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Tecnologias aplicadas em Educação e Saúde

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The literature shows that serious games can improve people's physical and cognitive skills. Serious games are designed to encourage repetitive motor movements to improve functional capacity for primary and instrumental daily living activities. This article shows the design and development of an obstacle game for dorsiflexion and plantarflex-ion exercises. The execution of the game's exercises and control is performed using a wearable device (papete), where accelerometers are responsible for detecting the foot's movement. A pilot test was carried out with two chil-dren with and without Congenital Clubfoot (Congenital Talipes Equinovarus-CTE) to examine the wearable device's viability as an input to the game. The results show that both children reacted the same way to the proposals, aiming to meet the objectives of each step of the game, performing the necessary movements for motor recruitment of the muscles related to the leg and foot and maintaining the range of joint movement of the ankle.
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RESUMO Objetivo: compreender a vivência para a maternagem após o parto prematuro. Método: trata-se de estudo qualitativo, descritivo, com 12 participantes, em hospital universitário por meio do questionário sociocultural de Madeleine Leininger, da técnica da narrativa de vida e instrumento para obter informações dos prontuários das entrevistadas e de seus recém-nascidos. Baseou-se a análise na Etnoenfermagem. Apresentaram-se os resultados também em forma de figura. Resultados: informa-se que emergiram duas categorias analíticas: Os riscos gestacionais e o nascimento prematuro e O enfrentamento de maternar filho prematuro. Vivenciaram-se, por todas as mulheres, enfrentamentos para a maternagem desde o período gestacional relacionado ao parto prematuro, até o momento da alta hospitalar. Conclusão: tornou-se a vivência da maternagem de mães com filhos prematuros um enfrentamento desde o momento do parto antecipado, que ocorreu relacionado aos riscos gestacionais biológicos e também associado às características individuais e condições sociodemográficas desfavoráveis. Intui-se, com esta pesquisa, contribuir para que o período de adaptação, tanto da mãe que se torna cuidadora primária, quanto do recém-nascido, que passa a pertencer a um ambiente familiar, seja articulado desde o período de internação. Descritores: Enfermagem Materno-Infantil; Enfermagem Neonatal; Relações Mãe-Filho; Recém-Nascido Prematuro; Enfermagem Transcultural; Pesquisa em Enfermagem.ABSTRACT Objective: to understand the experience of motherhood after preterm delivery. Method: this is a qualitative, descriptive study with 12 participants, out in a university hospital through Madeleine Leininger's sociocultural questionnaire, the life narrative technique and the instrument to obtain information from the interviewed women's records and their newborns. The analysis was based on the Ethnographic survey. The results were also presented in figure form. Results: two analytical categories emerged: Gestational risks and premature birth and The confrontation of maternal premature infant. All women experienced confrontations for motherhood from the gestational period related to preterm birth to the time of hospital discharge. Conclusion: the experience of mothering of mothers with preterm infants became a confrontation from the moment of early delivery, which occurred related to biological gestational risks and also associated with individual characteristics and unfavorable sociodemographic conditions. The aim of this research is to contribute to the fact that the period of adaptation, both of the mother who becomes the primary caregiver and of the newborn, who belongs to a family environment, is articulated from the period of hospitalization. Descriptors: Maternal and Child Nursing; Neonatal Nursing; Mother-Child Relationships; Premature Newborn; Transcultural Nursing; Nursing Research.RESUMEN Objetivo: comprender la vivencia para la maternidad después del parto prematuro. Método: se trata de un estudio cualitativo, descriptivo, con 12 participantes, en un hospital universitario a través del cuestionario sociocultural de Madeleine Leininger, de la técnica de la narrativa de vida e instrumento para obtener informaciones de los prontuarios de las entrevistadas y de sus recién nacidos. Se basó el análisis en la Etnoenfermería. Se presentaron los resultados también en forma de figura. Resultados: se informa que emergieron dos categorías analíticas: Los riesgos gestacionales y el nacimiento prematuro y el enfrentamiento de los cuidados maternos al hijo prematuro. Se han vivido, por todas las mujeres, enfrentamientos para la maternidad desde el período gestacional relacionado al parto prematuro, hasta el momento del alta hospitalaria. Conclusión: se hizo la vivencia de la maternidad de madres con hijos prematuros un enfrentamiento desde el momento del parto anticipado, que ocurrió relacionado a los riesgos gestacionales biológicos y también asociado a las características individuales y condiciones sociodemográficas desfavorables. En el caso de la madre que se vuelve cuidadora primaria, el recién nacido, que pasa a pertenecer a un ambiente familiar, se articula desde el período de internación. Descriptores: Enfermería Maternoinfantil; Enfermería Neonatal; Relaciones Madre-Hijo; Recien Nacido Prematuro; Enfermería Transcultural; Investigación en Enfermería.
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Executive functions (EF) are skills linked to behavioral and cognitive self-control and are related to various outcomes throughout life. The use of computerized tests to evaluate EFs can facilitate the accuracy of records, standardization and data analysis. This study aimed to develop a computerized instrument for the EF assessment of children aged 4 to 10 years, and to seek psychometric evidence. Five steps were carried out: 1) Theoretical and methodological definition; 2) Construction of the items; 3) Pilot study; 4) Analysis of experts; and 5) Psychometric studies of validity and reliability. The computerized tasks proved to be suitable for the target audience according to the expert's evaluation. The results between the different tasks of working memory, inhibition and cognitive flexibility showed significant correlations and most test-retest measures showed stability in the measurement. Therefore, the results indicate the feasibility of using the instrument in the Brazilian context.
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Neuromonitoring in naturalistic environments is of increasing interest for a variety of research fields including psychology, economics, and productivity. Among functional neuromonitoring modalities, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is well regarded for its potential for miniaturization, good spatial and temporal resolutions, and resilience to motion artifacts. Historically, the large size and high cost of fNIRS systems have precluded widespread adoption of the technology. In this article, we describe the first open source, fully integrated wireless fNIRS headband system with a single LED-pair source and four detectors. With ease of operation and comfort in mind, the system is encased in a soft, lightweight cloth and silicone enclosure. Accompanying computer and smartphone data collection software have also been provided, and the hardware has been validated using classic fNIRS tasks. This wear-and-go design can easily be scaled to accommodate a larger number of fNIRS channels and opens the door to easily collecting fNIRS data during routine activities in naturalistic conditions.
