and travel demand management initiatives and these have been shown to be more ongoingly successful than strategies which do not employ gameful designs. This paper explores gamification in the context of transport with the aim of proposing a framework for the design and implementation of gameful designs, providing a synthesis and critical appraisal of current practice. The proposed framework is underpinned by theoretical discussion and illustrated by case studies that have implemented some elements of gameful design. The framework is designed to lay the groundwork for greater implementation of gamified design in transport and mobility contexts to take advantage of the potential greater success in achieving travel behaviour change as well as highlighting how existing schemes could be improved and providing guidance for future research into gamification.
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This paper reports on analysis of over 50 London transport and cycling strategy documents. Both image and text were analysed, in exploring representations of disabled people, particularly as cyclists or potential cyclists. It remains unusual for disabled people's cycling to be considered within broader transport strategy documents; instead they are overwhelmingly conceptualised as public transport users and pedestrians. By contrast it was more usual for cycling strategies to at least mention disabled people as cyclists or potential cyclists. However, discussion of policies that might increase disabled people's participation in cycling was often limited to general aspirations or references to leisure cycling clubs and training. Few images in cycling strategies (and even less so transport strategies) showed non-standard cycles of the kind used by some disabled cyclists. Disabled people's cycling (and barriers to cycling) needs further research and a policy approach that targets social and structural exclusion from cycling, not only individual ability and attitudes. More thought needs to be given to a range of types of disability and how these might affect cycling needs.
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This study explores the impact of bicycle-sharing infrastructure on urban transportation. We estimate a causal effect of the Capital Bikeshare on traffic congestion in the metropolitan Washington, D.C., area. We exploit a unique traffic dataset that is finely defined on a spatial and temporal scale. Our approach examines within-city commuting decisions as opposed to traffic patterns on major thruways. Empirical results suggest that the availability of a bikeshare reduces traffic congestion upwards of 4% within a neighborhood. In addition, we estimate heterogeneous treatment effects using panel quantile regression. Results indicate that the congestion-reducing impact of bikeshares is concentrated in highly congested areas.
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Low levels of engagement while driving can pose road safety risks, e.g., inattention during low traffic or routine trips. Interactive technologies that increase task engagement could therefore offer safety benefits, e.g., through performance feedback, increased challenge, and incentives. As a means to build upon these notions, we chose to explore gamification of the driving task. The research aim was to study how to design gamified applications that make safe driving more engaging. We present six design lenses which bring into focus considerations most relevant to creating engaging car applications. A user study enhanced our understanding of design requirements and revealed user personas to support the development of such applications. These lenses and personas informed two prototypes, which we evaluated in driving simulator studies. Our results indicate that the gamified conditions increased driver engagement and reduced driving speeds. As such, our work contributes towards the design of engaging applications that are both appropriate to the safety-critical driving context and compelling to users.
Article
Governments should do all they can to encourage commuters to cycle or walk Physical inactivity increases the risk of many diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers.1 Many adults are not attracted to sports and other leisure time physical activities but may be motivated to integrate physical activity into their everyday lives. Commuting by walking and cycling are such activities. In Denmark, cycling is embedded in the national culture for two reasons: it is easier to navigate cities by bicycle than by car, and taxation on new cars is punitive. A link between cycling and health benefits has been clear for some years—my colleagues and I first reported in 2000 that all cause mortality was 30% lower in cyclists compared with non-cyclists after multivariate adjustment.2 Since then, many studies have consistently reported lower rates of cardiovascular disease,34 type 2 diabetes,5 cancers,4 and mortality6 associated with cycling compared with not cycling. Other studies …
Article
Cycling can offer health benefits, and these benefits are relevant for disabled people. Few disabled people cycle, and disability is under-researched in cycling studies. This paper (i) reviews current research into disabled cycling, and provides a critique of inclusive cycle design guidance; and (ii) reports on a recent study which highlights some of the significant issues faced by disabled cyclists in accessing cycle infrastructure and using designated cycle networks. A semi-structured focus group was conducted with eight inclusive cycle scheme users, seven care providers supporting the majority of the cyclists, and the scheme organiser. We conclude that the needs of disabled cyclists are increasingly being taken into consideration in infrastructure design guidance, but there are many issues to be resolved before cycling is accessible to and usable by disabled people. There is little research on understanding the experiences of disabled cyclists, and hence there is a knowledge gap concerning the efficacy of current design guidance. The data presented in this paper provide a useful first insight into the experiences of a group of disabled cyclists, but these data are limited to the specific context of that group. Further research is needed.
