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Abstract

This study on mother–child interactions is in line with Sigel’s theoretical approach to distancing. The current study aimed at analyzing the distancing postures used by mothers with their young child in school-like tasks, according to their level of education and children’s sex. The main hypothesis was that mothers with higher levels of education would make higher-level distancing demands (open-ended questions, inferences, etc.) and would sequentially maintain them longer in the interaction than mothers with lower levels of education. The second hypothesis was that mothers developed more high distancing strategies with their daughters than with their sons. Thirty-two mothers (18 with a high level of education and 14 with a low level of education) interacted with their 2-year-olds in a complex task of picture discrimination. Unsing hierarchical analysis, three distinct clusters of distancing have been found: low level, medium level and high level. Results supported our main hypothesis. Moreover, only mothers with high levels of education developed more high distancing strategies with their daughters than with their sons, and vice versa for low distancing strategies. These mothers may be aware of gender stereotypes in our society. Thus, in family interactions, depending on the mother’s sociocultural level, family education may or may not include a preparation component for learning at school, creating inequalities in learning from the very beginning of schooling.

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Article
This paper pays attention to two factors often neglected in the studies of instructional or guidance interaction: the specifity of the child as interlocutor and the constraints exerted by the properties of the tasks on the semiotic means used to guide the child. Following Sigel’s ‘distanciation hypothesis’ we have studied the ‘distancing’ characteristics of the adult’s discourse adressed to the child in two groups of dyads, one with deaf (N=5), the other with hearing children (N=7) aged around 24 months, in two tasks: Symbolic Play and Picture — Book reading. The main results indicate a strong effect of the tasks, SP allowing more distanciation than PB for both categories. D-dyads show few differences in SP task but less ability to share references in Picture-Book reading. It appears also that with such young children, the distancing potential might be conveyed by the forms and pragmatic functions and not only by the semantic components of adult’s utterances.
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Soviet psychologists' views of the relationship between psychology and Pavlovian psychophysiology (or the study of higher nervous activity, as it is referred to in the Soviet literature) has long been a matter of curiosity and concern in the United States. Not accidentally, it has also been a matter of concern and dispute within the USSR. The following is an excerpt from a work by one of the Soviet Union's most seminal psychological theorists on this issue. Written in the late 1920s, this essay remains a classic statement of Soviet psychology's commitment to both a historical, materialistic science of the mind and the study of the unique characteristics of human psychological processes.
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Previous work has shown an association between mothers' nonstandard work schedules and children's well-being. We built on this research by examining the relationship between parental shift work and children's reading and math trajectories from age 5/6 to 13/14. Using data (N=7,105) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and growth curve modeling, we found that children's math and reading trajectories were related to parents' type of nonstandard shifts (i.e., evening, night, or variable). We found that having a mother who worked more years at a night shift was associated with lower reading scores, having a mother work more years at evening or night shifts was associated with reduced math trajectories, and having a father work more years at an evening shift was associated with reduced math scores. Mediation tests suggest that eating meals together, parental knowledge about children's whereabouts, and certain after-school activities might help explain these results.
Article
First published in 1969 and augmented by the author with a new essay in 1977, Class and Conformity remains a model of sociological craftsmanship. Kohn's work marshals evidence from three studies to show a decided connection between social class and values. He emphasizes that occupation fosters either self-direction or conformity in people, depending upon the amount of freedom from supervision, the complexity of the task, and the variety of work that the job entails. The extent of parents' self-direction on the job further determines the value placed on self-direction for their children; thus, Kohn finds, is the most critical and pervasive factor distinguishing children raised in different socioeconomic classes.