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To provide a contemporary global prevalence of mental health issues among the general population amid the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We searched electronic databases, preprint databases, grey literature, and unpublished studies from January 1, 2020, to June 16, 2020 (updated on July 11, 2020), with no language restrictions. Observational studies using validated measurement tools and reporting data on mental health issues among the general population were screened to identify all relevant studies. We have included information from 32 different countries and 398,771 participants. The pooled prevalence of mental health issues amid the COVID-19 pandemic varied widely across countries and regions and was higher than previous reports before the COVID-19 outbreak began. The global prevalence estimate was 28.0% for depression; 26.9% for anxiety; 24.1% for post-traumatic stress symptoms; 36.5% for stress; 50.0% for psychological distress; and 27.6% for sleep problems. Data are limited for other aspects of mental health issues. Our findings highlight the disparities between countries in terms of the poverty impacts of COVID-19, preparedness of countries to respond, and economic vulnerabilities that impact the prevalence of mental health problems. Research on the social and economic burden is needed to better manage mental health problems during and after epidemics or pandemics. Systematic review registration : PROSPERO CRD 42020177120.
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Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently leads to psychological/social dysfunction if unaddressed. Identifying a reliable biomarker would assist the diagnosis of adult ADHD and ensure that adults with ADHD receive treatment. Pupil diameter can reflect inherent neural activity and deficits of attention or arousal characteristic of ADHD. Furthermore, distinct profiles of the complexity and symmetricity of neural activity are associated with some psychiatric disorders. We hypothesized that analysing the relationship between the size, complexity of temporal patterns, and asymmetricity of pupil diameters will help characterize the nervous systems of adults with ADHD and that an identification method combining these features would ease the diagnosis of adult ADHD. To validate this hypothesis, we evaluated the resting state hippus in adult participants with or without ADHD by examining the pupil diameter and its temporal complexity using sample entropy and the asymmetricity of the left and right pupils using transfer entropy. We found that large pupil diameters and low temporal complexity and symmetry were associated with ADHD. Moreover, the combination of these factors by the classifier enhanced the accuracy of ADHD identification. These findings may contribute to the development of tools to diagnose adult ADHD.
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Adolescent depression is a potentially lethal condition and a leading cause of disability for this age group. There is an urgent need for novel efficacious treatments since half of adolescents with depression fail to respond to current therapies and up to 70% of those who respond will relapse within 5 years. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has emerged as a promising treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults who do not respond to pharmacological or behavioral interventions. In contrast, rTMS has not demonstrated the same degree of efficacy in adolescent MDD. We argue that this is due, in part, to conceptual and methodological shortcomings in the existing literature. In our review, we first provide a neurodevelopmentally focused overview of adolescent depression. We then summarize the rTMS literature in adult and adolescent MDD focusing on both the putative mechanisms of action and neurodevelopmental factors that may influence efficacy in adolescents. We then identify limitations in the existing adolescent MDD rTMS literature and propose specific parameters and approaches that may be used to optimize efficacy in this uniquely vulnerable age group. Specifically, we suggest ways in which future studies reduce clinical and neural heterogeneity, optimize neuronavigation by drawing from functional brain imaging, apply current knowledge of rTMS parameters and neurodevelopment, and employ an experimental therapeutics platform to identify neural targets and biomarkers for response. We conclude that rTMS is worthy of further investigation. Furthermore, we suggest that following these recommendations in future studies will offer a more rigorous test of rTMS as an effective treatment for adolescent depression.
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The use of eye tracking to assess reading fluency has been proposed as a novel and efficient screening method for identifying school children with atypical reading development or risk of dyslexia. Currently, however, little is known about the relationship between the predictive outcomes produced by eye tracking screening systems and specialist cognitive assessments. Here we investigate this relationship in the context of a neuropsychological case study involving eight subjects (9–10 years) who were identified as being at risk of dyslexia by an eye tracking screening system. We analyze to what extent these subjects displayed cognitive limitations when assessed with a neuropsychological test battery, and to what extent cognitive difficulties were limited to reading and decoding, or whether they extended to other domains as well. As a group, the subjects performed on average significantly worse in reading and decoding than in other cognitive domains. Five subjects performed more than 1.25 standard deviations below the mean for age. In line with empirical evidence, co-occurring difficulties in the attention domain were also observed in a few struggling readers. Overall, the results support the view that eye tracking can be a useful tool to assess and monitor children’s reading development during the early school years.
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The well-being of young people in relation to their school performance has received increased attention in recent years. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the longitudinal and reciprocal relationship between adolescents' subjective well-being and their academic achievements. The current study examined the bidirectional relationship between subjective well-being and academic achievement across two timepoints (T1 and T2) during the course of mid to late adolescence, i.e., in school year 9 (age 15), and school years 11-12 (ages 17-18). The study also investigated variation in the association as a function of adolescent gender. Data on subjective well-being and teacher-assigned school grades of 723 adolescents (48.7% girls) residing in Sweden were analyzed by estimating a series of cross-lagged path models. The findings suggest gender differences in the relationship as no associations were found among boys. Support for a bidirectional relationship between the constructs was only found for girls. For girls, higher subjective well-being at T1 was associated with higher academic achievements at T2, while higher academic achievements at T1 was associated with lower subjective well-being at T2. These findings highlight that the subjective well-being of adolescent girls may be important for their ability to perform at school, but their academic achievements may also inflict negatively on their subjective well-being.
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Las pruebas psicométricas han cambiado su formato de lápiz y papel a evaluaciones informatizadas progresivamente en los últimos 40 años, debido a que el formato informatizado ofrece varias ventajas sobre el clásico. En este estudio comparamos la producción y disponibilidad de los test adaptativos informatizados (TAI), las pruebas computarizadas (PC) y las pruebas en aplicativos móviles (PAM) entre Estados Unidos, Canadá y Latinoamérica. Realizamos una revisión narrativa, explorando bases de datos como PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed y SciELO. Para complementar los hallazgos, realizamos una búsqueda en Google y Play Store. Los resultados mostraron que Estados Unidos y Canadá registran la mayor producción y disponibilidad de TAI, PC y PAM. En ambas regiones, la mayor parte de los TAI y las PC está diseñada para evaluar a los adultos, mientras que las PAM están diseñadas para cualquier edad. En Estados Unidos y Canadá, los TAI y las PC son en gran parte originales y su uso requiere de un pago previo, mientras que en Latinoamérica los TAI, las PC y las PAM suelen ser versiones adaptadas y de acceso libre. Finalmente, existe una brecha amplia en la disponibilidad de TAI, PC y PAM en ambas regiones. Estados Unidos y Canadá tienen a su disposición más de trece veces la cantidad de TAI, más del doble de cantidad de PC y más del quíntuple de cantidad de PAM que en Latinoamérica. Concluimos que existe una gran brecha en cuanto a la producción y el acceso a instrumentos psicométricos de alta tecnología que Latinoamérica necesita superar. Finalmente, proveemos un listado de todos los TAI, las PC y las PAM disponibles actualmente, de acceso gratuito y de pago
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The application of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in the neurosciences has been expanding over the last 40 years. Today, it is addressing a wide range of applications within different populations and utilizes a great variety of experimental paradigms. With the rapid growth and the diversification of research methods, some inconsistencies are appearing in the way in which methods are presented, which can make the interpretation and replication of studies unnecessarily challenging. The Society for Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy has thus been motivated to organize a representative (but not exhaustive) group of leaders in the field to build a consensus on the best practices for describing the methods utilized in fNIRS studies. Our paper has been designed to provide guidelines to help enhance the reliability, repeatability, and traceability of reported fNIRS studies and encourage best practices throughout the community. A checklist is provided to guide authors in the preparation of their manuscripts and to assist reviewers when evaluating fNIRS papers.