Article
This study investigates the use of both monetary and non-monetary incentives delivered through mobile phones, as a way of modifying citizens’ behaviour, specifically when it comes to generating modal shift towards more environmentally friendly modes of transport such as walking and cycling. A field study was carried out in the city of Bogota, Colombia using the concept of gamification. 20 subjects recorded their commuting trips for a two week period using a smartphone app that was developed specifically for this purpose. Statistical analysis of the data showed that, even though there was an observed percentage change in mode choice from week 1 to week 2 towards higher incentivised modes (i.e. cycling and walking), the change is not statistically significant and therefore cannot be attributed to the incentives delivered during week 2. Furthermore even though there was an increase in the total time and distance recorded by the entire group of subjects (from 498.7 km and 32.5 h during the first week to 799.9 km and 58.5 h during the second week), the subjects did not alter their travel patterns significantly.
Article
Choices of travel mode and trip chain as well as their interplays have long drawn the interests of researchers. However, few studies have examined the differences in the travel behaviors between holidays and weekdays. This paper compares the choice of travel mode and trip chain between holidays and weekdays tours using travel survey data from Beijing, China. Nested Logit (NL) models with alternative nesting structures are estimated to analyze the decision process of travelers. Results show that there are at least three differences between commuting-based tours on weekdays and non-commuting tours on holidays. First, the decision structures in weekday and holiday tours are opposite. In weekday tours people prefer to decide on trip chain pattern prior to choosing travel mode, whereas in holiday tours travel mode is chosen first. Second, holiday tours show stronger dependency on cars than weekday tours. Third, travelers on holidays are more sensitive to changes in tour time than to the changes in tour cost, while commuters on weekdays are more sensitive to tour cost. Findings are helpful for improving travel activity modeling and designing differential transportation system management strategies for weekdays and holidays.
Article
This paper discusses the history of bike-sharing from the early 1st generation program to present day rd generation programs. Included are a detailed examination of models of provision, with benefits and detriments of each, and a description of capital and operating costs. The paper concludes with a look into the future through discussion about what a th generation bike-sharing program could be.
Article
Commuting by bicycle has advantages over other modes of transport, both for the commuter and for society. Although cycling is an option for many commuters, a considerable number of them choose to use other forms of transport. In order to underpin policies that promote commuting by bicycle, this paper investigates the determinants for commuting to work. As many bicycle commuters do not cycle every day, we also examine people’s daily choices, in terms of frequency. We conducted a survey of the current literature in order to identify the determinants for commuting by bicycle. We found many determinants, not all of which are addressed by conventional mode choice studies and models. This suggests that predicting and influencing bicycle use needs to be grounded in other kinds of knowledge than those currently available for motorized forms of transport.
Article
To study the association between commuter cycling and all-cause sickness absence, and the possible dose-response relationship between absenteeism and the distance, frequency and speed of commuter cycling. Cross-sectional data about cycling in 1236 Dutch employees were collected using a self-report questionnaire. Company absenteeism records were checked over a one-year period (May 2007-April 2008). Propensity scores were used to make groups comparable and to adjust for confounders. Zero-inflated Poisson models were used to assess differences in absenteeism between cyclists and non-cyclists. The mean total duration of absenteeism over the study year was more than 1 day shorter in cyclists than in non-cyclists. This can be explained by the higher proportion of people with no absenteeism in the cycling group. A dose-response relationship was observed between the speed and distance of cycling and absenteeism. Compared to people who cycle a short distance (<or=5 km) three times a week, people who cycle more often and longer distances are absent for fewer days on average. Cycling to work is associated with less sickness absence. The more often people cycle to work and the longer the distance travelled, the less they report sick.
Article
This brief review examines whether active commuting is an effective method of controlling the current obesity epidemic and enhancing the cardiovascular health of the population. Of the many potential methods of active commuting, walking and cycling are the usual choices. Children and adolescents prefer cycling, but for adults issues of safety, cycle storage and company dress codes make walking the preferred option, particularly in North American cities, where urban design and weather conditions often do not favour cycling. Active transportation is more frequent in some European countries with dedicated cycle and pedestrian paths, but in most developed societies, active transportation has declined in recent years. Attempts to increase walking behaviour in the sedentary population have had only limited success to date. A weekly gross energy expenditure of at least 4 MJ is recommended to reduce all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. This can be achieved by walking 1.9 km in 22 minutes twice per day, 5 days per week, or by cycling at 16 km/h for 11 minutes twice per day, 5 days per week. When engaged in level walking, the intensity of effort may be adequate for cardiovascular benefit in older adults, but in fit young workers, it is necessary to either increase the pace or choose a hilly route in order to induce cardio-respiratory benefit; in contrast, cycling is likely to provide an adequate cardiovascular stimulus even for young adults. Empirical data to date have yielded mixed results: a reduced all-cause and cardiovascular mortality has been observed more frequently in cyclists than in walkers, and more frequently in women and older men than in young active commuters. More information is needed concerning the typical weekly dose of activity provided by active commuting, and the impact of such commuting on overall attitudes towards physical activity. It is also necessary to find better methods of involving the sedentary population, through both counselling and changes in urban design.
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