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Promotion of good mental health in young people is important. Our aim was to evaluate the consistency and magnitude of the efficacy of universal/selective interventions to promote good mental health. A systematic PRISMA/RIGHT-compliant meta-analysis (PROSPERO: CRD42018088708) search of Web of Science until 04/31/2019 identified original studies comparing the efficacy of universal/selective interventions for good mental health vs a control group, in samples with a mean age <35 years. Meta-analytical random-effects model, heterogeneity statistics, assessment of publication bias, study quality and sensitivity analyses investigated the efficacy (Hedges’ g=effect size, ES) of universal/selective interventions to promote 14 good mental health outcomes defined a-priori. 276 studies were included (total participants: 159,508, 79,142 interventions and 80,366 controls), mean age=15.0 (SD=7.4); female=56.0%. There was a significant overall improvement in 10/13 good mental health outcome categories that could be meta-analysed: compared to controls, interventions significantly improved (in descending order of magnitude) mental health literacy (ES=0.685, p<0.001), emotions (ES=0.541, p<0.001), self-perceptions and values (ES=0.49, p<0.001), quality of life (ES=0.457, p=0.001), cognitive skills (ES=0.428, p<0.001), social skills (ES=0.371, p<0.001), physical health (ES=0.285, p<0.001), sexual health (ES=0.257, p=0.017), academic/occupational performance (ES=0.211, p<0.001) and attitude towards mental disorders (ES=0.177, p=0.006). Psychoeducation was the most effective intervention for promoting mental health literacy (ES=0.774, p<0.001) and cognitive skills (ES=1.153, p=0.03). Physical therapy, exercise and relaxation were more effective than psychoeducation and psychotherapy for promoting physical health (ES=0.498, p<0.001). In conclusion, several universal/selective interventions can be effective to promote good mental health in young people. Future research should consolidate and extend these findings.
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Emotional intelligence skills in students may be related with physical and mental health, within and outside the academic field. Strengthening these skills can lead to greater overall well-being, lower use of substances, and improved academic performance, as well as reduced aggressive behaviours. The objective of this study was to analyse the levels of emotional intelligence (differentiating between the dimensions: emotional Attention, Clarity, and Repair) among high school students and examine its relationship with academic performance and emotional well-being, considering if there are differences between boys and girls and between different grades. A cross-sectional descriptive study was developed on a sample of 333 High School students using the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS) and KIDSCREEN-10 Index tools. Differences in emotional intelligence were observed between boys and girls for the three dimensions, and a relationship between emotional intelligence and student well-being was appreciated. No relationships were found between emotional intelligence and academic performance, nor have any differences been observed between the different courses analysed. It cannot be concluded that academic performance is related to emotional intelligence, but a relationship between well-being and emotional intelligence is found.
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Objective The association between depression and educational attainment in young people is unclear. This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the longitudinal association between depression and subsequent attainment, and its potential effect modifiers and mediators. Method We searched Embase, PsycINFO, PubMed, ERIC, and the British Education Index from inception to October 23, 2019, conducted citation searching, and contacted authors for articles. Eligible studies reported on the longitudinal association between depression in children and adolescents 4 to 18 years of age and later educational attainment. Two reviewers independently conducted screening, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment. Correlation coefficients were pooled in meta-analysis, and effect modifiers were explored using meta-regression and stratification. Other evidence on confounders, modifiers, and mediators was narratively synthesized. The PROSPERO record for the study is CRD42019123068. Results A total of 31 studies were included, of which 22 were pooled in meta-analysis. There was a small but statistically significant association between depression and lower subsequent attainment (pooled Fisher z = −0.19, 95% CI = −0.22 to −0.16, I² = 62.9%). A total of 15 studies also reported an enduring effect after adjusting for various confounders. No statistically significant effect modifiers were identified. Social and school problems may mediate between depression and low attainment. Conclusion Depression was associated with lower educational attainment, but further research is needed to establish mechanisms. Nonetheless, there is a clear need for mental health and educational support among children and adolescents with depression.
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Physical rehabilitation of people who suffer from some motor disability involves an intensive treatment to reduce pain and improve quality of life. Research studies have proven the benefits of technologies based on home-rehabilitation, which complement regular therapy in hospitals. Although there is a significant number of studies that face this challenge when dealing with adults, it has not been explored with young people. In this research article, we focus on this population, since the repetition of physical exercises decreases the youth’s motivation, which entails a high risk of dropping out of therapy. That is why we present a systematic mapping study of the techniques, devices, and methods used to address home rehabilitation for children and teenagers. The conclusions indicate that it is essential to use gamification techniques to adopt a plug-and-play metaphor, based on natural interaction mechanisms and on the use of non-intrusive devices, and to customize the rehabilitation process for each individual along with a methodology. We also present the improvements applied to an existing gamification-based software prototype for home rehabilitation. In this system, physical exercises can be customized, laying the foundations to promote precision rehabilitation within the context of young people.
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The lockdown due to the coronavirus pandemic may have exacerbated mental health problems. To what degree mental health may be affected by social isolation is still poorly known. We collected prospective data on students’ mental health in two instances: (i) in October and December 2019, and (ii) 6 months later, in April 2020 amidst the COVID-19 lockdown in Italy and in mid-May/June 2020, after the lifting of lockdown. A total of 358 Italian students aged 18-30 completed socio-demographic questionnaires and the Beck Depression Inventory – 2 (BDI-2), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory – Revised (OCI-R), the Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ), and the Eating Disorder Inventory-3 (EDI-3). We applied multiple regression models to evince any changes in the aforementioned questionnaire scores during and after lockdown with respect to the scores before lockdown. Students reported on average worse depressive symptoms during lockdown than 6 months before isolation (median increase in the BDI-2 score +2; IQR = -3, 6; β = 0.09 ± 0.03, p = 0.005), with students without any established diagnosis of psychopathology being affected the most. The regression models predict that 86.2% (IQR = 67.9, 91.4%) of students would not experience a clinically significant worsening of symptoms, while approximately 6% of our target population could develop more severe depressive symptoms. This study supports the view that depressive symptomatology may be aggravated during lockdown, but also highlights that after the lifting of lockdown any changes quickly vanished, as the BDI-2 scores were not different from the ones reported before lockdown.
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This article is based on a consensus conference, promoted and supported by the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology (IFCN), which took place in Siena (Italy) in October 2018. The meeting intended to update the ten-year-old safety guidelines for the application of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in research and clinical settings (Rossi et al., 2009). Therefore, only emerging and new issues are covered in detail, leaving still valid the 2009 recommendations regarding the description of conventional or patterned TMS protocols, the screening of subjects/patients, the need of neurophysiological monitoring for new protocols, the utilization of reference thresholds of stimulation, the managing of seizures and the list of minor side effects. New issues discussed in detail from the meeting up to April 2020 are safety issues of recently developed stimulation devices and pulse configurations; duties and responsibility of device makers; novel scenarios of TMS applications such as in the neuroimaging context or imaging-guided and robot-guided TMS; TMS interleaved with transcranial electrical stimulation; safety during paired associative stimulation interventions; and risks of using TMS to induce therapeutic seizures (magnetic seizure therapy). An update on the possible induction of seizures, theoretically the most serious risk of TMS, is provided. It has become apparent that such a risk is low, even in patients taking drugs acting on the central nervous system, at least with the use of traditional stimulation parameters and focal coils for which large data sets are available. Finally, new operational guidelines are provided for safety in planning future trials based on traditional and patterned TMS protocols, as well as a summary of the minimal training requirements for operators, and a note on ethics of neuroenhancement.
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Current guidelines against spread of coronavirus (COVID-19) interrupt non-essential rehabilitation services. Thus, individuals with physical disabilities such as children with cerebral palsy can no longer benefit from physical rehabilitation during this undetermined period. Using either a synchronous or asynchronous format, in collaboration with a therapist via telerehabilitation, we suggest that active video games and low-cost virtual reality are a promising delivery mode for at-home rehabilitation in the context of a global pandemic. This therapeutic modality, incorporated into an at-home individualized treatment plan, provides a means to lessen the impact of an interruption in rehabilitation services while not loosing the pre-pandemic, in-person physical activity gains. Growing evidence supports active video games and low-cost virtual reality as viable therapeutic interventions for children with physical disabilities. These technologies are especially well-accepted by pediatric populations for the ludic and motivating features that lend themselves to nearly seamless incorporation into telerehabilitation. Advantages for rehabilitation of active video games and low-cost virtual reality include a rich, challenging, multi-modal training environment in which high numbers of movement repetitions can be accomplished, and a unique opportunity to foster engaged practice actions that go beyond household activities. We offer suggestions for the clinician about how to adopt active video games and low-cost virtual reality into your practice during a global pandemic.
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The use of Virtual Reality (VR) systems for rehabilitation treatment as a complement to conventional therapy has grown in recent years. Upper limbs therapy using VR has already been shown useful for stroke patients. In this work, we present a pilot study aiming to investigate the use of a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol to analyze brain connectivity changes in subjects undergoing upper limb training through a VR environment. Thirteen healthy subjects underwent resting-state fMRI exams before and after a VR session. Although no significant changes are expected in healthy subjects performing only one training session, this study could pave the way for future studies performed with both stroke patients or athletes performing more sessions. Indeed, no significant changes in motor cortex connectivity were found. Nonetheless, an evaluation protocol for this type of VR rehabilitation procedure was successfully established, to be used in further studies with patients or athletes.
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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by major impairments in social communication, stereotyped and ritualistic behaviors and deficits in sensory reactivity. Recently, noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) methods, namely transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), have been examined as possible new therapeutic options for modifying the pathological neuroplasticity involved in neuropsychiatric disorders including ASD. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review on the therapeutic uses of tDCS and repetitive TMS (rTMS) in ASD patients. A systematic search was performed on Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane and Embase. Original articles reporting the use of tDCS or rTMS to treat ASD were screened and studied by two researchers independently based on PRISMA guidelines. We found 32 eligible studies including 8 tDCS reports, 23 rTMS reports and one report with both tDCS and rTMS. These studies comprised 6 case-reports, 9 non-controlled trials and 17 controlled trials which assessed NIBS effects on the three cognitive, behavioral and biological dimensions in ASD. Existing evidence demonstrates that NIBS methods could be helpful for treating some dimensions of ASD such as repetitive behavior, sociability or some aspects of executive and cognitive functions. However, such evidence should be regarded with care because of the quality of original researches and serious publication bias as well as the heterogeneity of data. Further randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trials with appropriate follow-up periods should be designed to assess the efficacy of NIBS methods for ASD treatment.
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Individuos com transtornos do espectro do autismo (TEA) possuem desenvolvimento atipico nas areas cognitiva ou de aprendizagem, comunicacao e interacao social, deteccao e trato de emocoes, coordenacao motora e concentracao. O desenvolvimento de tecnologias assistivas e fundamental para melhorar a qualidade de vida destes individuos. Este estudo faz uma revisao sistematica da literatura com foco em jogos digitais usados como tecnologias assistivas para individuos com TEA. Fazendo uso da base digital IEEE Xplore, foram pesquisados estudos que continham o termo game em conjunto com termos relacionados ao TEA. A partir da busca foram encontradas 193 ocorrencias do conjunto de termos. Os artigos foram lidos e analisados, sendo selecionados os estudos que tratam de jogos digitais com foco em individuos com TEA. Foram excluidos da selecao jogos que fazem uso unicamente de hardwares especificos e que nao apresentam funcao de tecnología assistiva. Como resultado final deste estudo foram selecionados 62 artigos neste contexto, sendo que todos apresentam resultados positivos quanto ao uso dos jogos digitais na melhoria das capacidades das pessoas com TEA. Desta forma, e possivel verificar a consistencia de tal abordagem, encorajando a continuidade das pesquisas e do desenvolvimento de jogos digitais com foco em tecnología assistiva para pessoas com TEA.
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Studies of cortical function in the awake infant are extremely challenging to undertake with traditional neuroimaging approaches. Partly in response to this challenge, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has become increasingly common in developmental neuroscience, but has significant limitations including resolution, spatial specificity and ergonomics. In adults, high-density arrays of near-infrared sources and detectors have recently been shown to yield dramatic improvements in spatial resolution and specificity when compared to typical fNIRS approaches. However, most existing fNIRS devices only permit the acquisition of ∼20-100 sparsely distributed fNIRS channels, and increasing the number of optodes presents significant mechanical challenges, particularly for infant applications. A new generation of wearable, modular, high-density diffuse optical tomography (HD-DOT) technologies has recently emerged that overcomes many of the limitations of traditional, fibre-based and low-density fNIRS measurements. Driven by the development of this new technology, we have undertaken the first study of the infant brain using wearable HD-DOT. Using a well-established social stimulus paradigm, and combining this new imaging technology with advances in cap design and spatial registration, we show that it is now possible to obtain high-quality, functional images of the infant brain with minimal constraints on either the environment or on the infant participants. Our results are consistent with prior low-density fNIRS measures based on similar paradigms, but demonstrate superior spatial localization, improved depth specificity, higher SNR and a dramatic improvement in the consistency of the responses across participants. Our data retention rates also demonstrate that this new generation of wearable technology is well tolerated by the infant population.
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The use of videogames and motion capture systems in rehabilitation contributes to the recovery of the patient. This systematic review aimed to explore the works related to these technologies. The PRISMA method (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) was used to search the databases Scopus, PubMed, IEEE Xplore, and Web of Science, taking into consideration four aspects: physical rehabilitation, the use of videogames, motion capture technologies, and upper limb rehabilitation. The literature selection was limited to open access works published between 2015 and 2020, obtaining 19 articles that met the inclusion criteria. The works reported the use of inertial measurement units (37%), a Kinect sensor (48%), and other technologies (15%). It was identified that 26% used commercial products, while 74% were developed independently. Another finding was that 47% of the works focus on post-stroke motor recovery. Finally, diverse studies sought to support physical rehabilitation using motion capture systems incorporating inertial units, which offer precision and accessibility at a low cost. There is a clear need to continue generating proposals that confront the challenges of rehabilitation with technologies which offer precision and healthcare coverage, and which, additionally, integrate elements that foster the patient's motivation and participation.
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Eye-tracking represents a sensitive, direct measure of gaze allocation and goal-directed looking behaviors that correspond to visual information processing. Clear definitions and standardization of research protocols to document the utility and feasibility of these methods are warranted. This systematic review provides an account of stimuli dimensions and experimental paradigms used in eye-tracking research for young children at risk for ASD published from 2005 through 2019. This review identifies variability in eye-tracking protocols and heterogeneity of stimuli used for eye-tracking as factors that undermine the value of eye-tracking as an objective, reliable screening tool. We underscore the importance of sharing eye-tracking stimuli to enhance replicability of findings and more importantly the need to develop a bank of publicly available, validated stimuli.
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In the wake of COVID-19, unemployment and its potential deleterious consequences have attracted renewed interest. We examined (1) the association between unemployment, occurring upon the coronavirus outbreak, and psychological distress among Israeli young people (20–35-years-old); (2) the associations between various psychological resources/risk factors and psychological distress; and (3) whether these resources and risk factors were moderators in the unemployment-psychological distress link. A real-time survey based on snowball sampling was conducted during the month of April 2020 (N = 390). We employed hierarchical linear models to explore associations between unemployment, psychological resources, risk factors, and psychological distress. Unemployment was independently associated with greater psychological distress. Perceived trust, optimism, and sense of mastery decreased psychological distress, whereas financial strain and loneliness during the crisis increased this distress. The effect of unemployment on psychological distress did not depend on participants’ resource and risk factor levels. Policymakers must develop and extend health initiatives aimed at alleviating the mental health consequences of COVID-19-related unemployment and promote labor market interventions to help young job seekers integrate into employment. These measures, which are in line with the UN sustainable development goals, should be seen as an important route to promote public health.
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Background There is evidence that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is effective for treating adult depression. However, it remains unclear whether rTMS is an effective treatment for adolescent depression. This systematic review examines the existing literature on the effectiveness and acceptability of rTMS in the treatment of adolescent depression. Methods After protocol registration (PROSPERO) we searched PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, WoS and CENTRAL databases and the grey literature. We included studies that used rTMS in adolescents aged 12–25 years old who had a clinical diagnosis of depression. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Results Fourteen studies were identified, which included 8 open-trial studies (N =142 participants) and six studies which performed further post-hoc /follow-up analyses on these open-trial datasets. All studies suffered from multiple biases but reported that rTMS treatment reduced depression scores in adolescents. A single study on theta burst stimulation also found a positive effect. No study to date includes a sham control. Reported side effects of rTMS included scalp pain, headache and dizziness. Limitations Study methodologies precluded a meta-analysis. Conclusions The current literature signals that rTMS could reduce adolescent depressive symptoms. However, sham controlled randomized trials are needed. These findings suggest that rTMS may be a promising treatment option for adolescents with depression.
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In this paper, we present the first realisation and experimentation of a new eye tracking system using an infrared (iR) laser pointer embedded into a wireless smart contact lens. We denote this contact lens prototype as the cyclops lens, in reference to the famous hero of the X-Men comics. The full eye tracker device combines the smart contact lens and its eyewear, which provides a primary source of energy and the beam detection system. We detail the assembling and encapsulation process of the main functionalities into the contact lens and present how a gaze tracking system is achieved, compared to existing conventional eye-tracking ones. Finally, we discuss future technical improvements.
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The COVID‐19 pandemic is a ‘perfect storm’ for the mental health of young people, because of exposure to known risk factors for psychopathology and lack of support from the infrastructures that are normally in place to ensure safety and provide support. However, it is yet unclear if this ‘perfect storm’ will flood the Child & Adolescent Mental Health Services. The early, normative emotional responses observed may not lead to enduring psychopathology in most young people. Nevertheless, a minority of young people may show complex presentations, particularly in relation to bereavement. As epidemiology and clinical practice will reveal the actual needs of young people, the hope is that we will find the focus and determination to build new solutions to promote young people’s mental health.
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PurposeAn inverse relationship between mental health and academic achievement is a well-known phenomenon in the scientific literature. However, how and when this association develops is not fully understood and there is a lack of longitudinal, population-based studies on young children. Early intervention is important if associations are to be found already during childhood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the development of the association between mental health and academic performance during different developmental periods of childhood and adolescence.Methods Data from a longitudinal birth cohort study of 1700 children were used. Child mental health was assessed through mother’s reports at age 3, and self-reports at age 12 and 20. Academic performance was assessed through teacher reports on educational results at age 12 and final grades from compulsory school (age 15–16) and upper secondary school (age 18–19). The association between mental health and academic performance was assessed through regression models.ResultsThe results indicate that social selection mechanisms are present in all three periods studied. Behavioral and emotional problems at age 3 were associated with performing below grade at age 12. Similarly, mental health problems at age 12 were associated with lack of complete final grades from compulsory school and non-eligibility to higher education. Academic performance at ages 15 and 19 did not increase the risk for mental health problems at age 20.Conclusion Mental health problems in early childhood and adolescence increase the risk for poor academic performance, indicating the need for awareness and treatment to provide fair opportunities to education.
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Background: Remote virtual rehabilitation aroused growing interest in the last decades, and its role has gained importance following the recent spread of COVID19 pandemic. The advantages of virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), gamification, and telerehabilitation have been demonstrated in several medical fields. In this review, we searched the literature for studies using these technologies for orthopedic rehabilitation and analyzed studies' quality, type and field of rehabilitation, patients' characteristics, and outcomes to describe the state of the art of VR, AR, gamification, and telerehabilitation for orthopedic rehabilitation. Methods: A comprehensive search on PubMed, Medline, Cochrane, CINAHL, and Embase databases was conducted. This review was performed according to PRISMA guidelines. Studies published between 2015 and 2020 about remote virtual rehabilitations for orthopedic patients were selected. The Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS) and Cochrane Risk-of-Bias assessment tool were used for quality assessment. Results: 24 studies (9 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 15 non-randomized studies) and 2472 patients were included. Studies mainly concern telerehabilitation (56%), and to a lesser extent VR (28%), AR (28%), and gamification (16%). Remote virtual technologies were used following knee and hip arthroplasty. The majority of included patients were between 40 and 60 years old and had a university degree. Remote virtual rehabilitation was not inferior to face-to-face therapy, and physical improvements were demonstrated by increased clinical scores. Orthopedic virtual remote rehabilitation decreased costs related to transports, hospitalizations, and readmissions. Conclusion: The heterogeneity of included studies prevented a meta-analysis of their results. Age and social context influence adaptability to technology, and this can modify compliance to treatment and outcomes. A good relationship between patient and physiotherapist is essential for treatment compliance and new technologies are useful to maintain clinical interactions remotely. Remote virtual technologies allow the delivery of high-quality care at reduced costs. This is a necessity given the growing demand for orthopedic rehabilitation and increasing costs related to it. Future studies need to develop specific and objective methods to evaluate the clinical quality of new technologies and definitively demonstrate advantages of VR, AR, gamification, and telerehabilitation compared to face-to face orthopedic rehabilitation.
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Mobile applications provide the healthcare industry with a means of connecting with patients in their own home utilizing their own personal mobile devices such as tablets and phones. This allows therapists to monitor the progress of people under their care from a remote location and all with the added benefit that patients are familiar with their own mobile devices; thereby reducing the time required to train patients with the new technology. There is also the added benefit to the health service that there is no additional cost required to purchase devices for use. The Facial Remote Activity Monitoring Eyewear (FRAME) mobile application and web service framework has been designed to work on the IOS and android platforms, the two most commonly used today. Results: The system utilizes secure cloud based data storage to collect, analyse and store data, this allows for near real time, secure access remotely by therapists to monitor their patients and intervene when required. The underlying framework has been designed to be secure, anonymous and flexible to ensure compliance with the data protection act and the latest General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR); this new standard came into effect in April 2018 and replaces the Data Protection Act in the UK and Europe.
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We aimed to investigate the mental health change and associated social correlates in adolescents in terms of depression, suicidal ideation, and suicidal attempt. In total, 978,079 students (12–18 years old, 7th–12th grade) participated in the survey for 13 years (2006–2018) by a multiple-year cross-sectional design (not a repeat measure for smaller group). Mental health outcome variables were assessed using self-report surveys with the independent variables of sex, age, economic status, school achievement, and parental educational level. Korean social indices of income inequality (Gini index, higher scores representing greater economic inequity with score range of 0–1), education (national proportion of tertiary education attainment), and actual suicides were investigated together as related social factors. The prevalence of depressive episodes, suicidal ideation, and suicidal attempt markedly dropped by 34.6%, 42.2%, and 48.3%, respectively. Moreover, the Gini index (from 0.314 in 2008 to 0.295 in 2015) and proportion of tertiary education (from 82.1% in 2006 to 69.7% in 2018) showed a decreasing tendency. These indices and adolescent mental health outcomes highly correlated with each other (Pearson’s r between Gini index and depressive episode = 0.789, suicidal ideation = 0.724, and suicidal attempt = 0.740; Pearson’s r between proportion of tertiary education and depressive episode = 0.930, suicidal ideation = 0.809, and suicidal attempt = 0.851). Adolescent mental health has improved in the last 13 years in Korea, and improvements in social inequality (decreased Gini index) and lessened burden of academic competition (decreased national proportion of tertiary education) were significantly associated with the improvement of adolescent’s mental health. However, the impact of parental educational level on children’s mental health was relatively minimal, compared with the impact of economic inequality and academic burden. Further studies are needed to reveal the underlying mechanism for the association between adolescent mental health and sociodemographic factors to save adolescents from psychological distress.
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As functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is developed as a neuroimaging technique and becomes an option to study a variety of populations and tasks, the reproducibility of the fNIRS signal is still subject of debate. By performing test–retest protocols over different functional tasks, several studies agree that the fNIRS signal is reproducible over group analysis, but the inter-subject and within-subject reproducibility is poor. The high variability at the first statistical level is often attributed to global systemic physiology. In the present work, we revisited the reproducibility of the fNIRS signal during a finger-tapping task across multiple sessions on the same and different days. We expanded on previous studies by hypothesizing that the lack of spatial information of the optodes contributes to the low reproducibility in fNIRS, and we incorporated a real-time neuronavigation protocol to provide accurate cortical localization of the optodes. Our proposed approach was validated in 10 healthy volunteers, and our results suggest that the addition of neuronavigation can increase the within-subject reproducibility of the fNIRS data, particularly in the region of interest. Unlike traditional approaches to positioning the optodes, in which low intra-subject reproducibility has been found, we were able to obtain consistent and robust activation of the contralateral primary motor cortex at the intra-subject level using a neuronavigation protocol. Overall, our findings support the hypothesis that at least part of the variability in fNIRS cannot be only attributed to global systemic physiology. The use of neuronavigation to guide probe positioning, as proposed in this work, has impacts to longitudinal protocols performed with fNIRS.
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Introduction: Professional training in physiotherapy still focuses primarily on rehabilitation; however, there is a need to ensure that these professionals are also equipped to work in primary care (PC), since it is the gateway to the healthcare system. Objective: Identify practices carried out in PC by undergraduate physiotherapy courses in Santa Catarina state, Brazil, from the perspective of professors. Method: Qualitative study with a multiple-case design. All eight undergraduate physiotherapy courses available in the state were included as cases in this study. Five physiotherapy professors also took part as key informants (KIs) Data were collected by document analysis of course pedagogical projects (CPPs) and a semi-structured interview regarding training practices conducted in primary care (PC) settings. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: Based on content analysis of the interviews, practices carried out in PC by the different courses include territorialization; specific group activities; home health care/home visits; postural education in school settings; interdisciplinary and multiprofessional experiences; interviews; waiting room activities; combined consultations and singular therapeutic projects. Conclusion: practices performed in primary care facilities by undergraduate physiotherapy courses in Santa Catarina state (SC), Brazil, are aimed at meeting primary care needs; however, teaching-service-community integration is essential in order to diversify these PC experiences throughout the training process and expand interdisciplinary and multiprofessional activities.
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Italy was the first country in Europe to deal with COVID‐19. Measures taken by the government to contain the spread of the virus were based mainly on quarantine and social distancing, with dramatic economic, social and psychological consequences. Since March, Italian children and adolescents are facing school closures, which have caused a disruption in the daily lives of millions of young people and their families. To date, despite the slow reopening, the government has decided to maintain school closures for the entire academic year, leaving the future of young people in uncertainty. There is already some evidence that quarantine and social isolation are having negative impact on children's and adolescents' psychological well‐being. Moreover, this situation will mainly affect those children and adolescents with pre‐existing vulnerabilities and those suffering of mental disorders. It is imperative to keep young people’s needs at the core of reconstruction plans, allowing them to return to school safely, and providing them with some strategies to heal and dealing with this stressful and potentially traumatic situation.
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Introduction Since the WHO declared COVID-19 as a pandemic, the spread of the new coronavirus has been the focus of attention of scientists, governments and populations. One of the main concerns is the impact of this pandemic on health outcomes, mainly on mental health. Even though there are a few empirical studies on COVID-19 and mental health, so far, there is no systematic review about the impact of COVID-19 on mental health of young people and adults yet. We aim to critically synthesise the scientific evidence about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of young people and adults. Methods and analysis A systematic review will be performed through eight databases: MEDLINE (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online), ISI-of-Knowledge, CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), EMBASE (Excerpta Medica Database), SCOPUS, LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), PsycINFO (Psychology Information) and CNKI (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure), from inception until 30 June 2020. No restriction regarding the publication date, setting or languages will be considered. Preliminary search strategies were carried out on 29 March 2020 and will be updated in June 2020. The primary outcomes will be the prevalence and the severity of psychological symptoms in young people and adults (>18 years old) resulting from the impact of COVID-19 pandemic. Study selection will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist. Pooled standardised mean differences and 95% CIs will be calculated. The risk of bias of the observational studies will be assessed through the Methodological Index for Non-Randomised Studies (MINORS). Additionally, if sufficient data are available, a meta-analysis will be conducted. Heterogeneity between the studies will be determined by the I ² statistics. Subgroup analyses will also be performed. Publication bias will be checked with funnel plots and Egger’s test. Heterogeneity will be explored by random-effects analysis. Ethics and dissemination Ethical assessment was not required. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publication and will be presented at conferences related to this field. PROSPERO registration number CRD42020177366.
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Objective: Insights to underlying neural mechanisms in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have emerged from neuroimaging research; however, the neural mechanisms that distinguish ADHD subtypes remain inconclusive. Method: We reviewed 19 studies integrating magnetic resonance imaging [MRI; structural (sMRI), diffusion, functional MRI (fMRI)] findings into a framework exploring pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the combined (ADHD-C) and predominantly inattentive (ADHD-I) ADHD subtypes. Results: Despite equivocal structural MRI results, findings from fMRI and DTI imaging modalities consistently implicate disrupted connectivity in regions and tracts involving frontal striatal thalamic in ADHD-C and frontoparietal neural networks in ADHD-I. Alterations of the default mode, cerebellum, and motor networks in ADHD-C and cingulo-frontoparietal attention and visual networks in ADHD-I highlight network organization differences between subtypes. Conclusion: Growing evidence from neuroimaging studies highlight neurobiological differences between ADHD clinical subtypes, particularly from a network perspective. Understanding brain network organization and connectivity may help us to better conceptualize the ADHD types and their symptom variability.
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Executive functions (EFs) play important roles in children's development, but their neural mechanisms are rarely investigated, especially for the different components of EFs in middle childhood. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the links between resting-state EEG in the frontal scalp region and EFs in children aged 7–9 years. Fifty-nine typically developing children from the second and third grades performed two core EF tasks, i.e., inhibition and working memory, and a high-level EF task, i.e., planning, followed by the recording of EEG signals during eyes-open and eyes-closed resting states. The results showed that distinct EEG activities in the frontal scalp region predicted different EF components. More specifically, after controlling for age and verbal ability, alpha to theta power ratio (ATR) and beta to theta power ratio (BTR) during the eyes-open resting state positively predicted inhibition, and beta to theta power ratio (BTR) during the eyes-open resting state positively predicted planning. However, we did not find any EEG features related to working memory. Our results contributed to the understanding of inter-individual differences in EFs and provided insights into the regulation of corresponding EEG activities through EEG neurofeedback for enhancing children's EFs.
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There is a wealth of academic evidence which points to the role of social gaming on a range of outcomes. Studies have employed a range of methodological approaches to study this, although the majority tend to use experimental methods. The current paper provides a review of the current literature on outcomes of “social gaming” alongside raising debate about the conceptual underpinnings of this term. A taxonomy is presented which draws distinctions for different types of “social gaming”. Namely, this conceptual mapping consists two dimensions of social presence (physical versus virtual) and behavioural interdependence (high versus low). The current review uses this taxonomy as a conceptual tool to map the existing literature in respect of how “social gaming” outcomes relate to these dimensions. This can help establish how much we really know about the outcomes of “social gaming” in respect of a more defined theoretical framework which to date has been unavailable in the current literature.
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Objective To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize and quantitatively evaluate the electroencephalogram (EEG) findings in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods The MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and ClinicalTrials.Gov databases were comprehensively assessed and searched for observational studies with EEG findings in patients with COVID-19. Pooled proportions of EEG findings with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were assessed using a random effects model. The quality of assessment for each study, heterogeneity between the studies, and publication bias were also evaluated. Results In total, 12 studies with 308 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Abnormal background activity and generalized slowing in the pooled proportions were common findings among the patients with COVID-19 (96.1% [95% CI: 89.4-99.9]; I²= 60%; p < 0.01 and 92.3% [95% CI: 81.2-99.3]; I² = 74%; p < 0.01, respectively). The proportion of patients with epileptiform discharges (EDs) was 20.3% ([95% CI: 9.85-32.9]; I² = 78%; p < 0.01). The proportion of EDs varied between patients with a history of epilepsy or seizures (59.5% [95% CI: 33.9-83.2]; I² = 0%; p = 0.49) and patients without them (22.4% [95% CI: 10.4-36.4]; I² = 46%; p = 0.07). The findings of seizures and status epilepticus on EEG were observed in 2.05% ([95% CI: 0.02-6.04]; I² = 39%; p = 0.08) and 0.80% ([95% CI: 0.00.-3.69]; I² = 28%; p = 0.17) of the patients, respectively. Conclusion The proportion of abnormal background activity in patients with COVID-19 was high (96.1%). The percentage of EDs was present in 20.3% of the cases and varied between people who had a history of epilepsy/seizure and those who did not. However, the proportion of seizures and status epilepticus on EEG was low (2.05% and 0. 80%, respectively).
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Newly released 2019 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System data and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC)’2019 Youth Risk Behavior Survey Data Summary and Trends Report show that US adolescents continue to suffer from poor mental health and suicidality at alarming rates. These data alone would be cause for concern, but the COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to further erode adolescent mental health, particularly for those whose mental health was poor prior to the pandemic. Given the status of adolescent mental health prior to COVID-19 and the impact of COVID-19, health professionals and schools must partner together now to mitigate potentially deleterious health, mental health and education impacts for children and adolescents.
The COVID-19 pandemic and associated system disruptions are impacting all children and young people (CYP) in Australia. For vulnerable groups of CYP, who already experience poorer health and well-being, these impacts are amplified. Challenges include reduced access to usual services, reduced community supports, financial instability, unemployment and other life circumstances that threaten to widen pre-existing inequities. This article aims to present the reasons for vulnerability of CYP during the pandemic, and to focus on actions by health professionals that mitigate additional challenges to their health and well-being. Using a rapid review of the literature and team-based discussions, eight vulnerable groups were identified: CYP with disabilities, mental health conditions and chronic diseases; CYP facing financial hardship; within the child protection system; Aboriginal; migrant and refugee; in residential care; rural; and isolated CYP. Recommendations for action are required at the level of governments, health professionals and researchers and include enhancing access to health and social supports, prioritising vulnerable CYP in resuming health activity and elevating the voice of CYP in designing the response. The pandemic can be conceptualised as an opportunity to create a more equitable society as we document the inequities that have been exacerbated. Vulnerable groups of CYP must be recognised and heard, and targeted actions must focus on improving their health outcomes during the pandemic and beyond.
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Significance: Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging brain imaging technique due to its small size, low cost, minimum scanning sonic noise, and portability. Unfortunately, because this technique does not provide neuroanatomical information to accompany the functional data, its data interpretation remains a persistent challenge in fNIRS brain imaging applications. The two most popular approaches for fNIRS anatomical registration are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and three-dimensional (3-D) digitization. MRI scanning yields high-precision registration but reduces the cost-effectiveness and accessibility of fNIRS imaging. Alternatively, the low cost and portable 3-D digitizers are affected by magnetic properties of ambient metal objects, including participant clothing, testing equipment, medical implants, and so forth. Aim: To overcome these obstacles and provide accessible and reliable neuroanatomical registration for fNIRS imaging, we developed and explored a photogrammetry optode registration (POR) method. Approach: The POR method uses a consumer-grade camera to reconstruct a 3-D image of the fNIRS optode-set, including light emitters and detectors, on a participant's head. This reconstruction process uses a linear-time incremental structure from motion (LTI-SfM) algorithm, based on 100 to 150 digital photos. The POR method then aligns the reconstructed image with an anatomical template of the brain. Results: To validate this method, we tested 22 adult and 19 child participants using the POR method and MRI imaging. The results comparisons suggest on average 55% and 46% overlap across all data channel measurements registered by the two methods in adult and children, respectively. Importantly, this overlap reached 65% and 60% in only the frontal channels. Conclusions: These results suggested that the mismatch in registration was partially due to higher variation in backward optode placement rather than the registration efficacy. Therefore, the photo-based registration method can offer an accessible and reliable approach to neuroanatomical registration of fNIRS as well as other surface-based neuroimaging and neuromodulation methods.
Chapter
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) are noninvasive brain stimulation techniques that are increasingly used as therapeutic approaches in psychiatric disorders. As for any therapeutic intervention, including drugs, it is necessary to delineate their safety limits, including adverse effects. In this chapter, we will summarize key points included in available safety guidelines for rTMS and TES in research and clinical practice, based on previous consensus papers published in the last few years and commissioned by the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology.
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Preterm birth is a live birth that occurs before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. Approximately 15 million babies are born preterm annually worldwide, indicating a global preterm birth rate of about 11%. With 1 million children dying due to preterm birth before the age of 5 years, preterm birth is the leading cause of death among children, accounting for 18% of all deaths among children aged under 5 years and as much as 35% of all deaths among newborns (aged <28 days). There are significant variations in preterm birth rates and mortality between countries and within countries. However, the burden of preterm birth is particularly high in low‐ and middle‐income countries, especially those in Southeast Asia and sub‐Saharan Africa. Preterm birth rates are rising in many countries. The issue of preterm birth is of paramount significance for achieving United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3 target #3.2, which aims to end all preventable deaths of newborns and children aged under 5 years by 2030. Approximately 15 million babies are born preterm annually worldwide. Preterm birth is the leading cause of mortality in children aged under 5 years every year.